PMP…ใบเบิกทางของ Project Manager


  1. Organizational Structure:

    • Easier management of specialistsTeam members report to only one supervisor
    • Similar resources are centralized, as the company is grouped by specialties
    • Clearly defined career paths in areas of work specialization
    • People place more emphasis on their functional specialty to the detriment of the project
    • No career path in project management
    • The project manager has little or no authority
    • Efficient project organization
    • Team loyalty to the project
    • More effective communications than functional
    • Project manager has more power to make decisions
    • No "home" for team members when project is completed
    • Lack of specialization in disciplines
    • Duplication of facilities and job functions
    • May result in less efficient use of resources
    • Highly visible project objectives
    • Improved project manager control over resources (as compared to functional)
    • More support from functional areas
    • Maximum utilization of scarce resources
    • Better coordination
    • Better horizontal and vertical dissemination of information
    • Team members maintain a "home"
    • Extra administration is required
    • Project team members have more than one boss
    • More complex to monitor and control
    • Resource allocation is more complex
    • Extensive policies and procedures are needed
    • Functional managers may have different priorities than project mangers
    • Higher potential for conflict
  2. The Role of the Project Sponsor/Initiator:
    A basic definition of a sponsor is one who provides the financial resources for the project; however, the exam has attributed additional duties to the sponsor - including providing support for the project and protecting the project from unnecessary changes. The role of the sponsor may be filled by two or more individuals, working together.

    In procurement situations, the customer (buyer) may also be the sponsor. In such cases, the selling organization should also have a sponsor.

    Think about your company's management as you read this. Do they know what their role is on projects? Do you? How can you help them better understand their role? Without having the sponsor or someone in management performing the functions detailed in the lists that follow, the project will suffer, wasting time and resources. Management must serve as a protector of the project (so long as the project continues to meet the organizations strategic goals). Management is anyone senior to the project manager in the organization, including program or portfolio managers.

    Read the following list carefully to understand the role of the sponsor and/or senior management in an organization. Since the list is so long - and since many project managers have gaps in their knowledge here - we have organized this section by process group.

    During or prior to project initiating, the sponsor:
    • Has requirements that must be met
    • Is a project stakeholder
    • Participates in developing the business case for the project
    • Helps to define the measurable project objectives
    • Advocates for or champions the project, especially while the project concept is being put together
    • Serves as a voice of the project or spokesperson to those who do not know about the project, including upper management
    • Gathers the appropriate support for the project
    • Ensures buy-in throughout the organization
    • Provides funding
    • Provides high-level requirements
    • Provides information regarding the initial scope of the project
    • May dictate milestones, key events, or the project end date (along with the customer)
    • Determines the priorities between the constraints (if not done by the customer)
    • Provides information that helps develop the project charter
    • Gives the project manger authority as outlined in the project charter
    • Sets priorities between projects
    • Encourages the finalization of high-level requirements and scope by the stakeholders
    • Guides the process to get the project approved and formalized, assisted by the project manger as necessary
    During project planning, the sponsor:
    • Provides the project team with time to plan
    • May review the WBS
    • Identifies risks
    • Determines the reports needed by management to oversee the project
    • Provides expert judgment
    • Helps evaluate trade-offs during crashing, fast tracking, and re-estimating
    • Approves the final project management plan
    During project executing and project monitoring and controlling, the sponsor:
    • Supports the efforts of the project manager
    • Protects the project from outside influences and changes
    • Enforces quality policies
    • Provides expert judgment
    • Helps evaluate trade-offs during crashing, fast tracking, and re-estimating
    • Resolves conflicts that extend beyond the project manager's control
    • Approves, rejects, or defers changes, or authorizes a change control board to do so
    • May direct that a quality review be performed
    • Clarifies scope questions
    • Works with the project manager to monitor progress
    During project closing, the sponsor:
    • Provides formal acceptance of the deliverables (if they are the customer)
    • Enables an efficient and integrated transfer of deliverables to the customer
    • Supports the collection of historical records from the project


  1. The Role of the Project Team:
    The project team is a group of people, including the project manger, who will complete the work of the project. The team members can change throughout the project as people are added to and released from the project.

    Generally, it is the teams role to help plan what needs to be done by creating the WBS and schedule estimates for their work packages or activities. During project executing and monitoring and controlling, the team members complete activities to produce the deliverables represented in work packages and help look for deviations from the project management plan. More specifically, the team may help:
    • Identify and involve stakeholders.Identify requirements.
    • Identify constraints and assumptions
    • Create the WBS.
    • Decompose the work packages for which they are responsible into schedule activities.
    • Identify dependencies between activities.
    • Provide schedule and cost estimates.
    • Participate in the risk management process.
    • Comply with quality and communications plans.
    • Enforce ground rules.
    • Execute the project management plan to accomplish the work defined in the project scope statement.
    • Attend project team meetings.
    • Recommend changes to the project, including corrective actions.
    • Implement approved changes.
    • Share new knowledge.
    • Contribute to the lessons learned knowledge base.
    In agile environments, team members are responsible for clarifying user stories with the customer so that they can estimate and plan the releases and iterations, hold reviews and retrospectives, and update the project information using tools such as Kanban boards and burndown charts.

    On large projects, there may be too much project management work for one person to perform. Therefore, the project manager may select some project team members to help perform the project management activities. The PMBOX* Guide refers to these people as the project management team. Members of this team must have project management training. Keep all this information in mind when the exam uses the term "project management team" versus "project team" or "team."
  2. The Role of the Stakeholders:
    A stakeholder is anyone who will be impacted by the project or can positively or negatively influence the project. This includes the customer or end user, the project manager and team, the projects sponsor, program and portfolio managers, the project management office, functional or operational managers within the organization, other departments or groups within the organization (such as business analysis, marketing procurement, quality, or legal), and external sellers that provide services or materials for the project.

    The stakeholders' role on a project is determined by the project manager and the stakeholders themselves. Stakeholders should be involved in planning the project and managing it more extensively than many people are used to on their real-world projects. For example, stakeholders may be involved in:
    • Creating the project charter and the project scope statement
    • Developing the project management plan
    • Approving project changes and being on the change control board
    • Identifying constraints and assumptions
    • Identifying requirements
    • Managing risk
    In an agile environment, the project owner role can be filled by someone from the business who is responsible for working with the agile team to prioritize features and functions. This person may also:
    • Attend reviews and accept the deliverables presented.
    • Be a risk owner.
    • Participate in phase gate reviews.
    • Be involved with governance.
    • Identify issues.
    • Document lessons learned.
    • Provide expert judgment.
  3. The Role of the Functional or Resource Manager:
    A functional or resource manager manages and is responsible for the human and physical resources in a specific department, such as IT, engineering, public relations, marketing, etc. They are responsible for working with the project manager to meet the needs of the project. As managers of people, facilities, or equipment, functional or resource managers maintain a calendar indicating availability of these resources for projects and other organizational work, and they coordinate with project managers who need the resources. This might involve negotiation if people, facilities, or equipment are needed by more than one project at the same time. If the project manager has issues with resources provided by the functional manager, the managers collaborate to resolve the issues.

    The degree to which functional managers are involved in a project depends on the organizational structure. In a matrix organization, the functional managers and project manager share responsibility for directing the work of individuals and managing physical resources needed on the project. In a project-oriented organization, the project manager does all the directing of team resources. In contrast, the project manager does little directing in a functional organization, where that responsibility falls to functional managers. To avoid conflict, the project manager and functional managers must balance their respective needs regarding the use of resources to complete project and functional work. It is generally the responsibility of the project manager to manage this relationship by using clear communication and interpersonal and team skills, such as conflict management and emotional intelligence.

    The specific activities performed by functional managers on a project vary greatly based on the type of organizational structure, as well as the type of project, but may include the following:
    • Assigning specific individuals to the team and negotiating with the project manager regarding team and physical resources
    • Letting the project manager know of other projects or departmental work demands that may impact the project
    • Participating in the initial planning until work packages or activities are assigned
    • Providing subject matter expertise
    • Approving the final schedule during schedule development when it involves team or physical resources under their control
    • Approving the final project management plan during project management plan development when it involves team or physical resources under their control
    • Recommending changes to the project, including corrective actions
    • Managing activities within their functional area
    • Assisting with problems related to team or physical resources under their control
    • Improving resource utilization
    • Participating in rewards and recognition of team members
    • Participating in risk identification
    • Participating in quality management
    • Sitting on the change control board


  1. The Role of the Project Manager:
    To put it simply, the project manager is responsible for managing the project to meet project objectives and deliver value and benefits to the organization.

    Remember that as a project manager, you must come up with a project management plan that people agree to and believe is realistic, and, even more importantly, that you can stake your reputation on. A project manager is responsible for ensuring that a project is completed according to the project schedule and budget, including approved changes, and that it meets other objectives. The project manager is held accountable for delivering project benefits.

    In today's project environments, people managing projects may not realize they lack knowledge of what proper project management involves, and many companies do not understand why project management is so important in delivering the benefits they

    want to realize. People with the title of project manager are often not really project managers at all; instead, their role is more of a project coordinator. Before taking the exam, it is important that you understand not only the project manager's role but also all the roles of other people involved in projects.

    Remember that the work of the project manager may be shared by members of the project team, referred to as the project management team.

    The project manager's level of authority can vary depending on the structure of the organization and other factors, such as whether they are assigned part-time or under contract. On the exam, however, the authority of the project manager has generally been interpreted to mean that the project manager:
    1. Is assigned to the project no later than project initiating
    2. Helps write the project charter
    3. Is in charge of the project, but not necessarily the resources
    4. Does not have to be a technical expert
    5. Identifies and analyzes constraints and assumptions
    6. Leads and directs the project planning efforts
    7. Selects appropriate processes for the project
    8. Identifies dependencies between activities
    9. Analyzes unrealistic schedule requirements, and takes action to produce a realistic schedule
    10. Develops time and cost reserves for the project
    11. Has the authority and accountability necessary to accomplish the project management work
    12. Says no when necessary
    13. Integrates the project components into a cohesive whole that meets the customer's needs
    14. Finalizes and gains approval of the project management plan
    15. Influences the project team and the atmosphere in which the team works by promoting good communication, insulating the team from politics (both internal and external to the project), enhancing the positive aspects of cultural differences, and resolving team issues
    16. Spends more time being proactive than dealing with problems (being reactive)
    17. Understands how cultural differences may impact the project, particularly in the case of global teams, virtual teams, or projects involving multiple organizations
    18. Ensures professional interactions between the project team and other stakeholders
    19. Coordinates interactions between the project team and key stakeholders
    20. Understands and enforces professional and social responsibility
    21. Assist the team and other stakeholders during project executing
    22. Communicates
    23. Develops the team
    24. Uses rewards and recognition
    25. Identifies and delivers required levels of quality
    26. Identifies stakeholders, supports stakeholder engagement, and manages stakeholder expectations throughout the project
    27. Manages project knowledge, including sharing lessons learned
    28. Solves problems
    29. Makes decisions
    30. Demonstrates ethics and leadership
    31. Manages and controls resources
    32. Maintains control over the project by measuring performance and determining variances from the plan
    33. Monitors risk, communications, and stakeholder engagement to ensure they are in conformance with expectations
    34. Determines the need for change requests, including recommended corrective and preventive actions and defect repair
    35. Approves or rejects changes as authorized, manages the change control board, and frequently sits on the change control board
    36. Uses metrics to identify variances and trends in project work, and is responsible for analyzing the impact of these variances and trends
    37. Works with team members to resolve variances from the project management plan
    38. Keeps the team members focused on risk management and possible responses to the risks
    39. Performs project closing at the end of each phase and for the project as a whole
    40. Performs or delegates most of the activities outlined
    41. Applies project management knowledge and uses personal and leadership skills to achieve project success
    42. Is accountable for project success or failure
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How to Get PMP Certified:Blueprint to passing your PMP
What's Stopping you?:
My Question is... What if...:
  • We gave you a clear cut blueprint
  • We gave you a way to do it in your spare time (without going back to school)
  • We show you how you can do it with literally a little experience
  • And EXTENSIVELY prove it
Would you go ALL IN?
From Consultant for a major insurance company > Promoted to team lead
The truth is...:
  • You don't have to wait years to see results
  • You don't have to go back to school
  • You can get started with just the free time you have now
Can you relate to this?:
  • PMBOK is tough to read
  • I don't know where to start
  • I'm scared of failing the exam
We often have test takers tell us that after they read the PMBOX, they are totally confused and have no idea what they just read.
How the !@#$ do I remember any of this!? Everything sounds the same. I read the whole thing and learned nothing cause it's all so confusing in my head.Cr: examspm


'As a project manager and business analyst/architect with 20 years of professional experience, the subtle change I have noticed during this economic recession applies to the level of scrutiny by which job applicants are screened.Having a combination of hard and soft skills coupled with academic degrees typically opens doors and affords qualified candidates opportunity. However, during this employment malaise, the PMP continues to be a sought after credential, but only when complemented with a particular industry experience.' - Change Manager

It increases your marketability.:A PMP certification is accredited internationally, and it is recognized by the entire global business community. One of its biggest advantages is that it can help you increase your marketability and legitimize your experience as a project manager. As a result, you will be able to seek employment wherever there are project management jobs

PMP makes you a better perceived project manager.
HR managers perceive PMP-certified project managers to be more capable because they've spent the time and money to go through the certification process.
You are probably wondering, 'How can I do this for myself?'
PMP Exam Information:
  • 200 questions
  • 175 marked and 25 unmarked
  • 4 Hours to complete
Understanding and Memorizing the Process Chart in 10 Mins:
10 Knowledge Areas:
  • Integration Scope Schedule Cost Quality Resources Communications Risk Procurement Stakeholders
  • I Saw Six Cars Quickly Rip Carol's Rear Passenger Side
  • Integrating Scope and Schedule will Cost our Quality Resource to Communicate with Risk of Procuring Stakeholders
  • I Scoped Schedule, Cost, and Quality with Resources Communications as Risk on Procurements to Stakeholders
  • I Suddenly Saw Crows Quietly Reading Code and Referring to Poetic Songs
  • I Suddenly Saw Cat. Quick! Romeo Can Run Pretty Swiftly
5 Process Groups:
  • Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing
  • In Physical Education Mary Cries Constantly
Monitoring & Controlling > M5C2MCM
Choosing the Right Answer:
You must do as many practice questions as possible!
Practice, Practice, Practice!:
  • Minimum = 1,000 questions with 2 full length exams
  • Suggested = 1,500 questions with 3+ full length exams
  • Target score = 80%+
Test Taking Strategies:
Process of elimination:
Ask yourself, 'what's the best thing to do NEXT?'
Sally, your developer, tells you that the activities you've assigned to her will be delayed. Call a meeting to discuss the situation and alternatives with your team is the best thing to do.
Figure out what's important and what's not
Knowing how to apply PMBOK concepts on situational questions
5 Strategies To Deal With Threats:
  • Avoid
  • Accept
  • Transfer
  • Mitigate
  • Monitor
Go with your first impression.
Brain Dumps:
Formulas to Know for EXAM:
Activity & Project Duration Formulas:In order to calculate Estimated Activity Duration (EAD) of an activity, Optimistic (O), Most Likely (M) and Pessimistic (P) estimates for an activity are determined first.
  • PERT Triangular Distribution:
    EAD = (O+M+P)/3
  • PERT Beta Distribution:
    EAD = (O+4M+P)/6
    Your team members tell you that an activity you are working on is most likely to be completed in 20 days. However, the worst case, it might take 30 days, and if all conditions are favorable, it might be completed in 15 days.
    EAD = (15+4(20)+30)/6 = 45+80/6 = 125/6 = 20.83 days
Cr: examspm & masterofproject

  • Understanding the culture, policies, and procedures of the organization in which the project is being performed is most/especially challenging in Global organizations. The culture, policies, and procedures of the performing office may be different from those of the office from which the project is managed, and may also vary between international offices of the same organization.
    This will influence how the project is managed.
  • A project team is discussing the benefits and drawbacks of working on projects within their organization now that it has become project oriented. They can agree on many advantages for the team and for the organization, but also agree there are some drawbacks relative to the strong matrix structure the organization used to have. In a project-oriented organization, the project team: Will not always have a "home".
    The main drawback of a project-oriented organization is that at the end of the project when the team is dispersed, they do not have a functional department ("home") to which to return. They need to be assigned to another project or get a job with a different employer.
  • In a Functional organization, A project manager is trying to complete a software development project, but cannot get enough attention/has the least support for the project. Resources are focused on completing process-related work, and the project manager has little authority to assign resources. Project expediter and project coordinator are roles in a weak matrix organization.
  • A project manager has little project experience, but she has been assigned as the project manager of a new project. Because she will be working in a matrix organization to complete her project, she can expect communications to be: Complex.
    Because a project done in a matrix organization involves people from across the organization, communications are more complex.
  • Project team member's talking to another team member and complaining that many people are asking him to do things. If he works in functional organization, Functional manager has the power to give direction to the team member.
    In a functional organization, the team members report to the functional manager. The project manager probably reports to the functional manager as well.


  • Two project managers have just realized that they are in a weak matrix organization and that their power as project managers is quite limited. One figures out that he is really a project expediter, and the other realizes she is really a project coordinator. The project expediter cannot/has no authority to make decisions is a project expediter different from a project coordinator.
    The project coordinator reports to a higher-level manager and has authority to make some decisions.
  • In a project-oriented organization, the entire company is organized by projects, giving The project manager (has) the most power.
  • The characteristics of a project are temporary, has a definite beginning and end, and interrelated activities. Not repeats itself every month.
    'It repeats itself every month' implies that the whole project repeats every month. Generally, the only things that might repeat in a project are some activities. The whole project does not repeat. This is more likely a characteristic of ongoing business operations.
  • A framework for keeping an organization focused on its overall strategy is Organizational project management.
    Organizational project management (OPM) provides a framework and direction for how projects, programs, portfolios, and organizational work should be done to meet the organization's strategic goals.
  • A project managers primary responsibility is to deliver the product of the project within project constraints. Actions taken and changes made to the benefit of one constraint could negatively affect another. Scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk, resources, and customer satisfaction best describes/is the most accurate list of the major constraints, or competing demands on a project, that a project manager must deal with.
  • If a project manager is concerned with gathering, integrating, and disseminating the outputs/information of all project management processes, she should concentrate on improving the Project management information system (PMIS).
    The scope management plan and the WBS focus on project scope. The communications management plan addresses who will be communicated with, when, and in what format.
  • A project manager is managing his second project. It started one month after the first one did, and both projects are still in process. Though his first project is small, the new project seems to be quickly growing in size. As each day passes, the project manager is feeling more and more in need of help. The project manager has recently heard that there was another project in the company last year that was similar to his second project. He should Obtain historical records and guidance from the project management office (PMO).
    There are many things the project manager could do. Asking the other project manager for assistance is not the best, as the other project manager might not be an experienced mentor. Her advice might not be adequate to help this project manager. Waiting to assess the impact on the project is reactive; a project manager should be proactive. Gaining agreement of all the stakeholders on the project scope is also not the best. It would be helpful, but does not specifically address the issue in this situation. By contacting the PMO, the project manager can access the knowledge of many project managers, historical information from many projects, and the assistance of someone whose job it is to help.
  • To obtain/gain support for the project throughout the performing organization, its best way if the project manager Correlates/Correlating the need for the project to the organizations strategic plan.
    Connecting the project to the sponsors objectives might be a good idea, but it does not address the issue of obtaining support throughout the performing organization. Neither ensuring there is a communications management plan nor confirming that the management plan includes the management of team members directly addresses the need to obtain support for the project.
  • Your management team has decided that all orders will be treated as projects and that project managers will be used to update orders daily, to resolve issues, and to ensure the customer formally accepts the product within 30 days of completion. Revenue from the individual orders can vary from $100 to $150,000. The project manager will not be required to perform planning or provide documentation other than daily status. Would define this situation is a recurring process.
    Because orders are numerous and of short duration, not a project.
  • As a project manager, you have had to develop skills to help plan and manage projects successfully. Networking, communication models, and SWOT skills would best help encourage project teams to reach levels of high cooperation and achievement, promote a positive relationship with sellers on a project, and involve stakeholders appropriately through all aspects of the project.
    Active listening, negotiating, and political awareness are all important interpersonal and team skills a project manager should strive to develop.
  • A project team is working on manufacturing a new product, but they are having difficulty creating a project charter. The real problem is They are working on a process and not a project.
    Manufacturing a product is an ongoing process; it is operational work, not project work. Therefore, the manufacturing team would have no reason to create a project charter and would have difficulty doing so if they tried, because of the ongoing nature of the work. If referred to a team developing a new product, however, that would qualify as a project.
  • One of team members informs that he does not know which of the many projects he is working on is the most important. The project management office (PMO) should determine the priorities between projects in a company.
    This cannot be the role of the project manager, the project management team, or the project team.
  • A project is a temporary endeavor with a beginning and an end, a program is a group of related projects, and a portfolio is a group of projects and programs related to a specific strategic organizational objective.
  • Operational work is different from project work in that operational work is Ongoing and repetitive/frequently requires performing job functions repeatedly to sustain an organization.
  • Company procedures require the creation of a lessons learned register. Historical records for future projects is the best use of lessons learned.
    The best uses of lessons learned are as continuous improvement within the current project, historical records for future projects, and improving the organizations processes and systems.
  • A complex aerospace engineering project is nearing completion. Because the work was highly technical and new to the organization, the product of the project was released two months later than planned. Despite the late delivery, management is appreciative of the effort expended and believes that this product will generate additional opportunities for the organization. Management also thinks that the experience of this team will provide great value for teams working on similar projects in the future. The sponsor requests that lessons learned be thoroughly documented. Lessons learned are best completed by The stakeholders.
    As their input is critical for collecting all the lessons learned on each project. The term 'stakeholders' includes all The project manager, team, and sponsor.


  • Consideration of ongoing operations and maintenance is crucially important to products of projects. Ongoing operations and maintenance should Not be viewed as part of a project.
    The definition of a project: temporary and unique. Operations and maintenance are considered ongoing activities, not temporary. Therefore, such work is not considered a project or part of a project.
  • Program is A means to gain benefits and control of related projects.
  • A company is making an effort to improve its project performance and create historical records of past projects. Create lessons learned is the best way to accomplish.
    Lessons learned help to avoid future pitfalls and use the good ideas of past projects. This leads to improvements in future projects. The organization benefits from creating a lessons learned repository.
Planning < What Comes Before?:

  1. Determine critical path < Estimate activity duration and costs
  2. < Estimate resource requirements < Create network diagram
  3. < Create activity list < Create WBS and WBS dictionary < Determine planning team
  4. Finalize procurement strategy and documents < Go back - iterations
  5. < Perform risk identification, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, and risk response planning < Plan communications and stakeholder management
  6. Plan communications and stakeholder engagement < Determine team charter and all roles and responsibilities
  7. < Determine quality standards, processes, and metrics < Develop budget < Develop schedule
  8. Assess what to purchase and create procurement documents < Create project scope statement < Define and prioritize requirements
  9. Hold kickoff meeting < Gain formal approval of the plan
  10. < Develop realistic and sufficient project management plan and baselines < Finalize all management plans
If know what efforts are involved in project initiating (such as drafting the project charter and identifying and analyzing stakeholders), the inputs are easier to logically identify. To initiate a project, need to know or have the following:
  • The business case and the benefits management plan for the project
  • The product description and requirements as they are known up to this point; in other words, what is the project supposed to do?
  • How the project fits into or supports the company's strategic plan
  • A list of likely stakeholders
  • Any known constraints (such as imposed schedule, budget, or resources), risks, and assumptions
  • Any relevant agreements, including contracts, if any of the work will be done under contract
  • Industry standards
  • Marketplace trends and legal, regulatory, or compliance factors
  • The company's change control system
  • Defined processes and procedures for how the company operates
  • Relationships with the sponsor of the project, likely stakeholders, and possible team members
  • Templates from past projects
  • Historical WBSs
  • Historical estimates
  • Lessons learned from previous projects
  • What is going on in the company today, including major projects and the potential impact that current and planned initiatives could have on this project
  • An understanding of the company's culture
  • A list of people who may be good team members
  • Information on organizational and project governance
Make sure identify anything from the previous list that did not think of, and add it to gaps list.

The specific actions required to complete project initiating:
If thinking only in terms of high-level processes, probably came up with the following:
  • Develop Project Charter
  • Identify Stake holders
Knowing the names of these two processes will not be enough to pass the exam. Need to have a more detailed understanding of what really should be done (the actions) in project initiating.
The following provides a list of the actions involved in project initiating - from the time the project manager is assigned. Remember that what needs to be done on a project varies based on the specific project, its life cycle, development approach, and the industry, so it may not be practical to do all these actions on every project. The items in the list are not in any particular order.
Actions Involved in Project Initiating:
  1. Sponsor(s) selects the project manager.
  2. Sponsor(s) determines the authority of the project manager.
  3. Collect historical information.
  4. Divide large projects into phases. Use project governance rules and apply them to the project.
  5. Identify stakeholders, and determine their influence, expectations, and impact. Document that information in a stakeholder register.
  6. Determine high-level requirements, constraints, assumptions, and risks.
  7. Turn high-level stakeholder needs, wants, and expectations into requirements.
  8. Make sure the business case and the analysis supporting the need for the project and documented and understood.
  9. Use the benefits management plan to understand the benefits that the project is expected to deliver to the business.
  10. Ensure the high-level product scope is documented with as much detail as is practical.
  11. Understand how the project supports the organizations strategic objectives.
  12. Collect and use any relevant, existing agreements (including contracts) that might be generating the project or that will be required during the project.
  13. Determine success criteria and measurable project and product objectives.
  14. Facilitate the resolution of conflicting objectives.
  15. Become familiar with the company culture and structure as they relate to the project.
  16. Find existing processes, standards, and compliance requirements that affect the project.
  17. Understand how the organization does business (business knowledge) and what governance, procedures, and policies are already in place to use on the project.
  18. Do planning on a high-level basis.
  19. Perform high-level estimating for the project schedule and budget.
  20. Use the high-level planning and estimating data to determine whether the project objectives can be achieved within the given constraints and whether the expected benefits can be realized.
  21. Determine what form the project charter will take, including its level of detail.
  22. Coordinate project initiating efforts with stakeholders, including the customer.
  23. Work with the customer and others to determine high-level acceptance criteria and clarify what is and is not in the project.
  24. Determine the initial project organization.
  25. Identify any inherent or required milestones on the project.
  26. Finalize the project charter.
  27. Obtain formal approval of the project charter.
  28. Define the exit criteria for the project (when and why the project or phase should be closed).
  29. Involve subject matter experts in developing the project charter and identifying stakeholders.
  30. Develop project documents such as the risk register, the stakeholder register and the assumption log, including data on identified risks and stakeholders.
  31. Use stakeholder mapping to analyze data on identified stakeholders to understand their power, interest, and influence.


The specific actions required to complete project planning:
  • Integration Management:
    • Develop Project Management Plan
  • Scope Management:
    • Plan Scope Management
    • Collect Requirements
    • Define Scope
    • Create WBS
  • Schedule Management:
    • Plan Schedule Management
    • Define Activities
    • Sequence Activities
    • Estimate Activity Duration
    • Develop Schedule
  • Cost Management:
    • Plan Cost Management
    • Estimate Costs
    • Determine Budget
  • Quality Management:
    • Plan Quality Management
  • Resource Management:
    • Plan Resource Management
    • Estimate Activity Resources
  • Communications Management:
    • Plan Communication Management
  • Risk Management:
    • Plan Risk Management
    • Identify Risks
    • Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
    • Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
    • Plan Risk Responses
  • Procurement Management:
    • Plan Procurement Management
  • Stakeholder Management:
    • Plan Stakeholder Management
Again, simply knowing the names of processes will not be enough. Need to have a detailed understanding of what really should be done (the actions) during each part of the project. To be well prepared, need to identify and understand any required actions do not know or have never done.
Actions Involved in Project Planning:
  1. Determine how you will plan the planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling efforts for stakeholders, requirements, scope, schedule, cost, quality, resources, communications, risk, procurement, changes, and configuration, and put that information into the beginnings of management plans.
  2. Refine the high-level requirements from project initiating so they are more specific and detailed, and look for additional requirements, being sure to consider any internal or external analysis, reports, or regulations; analyze and prioritize requirements.
  3. Expand on the assumptions identified in project initiating, looking for new assumptions and documenting the details of the assumptions.
  4. Refine the high-level constraints (such as resources, schedule, and cost) from project initiating so they are more specific and detailed.
  5. Create a description of the project deliverables, the work required to complete those deliverables, and their acceptance criteria (project scope statement).
  6. Use the project scope statement to gain approval of the 'final' scope from stakeholders before further planning is done.
  7. Assess what may need to be purchased on the project. Identify any pieces of work that may be outside the organization's abilities to complete, and determine if new equipment or technology is needed to perform the project work.
  8. Select the procurement strategy for each contract. Create a draft of the procurement documents for necessary contracts, including bid documents, procurement statements of work, source selection criteria, and contract provisions.
  9. Determine what subject matter experts will need on the project team to help with project planning.
  10. Break down the deliverables into smaller, more manageable pieces (WBS).
  11. Create descriptions of each work package in a WBS dictionary so that the work can be understood and produced without gold plating.
  12. Break down the work packages from the WBS into lists of activities to produce them.
  13. Sequence activities and determine predecessors and successors in the network diagram.
  14. Estimate resource requirements (such as staff, facilities, equipment, and materials).
  15. Meet with managers to gain resource commitments.
  16. Decide what level of accuracy is needed for estimates.
  17. Use historical data to support estimating time and cost.
  18. Involve experts or those who will work on activities to estimate time and cost.
  19. Determine how long the project will take without compressing the schedule (determine critical path).
  20. Develop a schedule model, evaluate it against the schedule constraint in the project charter, and use schedule compression techniques to reconcile the two to come up with a final schedule for the project management plan.
  21. Develop a preliminary budget and compare it to the budget constraint in the project charter. Then, develop options to reconcile the two to come up with the final budget for the project management plan.
  22. Determine quality policies, practices, and standards, and then determine metrics to measure quality performance.
  23. Determine processes to fulfill quality requirements and conform to organizational standards and policies.
  24. Determine how will improve the processes in use on the project.
  25. Create a system for recognizing and rewarding the efforts of project team members to help keep them motivated and engaged in project efforts.
  26. Plan for acquisition, team building, training, assessment, and release of team members. Plan for physical resources requirements, including acquisition and logistics.
  27. Clearly determine all roles and responsibilities so team members and stakeholders know their roles on the project and what work they will need to do.
  28. Work with the project team to develop a team charter defining their commitments and interactions with each other, including ground rules for meetings, conflict resolution processes, etc.
RMC Cloud:

99: Your project is going reasonably well and is ahead of the cost projections when one of the local officials informs you he will make sure the project work stops unless you pay him US $50. Do not make the payment is the best thing to do.Such payments, however small, are bribes and could incur millions of dollars in fines for the company, including fines for the project manager, and possibly even jail time.

105: You are working on an 18-month project with a small, colocated team. The project sponsor and senior management are in another city and have requested weekly updates. The customer requires monthly meetings. Because the team members are busy with the project executing work, they would like to reduce the frequency of meetings. The frequency and level of meetings, as well as the format and type of information to be exchanged, should be defined in the project's communications management plan during project planning best describes how status meetings should be managed on this project.
The communications management plan should cover all phases of the project.
111: Another project manager has a family emergency and must leave. He has asked you to fill in for him during a team meeting to discuss a minor problem with the project. He has already distributed a detailed agenda and provided you with a copy. When you attend the meeting, several members of the team are making fun of the absent project manager's ethnic heritage. Your company does not have a formal diversity policy covering such behavior. You should initiate a discussion of diversity and professional behavior to avert similar behavior in the future.You have a responsibility to address this situation. Reporting the incident is not problem-solving; it is a form of withdrawal.


117: You are assigned to a project that senior management has already decided to outsource. As a project manager, you need to work with the contracts department to select the seller and then oversee

the seller through project completion. Company policy requires a project of this size to go through a formal procurement process. A vice president in your company tells you his friend owns one of the companies that might submit a proposal and the company would be an excellent choice as a seller. This vice president has a reputation for making or breaking careers. Follow the procurement process, and show the vice president why the favored seller is or is not the best choice is generally the best course of action.As a project manager, it is your responsibility to provide criteria to the procurement department based on the project needs, and to protect your project along the way. Leaving the situation to the procurement department is not correct project management practice. Bypassing the procurement process is not practical, nor is it in the best interest of the project. Letting the evaluation team know of management's preferred seller will increase the chance of biased results during the evaluation. You need to follow the established procurement process, and you will be able to justify the outcome to the vice president.

122: You are a project manager for one of many projects in a large and important program. At a high-level status meeting, you note that another project manager has reported her project on schedule. Looking back on your project over the last few weeks, you remember many deliverables from the other project that arrived late. Meet with the other project manager should you do.You should confront the situation by discussing it with the other project manager. You can then find out if the other project is really on schedule and thereby confirm or deny your information. Meeting with the program manager or with your manager would be the next step if meeting with the other project manager does not satisfactorily resolve the issue. You might also develop a risk response plan to deal with the risk to your project. First, though, you need to meet with the other project manager regarding those late deliverables.
147: During construction of a new manufacturing facility in another country, one of your team members complains to you that the wage paid to the workers is below the acceptable wage in your home country. In this situation, it is best to Pay the workers an appropriate wage for the country in which they work.One generally needs to work within the laws and customs of the host country.

150: You have a cost plus fee (CPF) contract with the customer and an arrangement with your manager, whereby you will receive 10 percent of the contract amount as your payment for services. While completing the project, you discover the actual cost will be lower than expected, thus decreasing your fee. You have discovered a number of additional value-added services you could provide to the customer while completing the work in the contract. Notify the project sponsor of the probable decreased cost should you do.This situation tests ethics. Adding activities that provide additional, but nonessential, benefits is gold plating and should not be done without the customer's approval. Increasing the critical path is even worse because it provides no additional benefit to the customer. You should discuss value-added services with the customer, but that does not address the immediate problem. So, although that is a good answer, there is a better choice. The best thing to do is to notify the sponsor and the buyer of the anticipated decrease in cost.
162: A project manager is finalizing a project that has had repeated problems with cost conformance. He is concerned about what management will say. Senior managers have talked about the problems multiple times in their executive meetings, and it's been reported they feel their concerns have not been addressed. The most recent CPI would be best for the project manager to use to evaluate performance.The project budget deals with cost, but not performance, as there is nothing to compare against the budget listed here. There is no comparison to a previous budget or a comparison of actual to budget. Addresses cost and performance is the Cost Performance Index.
166: A team member has been late to several recent team meetings, and the last two deliverables he submitted were not acceptable. The project manager decides he can no longer wait for things to improve, and must address the issue with the team member. Informal verbal communication is the best form of communication for addressing this problem.Your communications management plan should include a process for dealing with such issues. It is best to start this discussion informally. The project manager should also document the problem and a summary of the conversation with the team member. If informal communication does not solve the problem, formal written communication is the next course of action.

175: You managing a project and are well into the development phase. Approximately 35 percent of the interim deliverables have been created, tested, and approved, and another 25 percent are nearing completion, or are already in testing. Discover changes as early as possible best describes your role regarding project changes.The project manager should not necessarily prevent all scope or cost changes, and the sponsor is not involved in all changes. Changes found early will have less of an impact on the project. Thus, it is best to discover needed changes as early as possible.
279: A person is writing a document identifying the business need for a project and is including a description of the product to be created by the project. She includes a list of stakeholders and preassigned resources is the role of The sponsor or the project manager on the project.The project charter is issued by the sponsor. The project manager may have a role in its creation.


307: The process of scope definition is key to a successful project.Estimate Costs, Activity Duration, and Plan Resource Management come/are all done after the Define Scope process.Remember that the project scope statement is an output of the Define Scope process. The scope baseline, which includes the project scope statement, is an input to each of these processes. Only the Collect Requirements process occurs before Define Scope.

308: The team has just been formed for a new data management project. Several of the team members recently attended a training session in which they learned how to create work breakdown structures and how valuable they are on a project. They are excited to use the project information they currently have, and begin creating a WBS. Other team members suggest that they are getting ahead of themselves, as they do not yet have all the inputs they need to create the WBS. All the following are used to create the WBS: Requirements documentation, Project scope statement, and Organizational process assets.
334: It ensures customer acceptance, shows the deliverable meets specifications, and provides a chance for differences of opinion to come to light best describes the Validate Scope process.The project management plan is completed before the Validate Scope process. The Validate Scope process does not deal with time, but rather with acceptance. The Validate Scope process does not occur before the Define Scope process.

384: You are the project manager at a media company. You have been busy working on a large campaign that will result in print, TV, social media, and online ads for your client, a hardware manufacturer. The campaign is expected to be very innovative, as it includes so many different media outlets. You and your team completed all the work specified in the procurement statement of work and the final deliverable has been received by the customer. The customer has confirmed that the deliverables satisfies the contract requirements. The procurement is in the closure process is the status of the project.You are beyond the Validate Scope process, as customer has confirmed acceptance of the final deliverable. Many people believe the project is completed, but this is incorrect. The procurement must be closed before the project can be closed.
424: A project manager is taking over a project from another project manager during project planning. If the new project manager wants to see what the previous project manager planned for managing changes to the schedule, it would be best to look at the Schedule management plan.It includes plans for how schedule changes will be managed.
464: The total float of an activity is the length of time the activity can be delayed without delaying the critical path.

Based on the chart, this project will take 18 weeks.
509: A project manager for a small construction company has a project that was budgeted for US $130,000 over a six-week period. According to her schedule, the project should have cost US $60,000 to date. However, it has cost US $90,000 to date. The project is also behind schedule because the original estimate were not accurate. Project manager has the primary responsibility to solve this problem.Schedule management is a responsibility of the project manager.
510: During planning, activity G was estimated to take 5 days. Activity G is on the critical path. On day 2, it becomes clear that activity G will take 15 days, which will impact the imposed project end date. The project team meets to perform root cause analysis to identify the cause of the variance and to plan schedule recovery with activities to be performed later in the schedule. Recommended corrective action should always be the output of this kind of meeting.Corrective action is anything done to bring expected future performance in line with the project management plan. Such action should always be an output of such a meeting.
528: A major construction project has been having a lot of schedule changes due to unanticipated weather problems. The weather issues are likely to result in cost overruns if they persist beyond the current week. If the weather improves within the next few days, the team will be able to make up for lost time without having to work overtime. Avoiding overtime will allow the project manager to control against cost overruns. Stakeholders is best to notify of these changes.You need to communicate changes and problems with the stakeholders. This includes the sponsor, team members, and functional managers.

533: A project manager is informed midway through project planning that she was given inaccurate data regarding new regulations affecting the required end date of her project. She may need to make a few adjustments, but she thinks she can still manage the project to complete it before the regulations take effect. She confirms this by analyzing the sequence of activities with the least amount of scheduling flexibility. She is using Critical path method technique.Precedence diagramming is a diagramming technique that deals with the relationship between activities, not schedule flexibility. The project manager is analyzing the critical path.

558: A project manager is working with management to create the project estimate. During the initiating process group, -25 percent to +75 percent level of accuracy should the estimate have.The only estimate that is usually made in the initiating process group is the rough order of magnitude estimate. As the project progresses and more is known, this estimate will be refined to a more limited range.

579: Your manager has asked you for a cost baseline for the project, but it is early in the project management process and there is very little project information. In this circumstance, Provide a rough order of magnitude estimate is the best way to estimate this project.Historical information is not enough to base an estimate on. Team estimates or estimating using the schedule model are not possible because you are still in project initiating. You have not yet identified activities, nor do you have a schedule model. It is best to provide a rough order of magnitude estimate based on your current understanding of this project.
581: You are leading a project to introduce a new healthcare appointment scheduling application. As you are creating plans detailing how the team will respond to possible events that may impact the project, you and the team determine the amount of cost contingency reserve needed. The cost contingency reserve should be Added to the costs of the project to account for risks.Hiding the reserve is an inappropriate action. Adding cost to each activity will not shorten the critical path, and is an incorrect statement. Management reserves, not contingency reserves, are maintained by management to cover cost overruns. During the risk management process, you determine appropriate contingency reserves to cover the cost of identified risks. These costs are included in the project cost baseline.


591: Bottom-up estimating method tends to be most costly for creating a project cost estimate.Because you need project details to estimate this way, the effort expended will be greater with bottom-up estimating.
599: If a project manager is completing detailed estimating, Bottom-up type of estimating is most likely being used.Bottom-up refers to estimating based on the details of the activities.
600: You are communicating with the project sponsors and working to make sure all five of them understand the variability of the project. You have estimated the project cost to be US $850K within -25/+75 percent of actual. This is a Rough order of magnitude estimate.The rough order of magnitude estimate has a range of -25/+75 percent of actual and is done during the initiating process group.
604: A rough order of magnitude estimate is made during Initiating project management process group.This estimate has a wide range. It is done during project initiating, when very little is known about the project.


606: A new testing center is going to be constructed over the next two years. The project sponsor and project manager have been identified and high-level estimates begun. It is expected that the project can be completed within budget and on schedule. The only difficulty is in acquiring the number of team resources with the correct expertise to complete the work. Under these circumstances, the project manager should spend more time creating a Resource-limited schedule.A responsibility assignment matrix shows who is responsible for what, as does a responsibility chart. These will not help you manage the project with limited resources. Only a resource-limited schedule will help meet the defined need. A risk analysis may help, but not as much as a resource-limited schedule.
620: You just completed a cost estimate on the project, and you're assuming there is a 15 percent chance you will exceed this estimate. You are Above the mean.With normal distribution, the mean indicates you have a 50 percent chance of being over or under your estimate. Since you have only a 15 percent chance of being over, you are above (or to the right of) the mean.
623: The best description of costs that are directly impacted by the amount of production is Variable costs.Fixed costs do not vary with the amount produced. Direct costs could be either fixed or variable. Sunk costs are already spent.

630: Halfway through project executing, a team member alerts you to a potential cost overrun for a specific deliverable. Determine the cause of the overage you do first.A project manager must always evaluate the situation before making a decision.

638: Direct type of cost is team training.You are training the team on skills required for the project. The cost is directly related to the project and is therefore a direct cost.
655: You are a project manager for a small construction project. Your project was budgeted for US $72,000 over a six-week period. As of today, you've spent US $22,000 of your budget to complete work that you originally expected would cost US $24,000. According to your schedule, you should have spent US $30,000 by this point. Based on these circumstances, your project could be best described as Under budget.CPI = EV/AC. In this case CPI = 24,000/22,000 or 1.09. A CPI of 1.09 indicates you are under budget.
672: During the execution of the project, a new ISO version of standard 9000 is issued, and the project team is meeting with the quality department to determine how the standard will apply to the project. This is part of Plan Quality Management process.In Plan Quality Management, we determine what quality standards are applicable to the project and how to implement and control them. In this case, a potential new standard has been identified during the execution of the project. Team members will need to review the changes to the standard, and determine if the updated standards will require change requests, including corrective actions. Determining what standards to use is part of the Plan Quality Management process. Don't get fooled because this situation is occurring during project executing.

698: The Validate Scope process is different than the Control Quality process in that Control Quality focuses on the quality of the project, while Validate Scope focuses on customer acceptance.Both Control Quality and Validate Scope occur during project monitoring and controlling. Therefore, neither of these processes are parts of Plan Quality Management.
709: A project manager is working with quality professionals in the Manage Quality process of the project. Determining if the right processes are being used activities is being performed.Determining what process should be used describes Plan Quality Management. Evaluating quality describes Control Quality. In the Manage Quality process, quality audits are performed to make sure the correct processes are being used and that they are effective.
713: It is more expensive to determine quality by inspection than by planning best reflects the phrase, 'Quality is planned in, not inspected in'.Quality is addressed during all parts of the project, not just during planning. Planning for quality is done before the work is done, not after.
786: You are planning a project. The functional managers will not commit any particular people to your project because it will not begin for a few months. It will be difficult for you to estimate the duration of the work without knowing who will be assigned to the team, and what their exact skill levels are. Use the average productivity factor for each department, Use expert judgment to determine the number of hours, and Use the average daily rate of the resources in each department times the number of resources needed of each resource type methods could be used to handle this situation.

829: Expectancy theory proposes/states that employees who believe their efforts will lead to effective performance and they will/who expect to be rewarded for their accomplishments will stay productive as rewards meet their expectations.
This is why the project manager performs evaluations of team members, and provides recognition and rewards accordingly.

857: A project manager is trying to settle a dispute between two team members. One says the systems should be integrated before testing, and the other maintains each system should be tested before integration. The project involves over 30 people, and 12 systems need to be integrated. The sponsor is demanding that integration happens on time. Let's do limited testing before integration and finish testing after integration is the best for the project manager can make to resolve the conflict.

859: A team member complains to the project manager that another team member has once again failed to provide necessary information. The project manager meets with both team members to uncover the reason for the problem. This is an example of Collaborating.In this situation, the project manager is problem-solving, or facilitating collaboration.
883: At the end of a two-year project, the key stakeholders agree that the project has met all the objectives outlined in the project charter and further defined in the project scope statement. The project was within budget and finished on time. The management of one of the functional areas is quite upset because over half of his staff quit during the project, citing long hours and lack of management support. The project manager did not obtain adequate resources and did not set a realistic deadline based on resources available.The project manager is responsible for obtaining upper management buy-in to provide adequate resources, set realistic schedules, and promote team building.


889: Inputs to the Plan Communications Management process include:
  • The stakeholder register identifies individuals and groups the project will communicate with.
  • Available communications technology
  • Historical information, including lessons learned, from previous projects may indicate issues with communications that will be useful on the current project.
  • The Stakeholder engagement plan addresses how communication will be used on the project to manage stakeholder expectations.
  • Company culture is an enterprise environmental factor and is a consideration in planning the project communications.
The scope baseline is not an input to this process.
922: You are managing a complex project for a large company. Company executives are planning a quarterly meeting. They would like you and other project managers within the company to prepare reports that predict future status on your projects. Forecasting report you will submit for the quarterly meeting.A trend report addresses past performance. A status report is generally static (relating to a moment in time). A variance report looks at specific project items or activities.

939: To a project manager, Progress reports generally show problems after they have occurred is the biggest disadvantage of progress reports as compared/opposed to watching what is going on in a project, asking questions, and assisting team members.Many project managers spend all their time while the work is being done issuing and using status reports. Great project managers know that these reports are necessary but are not a replacement for properly managing a project. By interacting with the team, watching what is going on, and listening to the team members, you will find out sooner than later what the 'real' status of the project is. Reports are normally a week or two behind the actual work, causing a delay in reacting to problems.
962: An output of the Close Project or Phase process is the creation of Project archives.The project charter is created in initiating. The project management plan and risk management plan are outputs of project planning. Project records, including the charter and all management plans, are archived in the Close Project or Phase process.
987: The probabilistic analysis of the project is an input to Plan Risk Responses part of the risk management process.A prioritized list of quantified risks from Quantitative Risk Analysis is an input to the Plan Risk Responses process.
999: During a voice conference, one team member suggests that a more experienced person be used on the project. Another proposes using a person with more training. The Plan Risk Responses best describes what is being done.Resource optimization involves analysis of the number of resources necessary. Estimate Activity Resources focuses on the type and quantity of resources needed. This activity is unrelated to developing the project team. The team is in the Plan Risk Responses process, trying to avoid a risk by selecting the best resource.
1,010: You have finished the Plan Risk Responses process for a highway safety project that includes incorporating an accident reduction site area into a busy local highway. You are left with residual risks. You will soon attend a project status meeting that includes several city officials. Document them in the risk register and revisit them later should you do with the residual risks.All remaining risks that you decide not to do something about should be documented and revisited later.
1,039: Delays in obtaining required approvals risk events is always causes a time delay, and is therefore most likely to interfere with attaining/threaten a project's schedule objective.Cost increases and contract disputes for payments will not necessarily interfere with schedule. If a post-implementation review meeting slips, it may not interfere with the project schedule.
1,048: A project team is trying to decrease risk on the project. Management has a good relationship with a seller who is experienced in areas your company is not experienced in. Management wants all activities with a US $50,000 or higher risk to be transferred to the seller. They believe this will eliminate the impact of those higher risks from the project. The transference of a risk does not remove all impacts of the risk why this would not be effective.
1,122: The sponsor is excited that the product of the project is finally being produced. In the Project executing the project must be involved.This is about the process of project management. Remember that every project has a product, service, or result. Some of those could be intangible. The product of the project is created in project executing.
1,159: You are the project manager for the seller. Your work crews are digging a trench to lay fiber for a high-speed internet connection. All the work permits have been obtained and funding has been approved. There have been several weather-related delays, but due to the perseverance of the entire team, the project is on schedule. It is the customer's responsibility to provide entrance facilities so the connection into the building can be made. You discover the customer does not have adequate facilities and will not have them in time. Continue working according to your contract. Remind the customer both verbally and in writing of their responsibilities. Provide the customer with an estimate of the impact if they do not meet their responsibilities should you do.Slowing down the work would have a cost and lost-profit impact on your company. Continuing to work without addressing the upcoming problem is not ethical. If you are under contract, you can generally never stop work, so stopping work until the customer has met their responsibilities is not acceptable. You need to be proactive in ensuring everyone completes their activities (including the customer). Since your company is under contract to provide a product, you will need to ensure that your contractual obligations are fulfilled. In contract situation, it is best to follow up serious verbal discussions with a letter.
1,180: Material breach, Breach, and Default are reasons/grounds to terminate a contract.Think from a buyer's perspective. A seller might terminate for nonpayment.

1,191: Answer sellers' questions about the procurement documents is the best thing for a project manager to do in the Conduct Procurements process.Risk analysis is done before the Conduct Procurements process begins, as procurement is a risk mitigation and transference tool. Selecting a contract type is part of Plan Procurement Management. Market research is also performed in the Plan Procurement Management process, to enable selection of the appropriate sellers for the needs of the project. During the Conduct Procurements process, the project manager answers questions submitted by prospective sellers.
1,202: You are nearing the end of executing and monitoring and controlling on your project. Reporting so far has shown that interim deliverables have been completed on time and within the allotted budget. Many team members believe the project work is all completed, and your most recent reports indicate as much. Only with Formal acceptance is the best way for you to ensure the project work is really complete.


1,241: An Ishikawa, fish-bone, or cause-and-effect diagrams may be used to help Organize thoughts and generate discussion.A histogram is used to show information in its order of priority.Team and functional responsibilities are shown on many responsibility charts.
1,290: Since The project under-spent because all work was not completed, but overspent for work that was done would be the best explanation for the following: Both the cost variance and schedule variance are negative, but the cost variance is lower than the schedule variance.
Remember, for variances, negative is bad. In this situation, both the cost and schedule variances are negative.


1,337: You have been tentatively assigned to a project that has not yet received final approval. Several stakeholders who will likely be involved or impacted by the project have already been identified. Stakeholders can be identified during Initiating, planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling project management process groups.Stakeholders can be identified throughout the project. However, the earlier stakeholders are identified, the better for the project. If all stakeholders' needs and requirements are taken into account before plans are finalized and project work is begun, fewer changes will be needed later in the project, when they will be more costly.
1,361: The project has 13 team members and affects more than 15 departments in the organization. Because the project is 20 percent complete to date and the team has had successful performance reports from five of the affected departments, the project manager holds a party to celebrate. The project manager invites key stakeholders from all of the departments to the party, in order to give those providing good reviews an informal opportunity to communicate good things to those departments that have not yet been affected by the project. At the party, the project manager walks around to try to discover any relevant information that would help him make the project even more successful.

She happens to hear a manager of one of the departments talking about setting up more regular meetings on the project. The best thing for the project manager to do would be to first Review the methods of providing project information to the stakeholders.The party may well generate lessons learned, and recording them would certainly be a good idea, but what to do first. There is a more immediate issue - the manager. Meeting with all the stakeholders could be useful, but there is only one stakeholder, the manager, who definitely has an issue. Besides, a good project manager would be holding regular meetings with the stakeholders already. Making sure that manager has a copy of the communications management plan might be a good idea, as the manager apparently is not communicating with the project manager. However, this would not be enough to ensure the manager does communicate. The manager is, in effect, saying he is not getting the information he needs. His lack of needed information is causing him to suggest more meetings. However, too many meetings are a problem on projects. A great project manager does not just add meetings, but solves the real problem in the best way. A goal of communications management is to get information to those who need it. The project manager may decide to adjust her communications management process by changing the format of a report, or sending existing reports to the manager with the issue, rather than adding meetings.

1,369: An organization's project management office (PMO) has established new procedures to help prevent variance from the performance measurement baseline for all projects. Each project manager in the organization has been charged with planning and taking action to influence the factors that cause changes and sharing their ideas with the group. The information they have gathered is in an organizational database and recommendations have been made on how project managers should influence the factors that cause change. Notify all stakeholders that no more changes will be allowed is the least effective way to influence the factors that create changes to the cost baseline.
1,370: Your sponsor has been concerned about a seller performing work on time and at the required quality level, as there have been challenges with this seller on past projects. It's very difficult for you to know all the details of how the seller will perform the work, but your procurement statement of work and the contract are aligned. The seller submits an invoice that is outside the funding limit reconciliation completed during project planning. The critical path was fast tracked during project planning is the least likely cause.Final funding limit reconciliation would have been done after fast tracking. There was a cost increase to the successor activity of a critical path activity, Equipment was received earlier than planned, and An activity has taken longer to complete than planned are all possible explanations for an invoice to be outside the funding limit reconciliation.
1,429: In Monitoring and controlling process group the closing of a procurement does occur.
Procurement are closed as part of Control Procurement in monitoring and controlling.

1,448: Conduct Procurement, which includes selecting a seller and awarding a contract, is a part of project Executing process group.
1,462: Expected monetary value is the probability times impact of a threat or opportunity, and net present value is the benefits less costs over many time periods.Expected monetary value is used in risk management, but it is not the estimated value of risk response plans.
1,531: Your project to measure the factors that influence algae's ability to create a bio-fuel with the richest hydrocarbons includes 1,000 separate ponds. You want to determine which factors yield the highest percentage of burnable hydrocarbon. The ponds are kept at different temperatures, some are fed a different nutrient combination, others receive different amounts of shade, and other get a daily four-hour session of baroque music. Some of the ponds get a variety of these treatments. These activities are an example of Design of experiments.Design of experiments attempts to combine variables to determine which combination of variables produces the required level of quality. The quality measure here is the percentage of burnable hydrocarbons.

1,555: Having a purpose for each/the meeting, Distributing a meeting agenda beforehand (and sticking to it!), and Document and publish/distributing meeting minutes after the meeting are all important aspects of a rule regarding an effective meeting management.
1,559: As member of your team are focused on their individual assignments, you are working to coordinate their efforts so that all deliverables are completed on time and within the constraints identified in the project charter. To do this, you are reviewing the team members' progress reports, and, when necessary, requesting changes to the plan. Project deliverables are produced in the Direct and Manage Project Work process.Develop Project Management Plan is a planning process, Manage Team is a resource management process, and Control Scope is a scope management process.
1,563: The difference between push and pull communication can be described as Push communication is sent to those who need to know the information. Pull communication requires that the recipients access the information at their own discretion.You must analyze carefully which information you must push so stakeholders don't get overloaded with information.


1,606: The organization that you work for supports the achievement of its strategic objectives by empowering project managers and teams. The project managers have the authority to structure their teams, plans, and work however they deem necessary to best achieve results. They are responsible for controlling the schedule and the budget, and for providing the steering committee and other departments of the organizations with forecasts. Management reserves part of the cost budget would these project managers not have control over.Management reserves are set aside to cover unforeseen risks to the project. Management approval is required to use these funds.
1,633: A definitive estimate is made as the project progresses and is in a range from -10 percent to +10 percent from actual.A rough order of magnitude estimate is usually made in initiating, and is in a range from -25 percent to +75 percent from actual. A budget estimate is usually made in planning and is in a range from -10 percent to +25 percent from actual. Note that some project managers use a range of -5 percent to +10 percent from actual for a definitive estimate.
1,655: It allows the buyer to evaluate relative strengths of each seller is a weighting system of value in selecting a seller.The weighting system assigns a percentage value to each of the criteria considered in the evaluation of prospective sellers based on the needs of the project.
1: Co-location concept of locating team members can help them best to enhance their performance as a team.Colocation involves placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team. Colocation can be temporary, such as at strategically important times during the project, or can continue for the entire project. Colocation strategies can include a team meeting room, common places to post schedules, and other conveniences that enhance communication and a sense of community.
2: You are going to take over a new project as the project manager in an enterprise unknown to you. Enterprise environment factors should you investigate during the develop project charter process.Enterprise environment factors is an input of the develop project charter.

3: Postmortem analysis after scheduled finish date of a project shows a CPI of 0.8 and an SPI of 1.25. The project was terminated early. At that time, it was over budget and ahead of schedule is a plausible explanation for that.CPI is inferior than 1, so the project is over budget. SPI is superior than one, so the project is ahead of schedule.
4: A project manager is preparing two documents for risk management. One contains sources of overall project risk and also summary information on individual risks. The second describes individual risks identified. Risk report name should the project manager give to the first document.The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout the Project Risk Management process.
5: The Change Control Board reviews all of the change requests for every project in your company. This board follows all the recommended activities outlined in the PMBOK Guide. Based on this scenario, Documenting change request decisions and recommendations, Reviewing change requests, and Accepting or rejecting change requests would be performed by the Change Control Board.According to the PMBOK Guide, the Change Control Board is responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to a project, with all decisions and recommendations being recorded. It is up to the individual project team members to actually create the change requests.
6: Retaining resource to complete the project is a common problem in close project/phase process.The common problem is that people start looking for their next project and leave before administrative closure.

  • Analogous Estimating Vs Parametric Estimating:

    Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. It is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project (Can be used at the early stages of the project).
    Analogous estimating is generally less costly and less time-consuming, however it is less accurate.

    Parametric is estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters, where a statistical relationship between relevant historical data and other variables is used to determine duration or costs.
    Duration are calculated by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by the number of labor hours per unit of work.
    Parametric estimating is higher in accuracy than analogous.
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors Vs Organizational Process Assets:

    EEFs originate from the environment outside the project and often outside the organization.
    They are out of the project team control, but may constrain or direct the project and may have a positive or negative influence on its outcome.
    They may internal to the organization (eg: organizational culture & structure, employee capability and resource availability), or external to the organization (eg: marketplace conditions, government and industry standards and legal restrictions).

    OPAs are internal to the organization. These may arise from the organization itself.
    They may be updated as part of the project Work.
    They are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization including the organization's lessons learned from previous projects and historical information.
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  • Lessons Learned Register Vs Lessons Learned Repository:


    Learned Repository is a store of historical information about lessons learned in projects, where lessons learned and knowledge gained throughout the project are transferred to it for use by future projects.
    It is part of the organizational process assets.

    Lessons Learned Register is a project document used to record knowledge gained during a project to be used in the current project and entered into the lessons learned repository to be used in future projects.
    It is output from the Manage Project Knowledge process.
  • Project Changes: Corrective Action, Preventive Action, and Defect Repair:

    Corrective action is any intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan. They are steps taken to address a problem. Eg: replacing a machine part that causes high error rates.

    Preventive action is any intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan. They are steps taken to avoid future problems. Eg: install alarms to warn you when the machine starts to deviate.

    Defect repair is any intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component. Eg: repairing the defected part or replacing it.
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  • Project manager is managing a software development project. One of team members makes a change to the project without letting him know. She assures him that it didn't affect the cost, and it significantly enhances the product. The project manager should Evaluate the impact of the change to understand how it affects scope, time, and cost, quality, and project risks next.
  1. Facilitated workshops is a tool or technique used in the create WBS process.
  2. The project manager is the Key Person in the kick-off meeting.
  3. A project has been ongoing for a year Early in the year, its schedule performance index (SPI) was 12, its most recent SPI is 0.7. The project manager use Variance analysis to track and communicate this information.
  4. You have just joined a new organization as a project manager. The project is currently in the executing phase. You then realize that no stakeholder register exists for the project. Since you are new to the organization, you want to ensure that you use its templates for documents. Therefore, your search for a template for a stakeholder register in the Organizational process assets.
  5. A collection of procedures used to track project artifacts, monitor and control changes on the project is Configuration Management System.
  6. You are a project manager managing a global project. You have stakeholders located in various parts of the globe. Data-gathering is an important technique in the Identify Stakeholders process. Due to the nature of the project, you also have large volumes of information that needed to be collected from the project stakeholders. Questionnaires and surveys is an important tool available for gathering and organizing stakeholders' information.
  7. A project manager, working on a project with members in different locations, spends a significant amount of time explaining to the team that the lack ownership of their work and that project performance is deteriorating. Some team member are frustrated and want to resign, as they feel overloaded. The project manager should Conduct regular team meeting to ensure that team member are updated on overall project performance first to control this situation.
  8. A project manager working on a software development project. He evaluated certain responses from prospective sellers and wanted to select a contract model that will transfer risk to the seller. Fixed price contract should select in order to transfer the highest risk to the seller.
  9. During project execution the project manager notices that the majority of change requests are from one person on the client team met reviewing these requests the project manager notes that they were at rejected because of misalignment with the scope of work. The project manager should Continue to reject all future change requests from this client team member.
  10. As an automation project nears completion, the engineering team leader proposes adding a function that will make the production the more efficient without impacting the schedule. The project manager should Follow the change management plan next.
  11. A project manager is initiating a highly controversial project with numerous stakeholders. Several of these stakeholders fail to support the project. The project manager should use Stakeholder engagement plan to manage stakeholder expectations.
  12. A senior project manager and member of the Project Management Office. The CIO wants him to present a snapshot of the status of various projects going on in the organization. The milestone chart for this project would be most suitable for the purpose.
  13. If a project has a 40 percent chance of a $10,000 profit and a 20 percent chance of a $5,000 loss, the expected monetary value of the project is EMV = Risk 1 + Risk 2 = (10,000 x 0.4) + (-5,000 x 0.2) = 4,000 - 1,000 = $3,000 profit.
  14. A project manager working on gathering requirements and establishing estimates for the project. He is working in Planning process group.
  15. A vendor has a contract to deliver products for a project on the first day of each month. An inspection reveals that some product components are not meeting design requirements. The project manager should Insist that the vendor make all necessary corrections, and update the risk register next.
  16. During a project meeting, a junior engineer escalates a technical issue with a project task directly to the project manager. The project manager should advise the engineer to review Project management plan.
  17. When writing the roles and responsibilities of team members, should document the role, authority, responsibility, and competency for each team member. This information must be documented in Resource management plan.
  18. You have contracted some work to a sub-contractor and would like to identify successes and failures of other procurement contracts within the performing organization. This can be performed through Procurement audit.
  19. A project upgrade the phone system in customer service center. Examining a process and looking for opportunities for improvements by identifying and analyzing problems, constraints, and non-value added activities. Techniques are most likely to using is Process analysis.
  20. A project manager working on a software development project. You've developed the risk management plan, identified risks, and determined risk responses for the risks. You have recently identified risks in your project and decided not to change the project management plan to deal with the risk. The risk response strategy that you used in this scenario is an example of Acceptance.


  • Resource Leveling Vs. Resource Smoothing:

    In resource leveling the start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints to balance the demand for resources with the available supply.
    It often cause the original critical path to change. Available float is used for leveling resources. Consequently, the critical path through the project schedule may change.

    In resource smoothing the schedule model activities are adjusted so requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits.
    In resource smoothing, as opposed to resource leveling, the project's critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed, i.e activities may only be delayed within their free and total float.
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  1. A project manager is performing a set of processes in the Initiating phase. He is developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. Project Charter documents contains this information.
  2. A proved is delivered that meets the approved business requirements. However, the client identifies a few unrelated issues that will cause a delay in final product approval and impact project closure. The project manager should Document the unrelated issues develop the hand-over report and formally close the project.
  3. The sponsor of project is particularly interested in reviewing the roles of different stakeholders on the project. As a project manager, should direct the sponsor of the project to Stakeholder Register document.
  4. A company notices that. During the last six projects, the scope changed substantially. The project manager of a new project should Review lessons learned from the previous projects first to reduce the likelihood of scope changes.
  5. The project manager for a construction company that is building a new city and country office building in city. Calculated earned value measurements and found that the current CPI is 1.08 and the current SPI is 0.88. Looking for options to reduce the project schedule. Look at the network diagram and start identifying the sequence of activities which can happen in parallel. Fast Tracking technique are using.
  6. While developing the project charter stakeholders disagree about the project's most important objectives. Ask a subject matter expert (SME) should the project manager do to resolve this.
  7. While reviewing project performance, the project manager notices misalignment with the project management plan. The project manager works with the team to modify an activity to ensure future success. This describe Preventive action.
  8. After a major milestone release, one of the key stakeholders are not happy and complain their requirements are not being met. In Validate scope process should the project manager have involved them to ensure their acceptance of the project deliverables.
  9. A product development manager, who is unsure of an initial prototype's requirements, is upset to learn that it must be compared in two months. The project manager should Ensured that the right resources were assigned to the project to avoid this.
  10. An organization a restructuring project to align with its new strategy. During the project's initiation phase, resistance to change was flagged as a major risk. The project manager should Track trigger conditions to monitor this risk.
  11. A project has closed, and the project manager moves on to a new project. During this project, it is discovered that many of the mistakes made in the first project have been repeated. The project manager should Added the relevant information to the corporate knowledge base to avoid this.
  12. During project planning, a project manager meets with several departments to organization brainstorming sessions. This describes Identify Stakeholders process.
  13. A client adds a new feature and requests a budget update the development of this feature cannot extend the project schedule for more than one month. The client has already agreed to a cost per hour. The project manager should Calculate project performance using the earned value management (EVM) method next.
  14. A project charter is approved, and its scope is my defined to build the schedule, Project scope statement input does the project manager need.
  15. A project manager for a large project. Early on, he can identify a number of risks in the project and want to prepare them, and during the implementation phase, he has identified a potential risk. He has identified the response strategy for this risk, he has decided to purchase insurance to deal with this risk; however, the purchase of insurance will cost him $500. This is an example of Transfer risk response strategy.
  16. A set of high-impact repetitive tasks must be executed during a project. The project manager can use Quality checklists to ensure that all team members consistently perform these tasks in the same manner.
  17. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 0.3. The CFO instructs the project sponsor to restrict the project scope to bridge the CPI back to 1 within the months. While reviewing the approval change requests for removed activities, the project manager becomes concerned about the resulting cost the non-conformance. The project manager should Maintain the current risk register, but transfer the risks with the highest impact on cost to the quality management plan.
  18. A project manager working on a software development project. His project team begins to address the project work, technical decisions, and the project management approach - If team members are not collaborative or open to differing ideas, Storming stage of the Tuckman ladder has his team just entered.อยากมี-teamwork-ต้องสร้าง-team-ให้-workพัฒนาการของทีมตามรูปแบบของ-tuckman-ตอนที่-1-forming-และ-stroming-1618f010a226
  19. Quality audits are an important part of quality management because Audits randomly audit product result to see if they are meeting quality standards.
  20. A project manager working on a project when the customer wants another feature added to the product. However, the project sponsor agreed to implement the new feature immediately. As a project manager, should Analyze the impact of the new feature with his project team members next.


  1. A supplier deliver most of a project's functional requirements, but a few minor, latent defects correction before the contracted payment can be made. Since the company's financial year end is approaching project manager should Arrange an extended financial project close until contract closure is completed.
  2. Managing an information technology project. Using a histogram chart to analyze the number of issues per the process, then ranking of the cause of the issue to figure out if the way doing project fits into company's standards. Involved in Manage Quality.
  3. A project manager want team to use (WBS) in cost estimation developed for project. Bottom up estimating technique most likely to use.
  4. A project manager develops a business case during project initiation. Business benefits provided by project deliverables and the organizational strategy areas should the project manager consider when developing the business case.
  5. A project manager for a software project. Various tools and techniques determine project requirements during the Collect Requirements process. These requirements form the basis for defining the project scope. During project status meeting, team members do not agree on the way in which certain requirements should be implemented. So, decide to take a vote, where the largest block in a group would decide, even if a majority is not achieved. This is an example of Plurality.
  6. A project manager want to create a bar chart showing when resources are required, and the amount of time that resources are scheduled to work over a series of time periods within the project. The Resource Histogram will create to accomplish the task.
  7. Stakeholders determine that the business case considers 3D lessons learned from previous projects. However, laws regulating the company's operations have changed. The project manager should use Facilities techniques and the project charter to resolve this situation.
  8. A project manager creates a risk management plan and obtains project sponsor approval. One new risk was identified. The project manager should Perform a qualitative risk analysis first.
  9. A schedule has two tasks that cannot be started at the same time. Task 1 can only be started 3 days after Task 2 has started. Start-to-Start relationship between the activities, with a 3-days lag on Activity B can these tasks be scheduled in a scheduling tool.
  10. A project manager is taking over a project. The former project manager was implementing a major tax reformation. The project team has already applied the modified tax reforms into its finance applications. During the transition, the new project manager realizes that the project charter is missing. The project manager should Develop a project charter, and present it to the change control board (CCB).
  11. During user acceptance testing, key stakeholders express their dissatisfaction with the new features. After investigating the issue if the determined that requirements were not approved. The project manager should have created Statement of work (SOW) to prevent this issue.
  12. Organizational process assets, Project management plan, Accepted deliverables, etc. are an inputs of the close project phase process.
  13. A project manager performs an audit of a subcontracted supplier to determine if scope, quality, and time requirements are being met. Procurement strategy process is the project manager using.
  14. Stakeholder analysis is a tool and technique of the Identify Stakeholders Process.
  15. From prior experience with an organization, a project manager is aware of the possibility that key resources may be reassigned to other, more urgent projects. This project manager should update Lessons learned repository to ensure that other project managers are also aware of this.
  16. The project manager of the CFC project for organization where team members are conducting a meeting to evaluate the effectiveness of the risk management process, and how the risk management plan and the risk response plan are working as the project progresses and also whether the risks which were identified and prioritized are actually occurring. This as a part of Risk audit and Risk re-assessment.
  17. Government regulations require that project deliverables be tested and approved by stakeholders before they can be accepted. However, these stakeholders are frequently too busy to perform the acceptance tests. Without these tests, project quality standards will be unmet, and the project cannot complete its deliverables. The project manager should Ask the quality assurance team plan and execute the acceptance tests and present the results to the stakeholders.
  18. One of the stakeholders on the project led a change request a month back. He reached out to the project manager stating that he has not received any response yet. This situation can be resolved By reviewing the integrated change control process.
  19. A geographically dispersed team is executing a project. A team member beings to execute a task necessary to meet a critical milestone on the same day, but discovers that the predecessor task has not yet been completed. The owner of the predecessor task is located in a time zone where the working day has not yet started. Waiting would cause to miss the milestone. The project manager should Let the owner of the predecessor task know the day before that the work needed to be completed to prevent this situation.
  1. A project manager is managing an infrastructure project when a key stakeholder asks for the inclusion of an unexpected requirement. Change log project document should the project manager update first.
  2. During the initiation phase of a healthcare IT project the project manager analyzes the project's key benefits based on input from stakeholders and finds that they are inconsistent. The project manager should Evaluate the benefits based on organizational strategy first.
  3. Some members of a project team work from home. During a weekly video-conference. Much time is lost due to disconnected or dropped participants, background noise, strong interference, or multiple people speaking simultaneously. People are becoming annoyed and ask not to participate. The project manager should Hold individual meetings with team members and consolidate the information in meeting minutes for distribution.
  4. To implement a customer relationship management (CRM) software solution, a systems project manager must identity the required human resources. The project manager should reference Resource requirements.
  5. During execution of a critical project, a project manager is removed due to continuous customer and stakeholder complaints about lack of communication. The new project manager should Meet with the project team first.
  6. During a project steering committee meeting, the project manager reports that a formerly supportive key team member has become resistant to and negative about changes. This information should be captured in Stakeholders engagement assessment matrix.
  7. An important project stakeholder is replaced, and their successor is unhappy with the progress and direction of the project. The new stakeholder wants to implement changes that will cause delays. The project manager should Meet with the new stakeholder to gain an understanding of their concerns and expectations.
  8. An independent, third-party auditor conducted scope verification. The client questions the impartiality of the third-party's report. The project manager should Submit a change request to update the scope management plan.



  1. Enterprise Environment Factors includes some elements such as Project closure guidelines or requirements.
  2. An asphalt company is demanding a code change to a software module. Your team is implementing to generate Safety Data Sheets for them. The change will add only one week to the critical path. As the project manager, Issue a change request is next step.
  3. After completing the scope management plan, the project manager determines that no-house in expertise exists to develop a critical product component. Discussion with another project manager reveals that multiple vendors have been engaged in the past for similar jobs. The project manager should Create a procurement statement of work (SOW) next.
  4. Budget at Completion (BAC) US$9,000, Earned Value (EV) US$1,000, Actual Cost (AC) US$1,500, and Planned Value (PV) US$1,200. The estimate at completion (EAC) for this project is BAC / CPI, CPI = EV / AC = 1,000 / 1,500 = 0.67, EAC = 9,000 / 0.67 = about US$13,500 and it represent the revised estimate for total project cost (based on performance to date).
  5. A project manager is in the planning stage of a new software development project when the supplier states there will be an extra cost for a software product. The project manager should Check if there is a contingency reserve in the project budget next to avoid a budget change.
  6. A project to comply with a regulatory requirement needs to go live in eight months to avoid fines. The project schedule now has a high-probability risk that is impacting the ability to meet the deadline. The project manager should Assess the impact of missing the due date to avoid incurring fines.
  7. During the construction of a port, a nearby fishing community blocks the projects access route and demands construction or a paved road connecting the community with the port. This increases the project cost by five percent. The project manager should have done Performed a risk analysis to prevent this.
  8. An external provider is late with the delivery of a finished item. As a measure of goodwill, and to maintain the project schedule. The provider offers to bear the cost of renting a temporary system. Since no schedule slippage will occur, the project manager should Conduct the Perform Integrated Change Control process next.
  9. During a project's execution phase, a new stakeholder is identified who is critical to the project's success. The project manager should Update the stakeholder engagement plan next.
  10. A project manager joins a new project that will be implemented by a virtual team located in various time zones and utilizing different native languages. During project planning, the project manager identifies significant disagreements among team members. The project manager will help obtain Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix team consensus.
  11. A design project is ready to be transferred to production. Manage quality is required for phase closure.
  12. A client adds a new feature and requests a budget update the development of this feature cannot extend the project schedule for more than one month. The client has already agreed to a cost per hour. The project manager should Calculate project performance using the earned value management (EVM) method next.
  13. Sensitivity analysis helps to determine which risks might have the greatest impacts on the project and will require a carefully crafted risk assessment. Your project team has identified several potential risks on your current project that could have a significant impact if they occured. The team examined the impact of the risks by keeping all of the uncertain elements at their baseline values. The team will use Tornado Diagram to display this information.
  14. During a project update meeting, one of the key stakeholders expressed his displeasure over the project management approach. One of the key deliverables had major defects which required a rework. You took responsibility for searching out the facts of this problem and created a change request to resolve the issue. You should recommend a corrective action to bring anticipated future project outcomes back into alignment with the project management plan.
  15. During project initiation, the project manager team that the charter was not approved by the proper authorities. The project manager approaches their line manager about this issue, but the line manager instructs the project manager to immediately begin work on the project plan. The project manager should Explain the implications of working without approval.
  16. One week after project deployment, a project manager unsuccessfully tries to resolve an issue on their own. The project manager failed to inform stakeholders, which results in their frustration. To avoid stakeholder frustration, the project manager should have done Adhered to the communications management plan.
  17. The communication technology being applied in a project was tested in simulated environments but never in actual projects. This lack experience with the technology must be addressed in detail. Mitigate the risk by conducting a pilot strategy should be used in the project's planning process.
  18. During the collection of stakeholder requirements, a disagreement between two key stakeholders delays sponsor approval of the project charter. The project manager should Use conflict resolution techniques.
  19. Due to commitments to another project, an accountant fails to deliver an important report, the project manager should have referenced Resource calendar to avoid this.
  20. A project manager wants to create the risk register. The project manager should Build the risk breakdown structure (RBS) to categorize risks next.
  21. A new execute asks the project manager to share sensitive project information that had not been apart of communications with the previous executive. The project manager should Refer to the communications management plan.
  22. A project manager is assigned to an ongoing project and receives notification from another department that they were not made aware of timelines slippage on one of the key deliverables. To Communications management plan document should the project manager first refer.
  23. After conducting a data analysis, a project manager determines the cause and degree of variance relative to the approved scope. The project manager should Decide if a corrective or preventive action is required next.
  24. The project team learns from a key stakeholder that some deliverables have been forwarded for approval without their knowledge. The project manager should have Verified the communications management plan to prevent this situation.
  25. As part of a project, a new plant is being constructed in a typhoon-prone area. This may impact the projects schedule and quality. The project manager should Establish a contingency reserve to address this.



  1. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 0.3. The CFO instructs the project sponsor to restrict the project scope to bridge the CPI back to 1 within the months. While reviewing the approval change requests for removed activities, the project manager becomes concerned about the resulting cost the non-conformance. The project manager should Maintain the current risk register, but transfer the risks with the highest impact on cost to the quality management plan.
  2. A company has decided to use agile methodology for the first time on a project. During the middle of the third sprint, it becomes apparent that the project communications are not adequate and that most team members do not have a good understanding of what other team members are doing. The project manager should have Held daily stand-up meetings to avoid this issue.
  3. During the execution of a project, the project manager finds there are some initial requirements for each team member that have not been considered in the scope. The project manager should Implement corrective actions approved by the change control board (CCB).
  4. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 1.05 and its schedule performance index (SPI) is 0.95. Based on this information, Behind schedule and within budget is the result of the project.
  5. A project manager identifies a risk for a complex module in a project. Before executing work on this module, a technical specialist suggests adopting a proven technology rather than using a new experimental technology. The project manager accepts this suggestion. Avoid risk response strategy the project manager use.
  6. A project manager leading the implementation of a company's new financial system needs to evaluate the system's quality. Quality control measurements can the project manager use to understand the project quality metrics and policies.
  7. An organization has contracts with an external supplier to support a critical part of a project. Senior management and the project team have differences about what deliverables the external supplier should provide. Procurement management plan should be reviewed to eliminate these differences.
  8. Midway through the design phase of a software development project, the project manager realizes that planned tasks will be delivered tale. The project manager should Update the issue log first.
  9. A project manager is assigned to a project that is in progress. In Project management plan document would a new project manager find information regarding the scope baseline.
  10. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 1.05 and its schedule performance index (SPI) is 0.9. Based on the information, Behind schedule and within budget is the result of the project.
    CPI มากกว่า 1 แสดงว่ากิจกรรมนั้นได้ใช้เงินทุนไปน้อยกว่างบประมาณที่ได้ตั้งไว้
    SPI น้อยกว่า 1 แสดงว่ากิจกรรมที่กำลังพิจารณาอยู่ได้ดำเนินการไปล่าช้ากว่าแผนที่ได้วางไว้
  11. A project manager must obtain approval for a network cabling project. After preparation of detailed project information, some team members remain dissatisfied, as the selected equipment is new and insufficiently tested. The project manager determines that the equipment meets technology needs. Leadership skill should the project manger use to obtain team consensus and sponsor approval.
  12. A client asks a global IT company to develop a supply-chain monitoring system, a project manager then designs to assist in the creation of the project charter for the project sponsor. The project manager should Search the lessons learned repository for historical information on project charter development next.
  13. A sponsor proposes a project scope change that is popular with the project team and key stakeholders. The project manager should Follow the scope change request process.
  14. Midway through a project's execution phase, the client asks to add new product features. The project manager should Assess the impact of the request on the overall project management plan first.
  15. In a project with a multi generational team, some resources are under performing due to differing viewpoints. This may cause project delays. The project manager should Use the collaborate/problem solve technique.
  16. At project inception, market demands result in a shift in the client's organizational strategy. Upon learning this, the project manager immediately requests a meeting with the project team and project sponsor. In preparation for this meeting, the project manager should analyze and evaluate Business case.
  17. A project manager receives an email from a vendor that a key deliverable will be delayed by a month. The project manager should Assess the impact of the delay on the project plan.
  18. Power/interest grid can the project manager use to group stakeholders based on level of authority and level of concern.
  19. A project manager finds that a specific work package was not delivered on time and will be delayed by an additional three weeks. The project manager worries that this might impact project completion. The project manager should Determine it the work package is on the critical path first.
  20. A collection of procedures used to track project artifacts, monitor and control changes on the project is Configuration Management System.
  21. A Project Manager want team to use (WBS) in cost estimation developed for your project. Bottom up estimating technique is most likely to use.
  22. A project manager for a software project, various tools and techniques determine project requirements during the Collect Requirements process. These requirements form the basis for defining the project scope. During project status meeting, team members do not agree on the way in which certain requirements should be implemented. So, he decides to take a vote, where the largest block in a group would decide, even if a majority is not achieved. This is an example of Plurality.
  23. Managing a software development project. Divided the project into five iterations that are typically time-boxed to 30 days. This project is producing deliverables in short periods of time. Work with the product owner, project team holds daily standup meetings, and they hold retrospective meetings at the end of the working period. This describe Agile methodology.
  24. During project initiation, the project manager teams that the charter was not approved by the proper authorities. The project manager approaches their line manager about this issue, but the line manager instructs the project manager to immediately begin work on the project plan, the project manager should Explain the implications of working without approval.
  25. At project inception, market demands result in a shift in the client's organizational strategy. Upon learning this, the project manager immediately requests a meeting with the project team and project sponsor. In preparation for this meeting, the project manager should analyze and evaluate Business case.
  26. A security team notifies a project manager of a change in security procedures. The project manager uses the change control process update the project management plan. After seeing the change, a stakeholder complains that it was unnecessary because the project is almost complete. The project manager should Convince the stakeholder of the benefits resulting from the change.
  27. A project manager discover that material costs have increased significantly since project initiation. The project manager should refer Business case to determine if the project is still feasible.