PMP…ใบเบิกทางของ Project Manager
    • Project Management Professional หรือ PMP เป็นใบประกาศนียบัตรที่โด่งดังที่สุดในวงการ Project Management
      www.fwdder.com/topic/266912

    • แนะนำ Project Management Institute (PMI):
      enhancethailandconstruction.blogspot.com/2017/05/10-some-brief-about-pmi.html

    • PRINCE2 มาจากคำว่า  PRoject  IN  Controlled  Environments 2 เป็นวิธีการจัดการโครงการ:
      www.gotoknow.org/posts/337346

    • PRINCE2 น่าจะ Fit กับแนวคิดฝั่ง User ในขณะที่ PMI น่าจะเหมาะกับ Vendor หรือ Supplier
      Cr: Skon

    • รู้เรื่อง PRINCE2 คร่าวๆ ไม่ลึกเท่าไหร่ แต่ว่าเคยเห็น งานจะถูกซอยเป็น Module ข้อดีคือ สำหรับ Project ใหญ่ๆ มันสามารถแบ่ง Proportion ได้ชัดเจน
      ส่วน PMI มองเป็น Project แล้ว ทำเป็น Break Down Structure ตามที่เราคุ้นเคย วิธีการคิด วิธีการ Apply กับงานนั้นๆ เหมือนกันหมด
      Cr: Alex

    • www.pmithai.org/th/about-us

    • Project Manager - อยากเป็นไหม? ผมจะเล่าให้ฟัง - Project Manager vs. Engineer (Specialist):
      pantip.com/topic/32544208
      pantip.com/topic/32546567

    • Project Manager - อยากเป็นไหม? ผมจะเล่าให้ฟัง - Project Manager vs. Sales หรือ Internal Customer:
      pantip.com/topic/34163609

    • resources.workfront.com/project-management-blog/how-to-become-a-project-manager-two-paths

    • สมัครยังไง:
      medium.com/@noonvichitra/project-management-professional-pmp-d442636b51f6

    Project management versus operations management
    Projects VS Operations
    Significant change VS Any changes small and evolutionary
    Limited in time and scope VS Never-ending
    Unique VS Repetitive
    Resources transient VS Resources stable
    Goal-oriented management VS Role-oriented management
    Transient VS Stable
    Attempt to balance performance, time and budget VS Performance, time and budget usually fixed and balanced
    Need to balance objectives VS Management generally in a state of equilibrium
    More exciting (perhaps!) VS Steady as she goes' feel

    Project Management Certificate Program
    http://unex.uci.edu/pdfs/brochures/PROJECT_MGMT_brochure.pdf


    What is a Project?

    Building a house addition is a project and is not operational work.

    Organizational Process Asset
    • Corporate Knowledge Base
    • Processes and Procedures
    • Project Budget Reporting Template

    Enterprise Environmental Factor

    • Government or Industry Standards
    • Organizational Culture

    Case Study 1:
    • Project A is considered to be of strategic importance to your organization. When Project A is completed, you will release a new product to your customers that will be innovative. Research has shown that there is a high demand for this product. And if you are quick enough, your company will be the first to have it on the market. This project will require the focus and attention of the entire team.
    • Project B is a tablet upgrade for your organization's sales force. It will primarily involve the information technology, or IT, department. There is a specific functional manager in the IT department who is very knowledgeable about the tablets, the applications they use, and the technical requirements. Basically, this functional manager needs some help with coordination and project reporting.

    Run Project A using the projectized organization

    and run Project B as a weak matrix.


    A Project is not defined as being unique and temporary, with an undefined start and finish.

    Weak, Balanced and Strong are three types of matrix organizations.

    In a projectized organization, the project manager acts as manager of the team.

    The best organization to use to run a project will not always be the projectized organization.

    The five project management process groups as described in the PMBOK Guide are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling and closing.

    The three components of the triple constraint are Scope, Cost and Time.

    You have finished planning and have begun executing the project when the client asks if you would add some important features to the product of the project. Time and cost in the triple constraints may both be affected.

    The primary role of the project manager is communication.

    The PMBOK Guide knowledge areas that have processes in the Initiating process group are Project Integration Management and Project Stakeholder Management.

    The PMBOK Guide describes 10 Project Management Knowledge Areas. Cost, Scope and Time out of the 10.

    Get to Know your Stakeholders

    Plan stakeholder management:
    • Unaware - Provide them with an overview of the project and follow up, after the overview.
    • Resistant - Partner them with someone enthusiastic, someone who they admire and trust.
    • Neutral - Find ways to increase their interest in the project, perhaps by involving them more or by sharing with them a project benefit that they can support.
    • Supportive - Keep them in the loop and provide them open and honest status.
    • Leading - Continue to give them opportunities to stay involved, let them know you appreciate them.
    Case Study 2:
    • You have a stakeholder who will be contributing five team members to your project. This stakeholder has complained multiple times that your project should never have been approved, is a waste of time and money and that his people should be working on something else.

    This is the resistant type of stakeholder to the project and potential impacts and change.

    Case Study 3:
    • You are the project manager for project A. Project A is considered to be of strategic importance to your organization. When project A is completed, you will release a new product to your customers that will be innovative. Research has shown that there is a high demand for this product and, if you quick enough, your company will be the first to have it on the market. Because this project is so important and requires the complete attention of resources, the project selection committee followed your advice and set up a projectized organization. All project team members, including you, are 100% dedicated to the project. You have three team members who each have significant roles on the project. They each either represent an area of expertise or the voice of the customer. It would be difficult to state that any one of these resources was more important than the other. In fact, they really need to work well together so that each of their work really ties well nicely. After all, the goal is to release this highly innovative and highly sought after product as quickly as possible and to capture the market for this product within three months after the product is released. Two of the three key team members have worked together for several years. They have a close relationship. They're not only coworkers, they are good friends. The third resource is new to the company. In fact, she was hired because she brought expertise that your company did not have. She's excellent at her job, and you are glad she's part of the team. You notice that the other two do not always include her in their discussions about the product. They do not appear to be purposefully rude, but they typically turn to one another to discuss and debate various aspects of the product and project. There are times when she should be involved in the discussion, but she does not jump in.
    When you observe conversations where the two co-workers exclude their newer colleague from discussions and debates, tactfully join the conversation and ask the newer colleague her opinion and bring her into the conversation.
    B-)
  • 40 Comments sorted by
  • The definition of a stakeholder includes: The people or organizations that are positively or negatively impacted by your project.

    If you are not certain who your stakeholders are, asking who will use the product or service being created can be helpful.

    If a stakeholder has high interest and high power then as the project manager you: Focus your time and attention on them, they are very impactful to your project and you want to keep them engaged and positive.

    You just came from a meeting with one of your project stakeholders, he knew about your project and was not against it, but did not seem to be particularly interested in it either. You would classify him as Neutral.

    The Project Sponsor is not responsible for stakeholder expectations management.

    Customer/User is the stakeholder that will ultimately use the product or service you are creating.

    One way to classify your stakeholders is to use the Power/Interest Grid. If a stakeholder is low interest / low power, the Project Manager should do Monitor.

    Your stakeholder register is your primary output and should at least contain: Assessment information, identification information, and stakeholder classification.

    You have a stakeholder on your project who has a reputation as being
    very difficult. He dislikes change and argues against any suggested
    updates to the way in which his department does their work. The project
    you are leading is going to significantly impact at least two processes
    used by his team. Seek him out and begin to open communications with him about what is changing and why is the best response to the situation.

    Identify the five engagement levels of stakeholders: Unaware, resistant, neutral, supportive, leading.

    Scope Matters

    Key Stakeholders:
    • Project Manager - The person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives.
    • Performing Organization - The enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
    • Project Management Team - The members of the project team directly involved in the project management and leadership activities.
    • Sponsor - The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or kind, for the project.
    • Other - End users, portfolio managers, program managers, project management office, functional managers, operations management.

    Case Study 4:

    • Project A has kicked off, and you are all excited about creating this innovative, highly sought after product. It could really put your company at the front of the market for several years. You and your team are creating the scope statement for the project, as you have worked together to interview your project stakeholders. You have heard a couple of comments that have concerned you. One stakeholder mentioned that he thought that once the project passed a certain point, some of he resources would no longer be fully dedicated to the project. This puzzled you because you have been told that you are running the project using a projectized organization, and all resources are 100% dedicated to the project until project completion. Another stakeholder mentioned that she really believed that the product being created was missing some important features. You and the team have a different understanding. Your understanding is that the product contains the features required to be quickly enough to be released in a timely manner. There will be future enhancements made to the project.

    You will make sure that the assumptions section of the scope statement discusses that team members are 100% dedicated to the project and you will make certain that the 'missing' features (per one of your stakeholders) are noted as out of scope for this project.

    One of the ways a Project Charter can help you as a project manager is: It describes your authority level as the project manager.

    The Scope Management section of your project plan document would include information on: Who can suggest changes to the project.

    An important part of the project scope statement is exclusions or out of scope items.

    As you plan your project, you do so thinking that all team members will be assigned to your project for at least 50% of their available time. This is an example of: An assumption.

    The WBS should completely depict the scope of your project that if something is not in the WBS it is because it is NOT part of the project.

    The 8-80 rule refers to: Work packages should be between 8 and 80 hours of effort.

    Project scope differs from product scope in that: Project scope is the work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result.

    The Project Charter is a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project. It provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

    The Project Scope Statement should include the following: Project deliverables, project constraints, project assumptions.

    A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team.

    Authority vs. Influence

    RACI

    https://ditsayakul.wordpress.com/2011/07/07

    Case Study 5:

    • Project day has progressed and your team now has a prototype of the end product. This prototype has been created in a test area. The test area is an area where there is machinery and materials. It is smaller version of the area where the finalized product will be manufactured. When it comes to safety, of course, your company follows best practices. That means that nobody is allowed to enter the test area without wearing protective gear, such as safety glasses. Your stakeholders have been invited to the test area to view the prototype. Each of them is handed their required proactive gear at the door to the test area. One of your stakeholders refuses to put on the safety glasses.

    Do not let them into the test area until they agree to wear the glasses right now.

    Authority means you have the right to apply resources, make decisions and give approvals.

    When two team members are trying to complete the same task is an example of role conflict.

    Two team members disagree on how to solve a project issue. They express their disagreement and then engage in a professional debate. This is an example of Healthy conflict.

    You and another project manager disagree over whether a team member should work on your team or on her team. You decide that the team member can work for the other project manager in the afternoon and the other project manager says it is OK for the team member to work for you in the morning. The truth is you both wanted this person fulltime. The conflict resolution approach you have both used is Compromising (Bargaining and searching for solutions that attempt to bring some degree of satisfaction to the conflicting parties; neither party wins, but each may get some degree of satisfaction).

    Conflict management is the process by which the project manager uses appropriate managerial techniques to deal with the inevitable disagreements that develop among those working toward project accomplishment.

    Some of the major sources of conflict that a project manager may influence are Personality conflict, schedules, and resources.

    Confronting, Compromising, Smoothing, Forcing, and Avoiding are the 5 approaches to conflict discussed in the Project Human Resources Management.

    Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.

    Each person involved in the project should be assigned, and always need to know his or her role and responsibility.

    RAM stand for Responsibility Assignment Matrix.

    B-)
  • Resource Needs

    Implement the quality management plan
    using the appropriate tools and techniques, in order to ensure that work
    is being performed according to required quality standards is role as
    the project manager during quality assurance.

    Control Quality Tools:

    Pareto Chart - แผนภูมิพาเรโต
    http://topofquality.com/spareto/indexpareto.html
    http://202.183.190.2/FTPiWebAdmin/knw_pworld/image_content/85/81-86.pdf

    CE-Analysis (Fish bone diagram)
    http://www.lean4sme.com/index.php/99-tool/root-cause-analysis/144-ce-analysis-fish-bone-diagram

    Case Study 6:

    • You have two team members who are frequently assigned to the same activities. Typically the way in which they are meant to work is that one of the resources, we will call him Sam, is meant to be available to answer questions about the work. Sam is to help if there is a problem, or to brainstorm solutions when there are issues completing the work. The other resource, we will call him Joe, is the resource that will actually complete the work. For example, during project A, the new product required some design work. Joe is the one who was supposed to create the design, and Sam was the person Joe could go to for questions or concerns about designing this type of product. Both Sam and Joe are good and diligent workers. They get along well with one another, and they get along well with you and their coworkers. Sometimes there does seem to be some confusion as to who is supposed to do what. For example, in a meeting, Sam and Joe both realize that they were each trying to design the new product. Another time, a different team member had some questions about the work. Before Sam could reply to the questions, Joe responded.

    As the project manager of Project A where all of the resources are 100% dedicated to the project, a way to help them out is work with the team to create a RAM or responsibility accountability matrix which depicts who does the work, who consults, who is informed, etc.

    https://www.project-management-prepcast.com/131-pmp-exam-tips/307-pmp-exam-tip-the-work-package-explained

    http://www.projecttimes.com/articles/using-work-breakdown-structure-wbs-for-effective-project-estimation.html

    The term resources not only refers to people, it include money, materials, and equipment, etc.

    The acronym RAM stands for Responsibility Assignment Matrix.

    When you use the RACI or Responsible, Accountable, Consult, Inform version of the RAM, those who are responsible are Completing the work.

    A work package is a Deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS.

    The WBS is used to derive The project schedule baseline, The project cost performance baseline, and The activity list.

    When it comes to projects, the emphasis is on strategic quality management. Quality is not an accident, quality is part of the plan, and quality is everyone's job.

    The discipline of quality management complements the discipline of project management. Both recognize the importance of Customer satisfaction, prevention over inspection, continuous improvement, and management responsibility.

    Project quality focuses on the project management processes used to meet project objectives.

    The Process Improvement Plan is a subsidiary, or component of the project management plan.

    Performing quality assurance within the context of a project involves applying the planned, systematic quality activities to ensure that the project correctly employs all processes needed to meet project objectives and product requirements.

    Estimating

    Project Budget Reporting Guidelines belong in the cost management plan.

    Analogous Estimating Example:

    • A past project took 20,000 hours to complete. Your new project is adding some additional scope and that scope is estimated to take 10,000 additional hours. There is some work that was completed in the previous project that will not be completed in this project. That work is estimated at 5,000 hours. Labor rates have increased 10%, the old rate was $25 per hour.

    Estimate should you give for your new project is (20,000 + 10,000 - 5,000) x 27.50 = 25,000 x 27.50 = $687,500.

    Earned Value Example:

    • Your project has been active for two months. At this point, the amount of work you should have completed is valued at $25,000. Per your budget reports, you see that you have spent $30,000 to date. The amount of work that has actually been completed is worth $20,000.
      Your actual costs are $30,000, which means that your cost variance (CV) is:
      CV = EV-AC = $20,000 - $30,000 = -$10,000
      A negative cost variance means you are not on budget, you are over budget.

    Your Cost Performance Index (CPI) is AC/EV = $20,000 / $30,000 = 0.67

    Case Study 7:

    • You and the team are both excited and nervous about project day. You're on a tight deadline to create and launch a new product. This product is very promising. Research shows that your customers will love it and they will buy it. You are all 100% dedicated to this project, so that you can all give it the necessary focus to launch the new product before any of your competitors. Everyone is nervous about meeting the due date, and everyone is nervous about submitting estimates. To be fair, because this is a new project and there are activities that the team members have never completed before, this introduces an element of uncertainty. In a team meeting, a team member questions one of his peers about an estimate. He believes that the estimate seems too high. His peer replies that this is a piece of work that none of them have completed before. And, so in order to manage expectations, he has taken his original estimate and padded it. He does not want to be the one who misses a due date on this critical project. Others nod and express that they, too, have placed some pad in their estimates.

    You do not want to be the project manager who misses the due date on such a critical project and so you ask the team to submit estimates that reflect the amount of time they think it will take to complete the work and then separate out some contingency - in other words potential extra time because some of the work is risky.

    An estimate created by looking at a similar project or activity and then adding or subtracting to or from the estimate based on the differences between the two is called Analogous estimating.

    When you have good historical information which can be used in a reliable formula or model, you will probably use Parametric estimating.

    When you are concerned that your estimates might not be correct, especially if you think they are too low, you should not pad the estimate and add extra.

    Management reserve is not tied to specific work packages it is for the entire project.

    You are preparing an estimate of the cost for an IT system expansion for a new branch office location. It is very similar to the IT system expansion undertaken for a branch office that opened six months ago. Analogous technique you might use if you are pushed for a quick estimate.

    You are building an apartment complex with four, 10,000 square foot buildings based on the same drawings you used in another city two years ago. The danger of estimating using the same parametric model of $50 per square foot is Historical cost relationships may no longer be applicable.

    Bottom Up Estimating is A technique that involves estimating the cost of individual work packages or individual schedule activities with the lowest level of detail.

    The Project Budget is equal to the cost baseline budget plus management reserves.

    The S-Curve depicts the relationship between the cost baseline budget and the schedule because it shows the planned cost baseline budget across the planned project timeline.

    B-)
  • Earned value management integrates scope, cost, and schedule measures to assess project performance and progress.

    7 วิธีปฏิบัติเพื่อความสำเร็จในการบริหารโครงการพัฒนาซอฟท์แวร์

    บทเริ่มต้นของการวางแผนโครงการ (Project Planning)

    ขั้นตอนในการวางแผนโครงการ

    ตัวอย่างแผนโครงการ

    เหตุใดจึงต้องมีการบริหารโครงการ (Project Management)

    เหตุใดจึงต้องมีการบริหารโครงการ (2)

    บริหารโครงการอย่างไร

    องค์ความรู้ในการบริหารโครงการ

    Getting Started in Project Management - 1. An Introduction

    ความรู้ทั่วไปที่ผู้จัดการควรจะมี

    Scheduling

    Your team member informs you that the test system must be refreshed with your test data before testing can be begin. This dependency is Mandatory.

    Your sponsor informs you that you must receive local government approval of your proposed building design before you can begin construction of your building, this dependency is External.

    You have two activities, A and B. Once A begins, then B can also begin. This relationship is best described as Start to Start.

    Case Study 8:

    • In discussing the new product that is being created as a result of the completion of project A, you realize that there are some elements of the product that do not have any acceptance criteria associated with them. This is primarily because they are new. They are parts that go into this product that your team has never created before. If they are not tested then the product could be created using parts that do not work or do not fit together as planned. You are fairly certain that others on the team must realize this too, but nobody has mentioned it. You say to the team, don't we have parts that are new to us? How will we know if those parts are acceptable? We do not want to get too far into the creation of the product, even the prototype, without knowing that it'll work. At first, there is silence, then everyone begins speaking at once. It turns out that several team members have been wondering about this. You ask them to ensure that there is some type of plan or approach to handle the testing.

    Potential approach is appropriate is Take some time now to consider each new part and what it means for that new part to be acceptable and how that can be tested and measured and document this information.

    When you schedule work in a specific order because it cannot be completed any other way this is Mandatory type of dependency.

    If develop online modules must be 100% completed before review online modules can begin, that is called a finish to start relationship.

    If develop online modules needs to finish before review online modules can finish, that is called a Finish to finish relationship.

    To calculate early start (ES) and early finish (EF) perform a Forward pass.

    The critical path is the longest path through the network and represents the shortest duration in which all the activities of the project can be completed.

    The network diagram is the best tool for demonstrating The sequence of project activities.

    Schedule Management Plan, Activity List, Activity Attributes, Activity Resource Requirements, Resource Calendars, Project Scope Statement, Risk Register, Resource Breakdown Structure, Enterprise Environmental Factors, and Organizational Process Assets are inputs to estimating activity durations.

    In a project schedule, the sequence of activities which cannot be delayed during the course of the project without extending the project end date is referred to as the Critical path.

    A significant event in a project that may indicate completion of a major phase is a Milestone.

    Once the logic of a network is laid out, the project manager will conduct a forward pass and a backward pass through the network. This will provide information regarding The total duration of the project and will identify the critical path.

    Project Communication

    Interactive - A performance appraisal that you give to a team member.

    Pull - A project document that will be read and accessed by many team members.

    Push - An invitation to a project milestone celebration.

    Case Study 9:

    • The entire company is excited about and interested in Project A. Everyone wants to know what is happening, everyone wants to help celebrate the completion of project milestones, and everyone is waiting eagerly for the product launch. As the project manager, you ensure that the right project communications are created and distributed to the right people. Sometimes, this is very time-consuming. One of the challenges you face is that each business unit has involvement in the project. For example, the marketing department is coordinating advertising and a social media campaign around the new product. The accounting department needs to update their records to accurately capture product cost and profit figures. Each milestone that you and the team complete brings you closer to the product launch. Each milestone could represent different things to different departments. For example, once the prototype is approved, the marketing department can start creating more of a social media buzz by sharing information about what the product will do. To the accounting department, the approval of the prototype means that they can begin to come up with real material cost numbers. All of this is part of the plan and the schedule. In your communication plan, you announce milestone completions. Some are even marked by celebrations.

    When a milestone has different significance to different departments, you decide to create communication that Are written to celebrate the milestone and shares a bit about what that milestone means to each group and why it is important.

    B-)
  • A project manager spends 90% of his or her time communicating.

    The best medium for the communication, With whom to communicate, and What they need to know are parts of a basic communication plan.

    Upward communication is communication to/from Your senior management.

    When you report project status you compare actual performance to The planned performance or baseline.

    Earned value integrates scope, schedule and budget and uses monetary values to assess project status.

    You are beginning to staff your project. Organization chart, WBS, and Responsibility Assignment Matrix will be used in developing and/or communicating roles and responsibilities.

    How information will be communicated, Timeframe and frequency of communication, and What information will be communicated are likely to be documented in a communications management plan.

    Effective project communication management creates a bridge between stakeholders based on a shared understanding of the project and the ongoing sharing of information needed for its success.

    A Communications Management Plan does the Lays out the approach and method for delivering information effectively and efficiently.

    The Sender and the Receiver should take the most responsibility for clear and effective communication.

    Managing Project Risks

    Know who to involve in risk management planning, Know who to ask about the degree of risks that project faces, and Know which organizations are involved in the project are the reasons the stakeholder register is needed.

    Case Study 10:

    • You and your team have identified a risk that is a threat to your ability to successfully meet project objectives. The risk involves team members from your company performing work which requires training, certification, and many hours of experience. You have one newly certified team member and others who are still in training.

    Transfer the risk - If you have a budget to hire external resources and there is a vendor you can hire who specializes in this type of work, hire them.

    Case Study 11:

    • You have just come from a Project A team meeting. You're feeling a little stressed and overwhelmed. Why? You asked your team to share with you the concerns they had about the project. You asked your team to share with you all of the things that could happen that could impact your ability to meet project objectives. You did also ask them to tell you about opportunities to complete the project early and/or under budget. But they really focused on their concerns about what could go wrong. Now, the team feels better because they have had a chance to vent and to discuss their concerns. You did write down everything that your team said. You asked questions while they described the various scenarios, and it occurs to you that your team just did a really good job of identifying risks. Now, all you have to do is decide what to do with all the information you're walking around with.

    Put it aside and read it later after you have calmed down. Then organize the information and schedule some time with the team to discuss the likelihood and impact of each risk, so that you can prioritize the risks.

    The purpose of project risk management is to Minimize the likelihood or the impact of negative events or threats to your project and to increase the likelihood or impact of positive events.

    A positive risk is an opportunity; a negative risk is a threat.

    When you and your team know that a negative risk has a high likelihood of occurring and it will be very impactful if it does You should develop a response to handle this risk.

    If the response you choose is to avoid a risk this means that You change your plans so that you eliminate the risk.

    Once you and your team identify and assess risks and develop responses you Continue to identify and monitor risks for the remainder of the project.

    In a project context, a risk is defined as An uncertain event that, if it occurs, will have a positive or negative effect on at least one project objective.

    The Risk Management Plan is a subsidiary of the Project Management Plan document.

    A useful tool in identifying risks is the SWOT analysis. SWOT stands for Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    The primary output from the identification of risks is the risk register.

    During a risk brainstorming session, a team member identifies a risk. This particular risk does not seem to belong to any of the categories in your Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS). You should Record the list in the risk register, discuss potential responses and make a note to update the RBS.

    Change Happens

    As part of planning, you have created a scope baseline, a budget baseline, and a schedule baseline. These baselines ever are allowed to change, if the baseline is completely unachievable and the project sponsor approves it.

    Your project is running two weeks behind schedule. Your variance thresholds should be documented in your project management plan, look there for guidance.

    Case Study 12:

    • Back when you and the team were creating the scope statement for project A. One of the stakeholders really wanted you to include some additional features. These features were not part of the initial scope, and so you noted these features as out of scope. The stakeholder who requested these features was not happy. But her peers voted her down and reminded her of the importance of time to market. She has never given up on these features. She tells anyone who will listen that it is a mistake to release the product to market without these features. She has escalated her concerns to your executive management team. She has convinced at least one of them that she is right. Now your phone rings, and it is that executive manager. He is insisting that the features be added to the product immediately.

    Explain to the executive manager that the scope has been signed off on and these features were specifically noted as out of scope and offer to help with a change request that should go to the change control board.

    • medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/archive/2014/10
    • medium.com/people-development/archive/2014/10
    • medium.com/product-craftsmanship/archive/2014/11
    • medium.com/pure-project-management/archive/2015/01
    • medium.com/inspiring-home/archive/2015/03

    • Risk Management อย่างง่าย - Six Simple Steps To Managing Risk in Your Project:
      1. เห็นถึงความสำคัญของ Risk Management ด้วยการมองย้อนกลับไปที่งานเก่าๆ ที่เราทำ... อะไรผิดพลาด
        image
      2. Risk Identification: มองหาว่างานที่กำลังทำอยู่หรือกำลังจะทำเนี่ย มันมีความเสี่ยงอะไรอยู่บ้าง
      3. Risk Assessment: วิเคราะห์และประเมิน Likelihood: โอกาสที่จะเกิดขึ้น และ Severity: ความรุนแรง
      4. Risk Response: Mitigation: หาทางป้องกัน และ Contingency ถ้าเกิดจะแก้ยังไง หรือกระทบน้อยสุด
      5. Project Plan: หันกลับมาดูที่งานปัจจุบัน เราวางแผนรับมือความเสี่ยงไว้ดีแล้วรึยัง มีงานไหนที่ต้องทำเพิ่ม
      6. Risk Tracking & Control: ต้องใส่ใจติดตามด้วยว่ามีความเสี่ยงตัวไหนมั้ยที่มีแนวโน้มจะกลายเป็นจริง
      Risk: Requirement Changes, เวลาน้อยไปจนทำไม่ทัน, ลูกค้าอาจจะไม่ให้ความร่วมมือ, สมาชิกใน Team อาจจะลาออกกันไป, Technology ที่ใช้อาจจะใหม่เกินไปและยังไม่เสถียร, etc.
      The Future Has Arrived - It's Just Not Evenly Distributed Yet, William Gibson
      medium.com/pure-project-management/risk-management-8b90f92cd000

    B-)
    • Kanban กับ Timeboxed Practice - Does Kanban need timeboxed iterations?:
      Team 1: Release งานอะไรก็ตามที่เสร็จ ทุกๆ สัปดาห์, Planning ทุกๆ สองสัปดาห์ และนัด Meeting ทุกๆ เดือน
      Team 2: Release เมื่อได้รับคำสั่ง, Planning เมื่อรู้สึกว่าจะทำงานอะไรต่อไป และ Meeting ทุกสัปดาห์ที่สี่
      สอง Team นี้ บอกเราได้ว่า Kanban Team สามารถกำหนดจังหวะการทำงานที่จะทำได้ตามความเหมาะสม
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-timeboxed-practice-c484e15f6845

    • Kanban กับ Role ของคนใน Team - Kanban and Roles:
      ในขณะที่ Scrum กำหนดกฏเกณฑ์ว่า:
      1. Scrum Team ต้องเป็น Cross-Functional Team
      2. Scrum Team ต้องประกอบด้วยสาม Role ได้แก่ Product Owner, Team และ Scrum Master
      ส่วน Kanban ไม่มีข้อกำหนดในเรื่องนี้ ผลที่ตามมาก็คือ:
      • Kanban Team อาจจะเป็น Specialist Team หรือ Department Team ได้
      • หัว Column ของ Kanban Board ซึ่งเป็นขั้นตอนการทำงานก็อาจจะแตกต่างกันไปอย่างสิ้นเชิง
        image
      • Kanban Board สามารถมีคนที่เป็นเจ้าของหลายคน หลาย Team หลายแผนก
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-role-2c4366d1bb33

    • ความคาดหวังและปัจจัยที่เกี่ยวข้องใน Kanban Process - Expectations and Factors in Kanban Process:
      1. Capacity/Velocity ใน Scrum: ปริมาณงานที่ Team สามารถทำได้ในเวลาหนึ่งๆ เราอยากได้ตัวเลขมากๆ
      2. Lead Time/Cycle Time: ระยะเวลาที่เราใช้ในการทำงานหนึ่งให้เสร็จ เราอยากเห็นตัวเลขน้อยๆ
      3. Quality: คุณภาพของงานซึ่งอาจจะวัดได้จากจำนวน Defect ที่เจอหรืออื่นๆ เราอยากได้งานคุณภาพสูงๆ
      4. Predictability: ความสามารถในการคาดคะเนโดยเฉพาะคาดคะเนวันเสร็จงาน อยากได้ที่เชื่อถือได้
      มีปัจจัยมากมายที่ส่งผลต่อความคาดหวังข้างบน เช่น จำนวนคนใน Team, จำนวนและขนาดของ Team ทั้งหมด, การกำหนด WIP ของแต่ละ Team, การกำหนด Iteration ที่ชัดเจน, เวลาในการทำ Planning, และอื่นๆ อีกเยอะ
      Kanban ไม่มีคำตอบให้ว่าต้องจัดการปัจจัยเหล่านี้อย่างไรเพื่อทำให้ผลลัพธ์ตามคาดหวัง ต้องทดลองด้วยตัวเอง
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-process-7ca02575cc32

    • การทดลองหา WIP ที่เหมาะสม - The WIP Experiment:
      Team มี 3 คน
      1. WIP = 1: สองคนช่วยกันทำงาน...กำลังดี แต่อีกคนไม่มีอะไรทำ เบื่อ
      2. WIP = 5: ทำคนละงาน พองานมา 5 งาน งานค้างเต็ม หาคนช่วยก็ไม่ได้
      3. WIP = 2: Happy เลย งานไม่เยอะเกินไปไม่น้อยเกินไป แถมทำเสร็จเร็วขึ้นคุณภาพดีขึ้นด้วย
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/wip-d0c58e8d88bc

    • การจัดลำดับความสำคัญของงานใน Kanban - Kanban and Work Prioritization:
      แนวคิดในการเลือกงาน ไม่จำเป็นว่าเราต้องเลือกแค่แนวทางเดียว ผสมๆ กันได้:
      • หยิบงานที่อยู่บนสุดของ Column เสมอ (Top Items)
      • First-come, First-served หรือหยิบงานที่เก่าที่สุด (Oldest Items) มาทำก่อนเสมอ อย่าลืมใส่วันที่รับงาน
      • หยิบงานที่ต้องแก้ปัญหาเร่งด่วน (Incident Items) ก่อน ถ้ามี
      • ใช้กฎ 80/20 โดยเลือกงานที่เป็น New Features 80% และงาน Maintenance 20%
      • แบ่งสัดส่วนในการทำงานให้แต่ละ Product เช่น 60% ให้ Product A และ 40% ให้ Product B
      • อื่นๆ
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-d1806e8d0dbc

    • การประเมินขนาดของงานใน Kanban - Kanban and Work Estimation - Part 1:
      ประโยชน์คือ:
      1. เพื่อไม่ให้เรารับงานมากเกินไปในเวลาหนึ่งๆ (Overload)
      2. เพื่อแบ่งงานที่ใหญ่เกินไปให้เล็กลง
      3. เพื่อให้เราคาดคะเนปริมาณงานที่เราสามารถทำได้ (Scope) ใน Project นี้
      4. เพื่อให้พอเห็นภาพว่าเราจะใช้เวลาทำงานทั้งหมดนานแค่ไหน
      5. เพื่อความมั่นใจว่าเราจะทำงานเสร็จตามที่รับปากไว้
      แล้วเราจะรู้ได้ยังไงว่างานที่เราทำอยู่มีขนาดใหญ่ไปหรือไม่?:
      1. ปัญหาคอขวด (Bottleneck) บอกเราว่าเราทำงานมากเกินไป
      2. ถ้าเวลาที่ใช้มากกว่า Average Cycle Time แบบผิดปกติ งานนี้น่าจะใหญ่ไปแล้ว
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-685f2f04799a

    • การประเมินขนาดของงานใน Kanban - Kanban and Work Estimation - Part 2:
      สมมติ:
      ระยะเวลาที่มี = Deadline - Today = 120 วัน
      ถ้าเราใช้เวลาเฉลี่ยประมาณสิบวันในการทำงานแต่ละชิ้นให้เสร็จ
      คาดคะเนจำนวนงานที่ทำได้ = Duration / Average Cycle Time = 120 / 10 = 12 งาน
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-7be327b08df8

    • การประเมินขนาดของงานใน Kanban - Kanban and Work Estimation - Part 3:
      แล้ว Project นี้ เราจะเสร็จเมื่อไหร่? ก็กลับสูตร
      ระยะเวลาที่ทำ = จำนวนงาน x Average Cycle Time
      ถ้า 1 Project มี 14 งาน ก็จะ = 14 x 10 = 140 วัน
      วันที่จะเสร็จ Project = Today + Duration + วันหยุด
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-a78ff1733090

    • การประเมินขนาดของงานใน Kanban - Kanban and Work Estimation - Part 4:
      ถ้าอยากจะ Estimate งานใน Kanban ล่ะจะทำได้มั้ย ได้แน่นอน มาดูวิธีการง่ายๆ ใช้เวลาไม่นานกัน
      ให้ Estimate งานออกมาเป็นขนาดของเสื้อผ้า ตัวอย่าง:
      • งานนี้ทำคนเดียวไม่เกิน 1 สัปดาห์เสร็จ ให้เป็น S
      • งานนี้ทำคนเดียวใช้ 1-2 สัปดาห์เสร็จ ให้เป็น M
      • งานนี้ทำคนเดียวใช้มากกว่า 2 สัปดาห์เสร็จ ให้เป็น L
      อาจจะมี Size เล็กมากอย่าง ss หรือใหญ่มากแบบ XXXL ก็ได้ตามความชอบ
      เป้าหมายสำคัญของการ Estimate คือเพื่อแบ่งงานที่ใหญ่ให้เล็กลงมากกว่าจะหาคำตอบว่า Project เสร็จเมื่อไหร่
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-3-4be29fd92fd5

    • การสร้าง Swim-lane ใน Kanban Board - Swim-lane in Kanban Board:
      คือการแบ่งงานที่อยู่ใน Kanban Board ออกเป็นกลุ่มตามประเภทนั่นเอง
      image
      Kanban Board นี้มีความหมายโดยนัยว่า:
      • Team Kanban สามารถทำงานให้ ได้มากกว่าหนึ่ง Product ในเวลาเดียวกัน
      • Team Kanban มีหน้าที่รับงาน Support Issue และ Incident ไปด้วยได้
      • Team Kanban สามารถกำหนดกฎ Fastlane (Incident) โดยเมื่อมีแถวนี้เข้ามา ต้องหยุดงานอื่นมาทำ
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/swimlane-kanban-board-a5018cc3785

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - Kanban in Real Life - Starting Point:
      Team Scrum ไม่ใช่ยาวิเศษที่รักษาได้ทุกโรคและใช้ได้กับคนไข้ทุกคน:
      • เพราะพวกเค้าต้องรับผิดชอบ Product มากมาย ทำให้เตรียม Requirement ยุ่งยาก เป้าหมายก็ไม่ชัดเจน
      • เรื่อง Priority ... เจ้าของ Product (Product Owner) แต่ละคนก็จะบอกว่า "ของชั้นสำคัญกว่า"
      • การวางแผนก็เรียกได้ว่าไม่ต้องทำเลยดีกว่าเพราะ Priority เปลี่ยนรายชั่วโมง
      • ระหว่างทำงานก็มีงานแทรกเข้ามามากมาย พอ Respond ช้าไม่ทันใจก็โดนด่า สังคมประนาม
      • พอเร่งๆ ทำงานที่แทรกเข้ามาก็ทำให้งานที่ Commit ไว้ว่าจะเสร็จก็ไม่เสร็จ เหมือนเดิมโดนด่าอีก
      • งานเยอะ งานเร่ง งานไม่ชัดเจน เวลาน้อย ... คุณภาพก็ ห่วยเหมือนเดิม
      • ครั้นขยันทำงานของ Product แรกเสร็จก่อน Sprint* จบ ก็ Release ไม่ได้ เจ้าของงานก็จี้ให้ Release
      • ที่น่าเจ็บใจ คือเอา Team ไปเปรียบเทียบกับ Team อื่นที่รับผิดชอบ Product เดียว เลยทำงานได้ดีกว่า
      Sprint คือระยะเวลาที่ทีมพัฒนามีในการทำงานให้เสร็จในแต่ละรอบ ส่วนใหญ่จะยาว 2-4 สัปดาห์ (ไม่ควรเกินนี้)
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-95c6c0b9dccd
    B-)
    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - จัดระเบียบขั้นตอนการทำงาน - Organizing Steps of Work:
      Visualize the Workflow - Value Stream Mapping:
      1. ตอนนี้พวกเราทำอะไรกันอยู่บ้าง?
      2. แต่ละขั้นตอนใช้เวลาประมาณเท่าไร?
      Steps of Work:
      Business Idea > Approval > Requirement > System Design > UI Design > UI Creation > System Develop > Integration > Testing > Product Launch > Release
      เพื่อให้เห็นกระบวนการทำงานจากต้นน้ำถึงปลายน้ำจะได้สามารถกำหนดขอบเขตของงานที่ Team ต้องรับผิดชอบ

      Who's Responsible for What:
      Business Idea: PO >>> System Design: Architect >>> System Develop & Integration: DEV > Testing: QA >> Release: OPS
      งานบางงานก็ไม่มีคนรับผิดชอบ ต้องจัดการเรื่องความชัดเจนของหน้าที่ภายในและภายนอก Team

      How Long Does Each Step Take?:
      5 > Approval: 1 > Requirement: 5 > 5 > UI Design: 7 > UI Creation: 15 > 45 > 15 > 20 > 5 > 1

      How Long Does Waiting Time Take?:
      5+15 > 1+15 > 5+15 > 5+30 > 7+15 > 15 > 45+5 > 15+5 > 20+30 > 5+15 > 1
      image
      Process Cycle Efficiency = Value Added Time (124 days) / Total Time (279 days) = 44.5%
      จะเห็นว่ากระบวนการปัจจุบันมีประสิทธิภาพแค่ไหนและจุดไหนที่กินเวลามากที่สุดโดยไม่สร้างคุณค่าอะไรกับงาน
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-c95422b5b632

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - กำหนดขอบเขตและหน้าที่ - Defining Scope and Responsibility:
      งานบางอย่างที่ Team ยังไม่แน่ใจว่าใครควรจะเป็นคนรับผิดชอบ มีสองทางเลือกกับสถานการณ์แบบนี้:
      1. เดินไปบอกหัวหน้างานว่าต้องการคนเพิ่มมาทำงานพวกนี้
      2. ยึดหลัก "ตนเป็นที่พึ่งแห่งตน" ด้วยการค้นหาดูซิว่ามีใครใน Team สามารถทำงานพวกนี้ได้บ้าง
      Team ต้องการ "ทักษะที่เหมาะสม (Skills)" ไม่ใช่ "คนที่มีตำแหน่งติดตัวมา (Position)"
      แล้วถ้าเราจะทำงานในแต่ละขั้นตอนให้ดี เราต้องการทักษะหรือความรู้อะไรบ้าง?:
      • Requirement: Business, Customer, & Technical Knowledge, Backlog Management
      • System Design: Internal System Flow, Web/DB Architecture, Hardware/Infrastructure,Security
      • UI Design: User Experience Skills, Service Design Thinking, Graphic Tools & Technology
      • UI Creation: Layout/Typography, Information Architect, Advanced Graphic Tools & Technology
      • System Develop: Advanced Web Development, Automated Testing & Refactoring, Deployment
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-944ad922792f

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - รู้จัก Team - Knowing the Team:
      หยิบทักษะที่จำเป็นในการทำงานที่ได้มาจากการประชุมข้างบน ให้คนใน Team Vote ใครทำอะไรได้บ้าง
      ข้อมูลที่ได้บอกให้ทราบว่าอะไรคือจุดแข็ง จุดอ่อน ทักษะแบบไหนมีเพียงพอแล้ว แบบไหนต้องการเสริม ตัวอย่าง:
      • มีอัตราส่วน Dev ต่อ QA ต่างกันมากที่ 4:1
      • ไม่มีความรู้ด้าน Business มากนัก
      • ไม่มีความสามารถเรื่อง User Experience และ Graphic Design
      • เรื่อง Hardware/Infrastructure และ IT Security ก็ไม่ได้
      • แต่เรื่อง Software Architecture & Design และ Web Development: OK
      • ...
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-afba83028bfc

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - คิดใหม่ทำใหม่เรื่องกระบวนการทำงาน - Rethink the Process:
      • ในช่วงแรก Team ควรจะได้ทำงานอะไรที่เชี่ยวชาญก่อน ถ้าทุกอย่างไปได้ดีเราค่อยขยายความรับผิดชอบ
      • Team ควรจะได้ทำงานอะไรที่มีคุณค่ากับทั้งในแง่ของผลลัพธ์ และการพัฒนาทักษะของคนใน Team
      สลับงานที่คนใน Team ไม่มีใครมีทักษะขึ้นมาทำก่อน แล้วไปคุยกับ Team ที่มีทักษะให้แบ่งคนมาช่วย
      รับผิดชอบงานที่คนใน Team พอมีความรู้โดยขอความช่วยเหลือ Team ที่มีทักษะให้เป็นที่ปรึกษาเป็นครั้งคราว
      กำหนดเรื่องที่ยังไม่มีอยู่ในขั้นตอนการทำงานแต่จริงๆ แล้วเป็นเรื่องจำเป็นออกมาให้ชัดเจน และขอความช่วยเหลือ
      เรื่อง Business/Requirement จะมหากาพย์หน่อย:
      • Business Goal ไม่ชัด
      • Requirement ไม่ชัดเจน
      • Priority เปลี่ยนตลอดเวลา
      • ต้องเอาใจ PO เป็นโขยง
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-bc5a94ac9d3

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - จัดการกับงานที่มาจากหลาย Product - Dealing with Multiple Products:
      ควรจะลดจำนวน Product ที่ดูแลลง ตามหลักการ Limit WIP นั่นเอง ปัจจัยที่เราใช้พิจารณาว่าจะทำหรือไม่ทำก็:
      1. ความเหมาะสมของลักษณะงานกับทักษะและความเชี่ยวชาญที่ Team เรามี
      2. ความน่าสนใจในแง่ของความท้าทายและโอกาสในการพัฒนาทักษะของคนใน Team
      เลือกลำดับตามนี้แล้วกัน แล้วเอาไปคุยกับ Product Owner:
      1. Priority มาก, Size เล็ก, Skill Match 5/8, Development Opportunity 3/8
      2. Priority น้อย, Size ใหญ่, Skill Match 1/2, Development Opportunity 5/8
      3. Priority ปานกลาง, Size ใหญ่, Skill Match 1/8, Development Opportunity 9/10
      Product ที่มี Development Opportunity น้อย เอาไว้ก่อน
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-product-owner-32b4615b307d

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่งสัดส่วนการทำงานให้ชัดเจน - Defining a Clear Work Portion:
      ปัจจัยเพิ่มเติมในการเลือก Product / Project:
      • ความคืบหน้าของงาน (Progress)
      • ความคืบหน้าเรื่องสัญญาธุรกิจ Product ที่ยังไม่ Sign ก็เอาไว้ทำทีหลังได้
      แล้วก็แบ่งสัดส่วนงาน ตามลำดับตัวอย่างประมาณนี้:
      • Project 1: 35% เป็น Project ที่มี Priority และมีความคืบหน้ามาก
      • Project 2: 30% Priority มาก ความคืบหน้าน้อยลงมา
      • Project 3: 20% Priority ปานกลาง ความคืบหน้าน้อย
      • งาน Support: 15%
      สามารถ Review ตัวเลขกันได้ทุกสองสัปดาห์
      Product Owner & Project Manager จะต้องมีการทำงานร่วมกัน, ความโปร่งใส และความเชื่อใจกัน (Trust)
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-fcb47c7f00bc

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - กำหนดสิ่งที่ต้องการก่อนเริ่มทำงาน - Defining What's Needed to Start The Work:
      ก่อนที่ Team จะรับงานสิ่งที่ต้องเรียบร้อยมาแล้วอย่างน้อยเลยคือ:
      1. Requirement ต้อง Clear ในระดับ 70-80% ทั้งที่มาที่ไป สิ่งที่ PO ต้องการ รวมถึงแนวทางการทดสอบ
      2. UI Design ก็ต้องพร้อมมาเลย อย่างน้อย Form, Layout, Controls ต่างๆ ก็ควรจะชัดเจนแล้ว
      3. พวก Hardware ไม่ต้องอยู่ใน Kanban Board เพราะไม่ได้รับผิดชอบโดยตรง แค่คอยประสานงาน
      เหลืออีกสองคำถามสำคัญ ที่ต้องไปขอคำปรึกษาจากน้องๆ ใน Team:
      1. กระบวนการทำงานในรายละเอียดต้องมีอะไรบ้าง?
      2. คำจำกัดความของคำว่า "งานเสร็จ" ของ Team เราคืออะไร?
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-49bbd36053a3

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - ร่าง Kanban Board Version แรก - Drafting The First Kanban Board:
      ถ้าไม่รู้จะเริ่มยังไง... เริ่มแบบง่ายๆ ไว้ก่อนเสมอ
      image
      งานแรกที่ Team จะรับผิดชอบคือ System Design ตาม Scope งานที่คุยกันไว้ แยกออกมาเป็นหนึ่ง Column
      System Develop กับ Integration มันก็งาน Develop ทั้งคู่ จับมารวมเป็น Column เดียวเลย
      แล้ว Requirement, UI, Release, etc. ล่ะ?
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-kanban-board-590959c9a7ef

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - ดึงงานจาก Team อื่นมาอยู่บน Kanban Board - Visualizing Works from Outside on Kanban Board:
      Requirement: PO ดูหลาย Product อาจจะดึงมาอยู่ใน Team ไม่ได้ ก็ให้ PM ไปตาม Update มาใส่ Kanban
      UI: Kanban Board ไม่ได้จำกัดว่าต้องเป็น Team เราเท่านั้นที่ใช้ ก็ให้ Team UI มาคอย Update ได้
      Release: แยกเป็น 2 Column: Pre-Release สำหรับ Team เรา ส่วน Release ก็ไว้ให้ Team Operation
      image
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-kanban-board-db88d4d5687f

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่งสัดส่วนงานบน Kanban Board - Splitting Swimlane in Kanban Board:
      image
      แต่พวกงาน Support มันไม่ได้มีขั้นตอนเหมือนงาน Development ทั่วไป
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-kanban-board-72d005d7380
    B-)
    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - จัดการกับงาน Support ใน Kanban Board - Dealing with Support Works on Kanban Board:
      ก็แยก Kanban Board สำหรับงาน Support ออกมาเลย โดยมีเงื่อนไข:
      image
      • กำหนด WIP = 1 ให้กับ Kanban Board Support เราจะทำงาน Support แค่หนึ่ง Case ในเวลาหนึ่งๆ
      • กำหนดให้งาน Support มีความสำคัญเท่า Development หยุดงาน Development มาช่วยกันดูเบื้องต้นก่อน แล้วค่อย Assign คนที่เหมาะสมเข้าไป Support ซึ่งคนนี้อาจจะต้องหยุดงาน Development ไว้ก่อน
      • ถ้ามีงาน Incident เข้ามาทุกคนต้องหยุดทำงานอื่นแล้วมาช่วนกันแก้ปัญหานี้ทันที เลยเป็น Fastlane
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-support-4a377573ee2e

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - กำหนดความหมายของคำว่า "งานเสร็จ" ร่วมกัน - Defining the "Definition of Done":
      ความคาดหวังที่ไม่ตรงกัน ส่งผลกระทบต่อเรื่อง Estimation, Planning, Risk/Dependency, และ Quality
      Requirement:
      1. ต้องมีรายละเอียดกำกับชัดเจน มีแนวทางการทดสอบ (Acceptance Criteria)
      2. ต้องผ่านการ Review และ Accept จาก Team ผ่านการ Estimate คร่าวๆ จาก Team และไม่ใหญ่เกิน L
      UI Design/Creation:
      1. Wireframe มีการ Review จาก PO และตัวแทน Dev Team, Graphic ตามบริษัท ทั้ง Font, Color, etc.
      2. Graphics work ทั้งหมดต้องเก็บใน Design Repository กลางของบริษัทและมีการทำ Version Control
      System Design: Review จาก Dev Team ในการทำ Planning, Info แต่ละ Requirement เขียนใน Team Wiki
      System Development/Integration:
      1. Code ที่เขียน ต้องตรงกับ Code Standard, ต้องมี Automated Unit Test ที่ครอบคลุมอย่างน้อย 80%
      2. มี Informal Code Review จากเพื่อนร่วม Team ก่อน Submit Code, ต้อง Submit Code ลง Repository
      3. ต้องแก้ Unit Test Bugs ทั้งหมดที่เจอจาก Nightly Test, etc.
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-44711a5e459d

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - กำหนดคนรับผิดชอบบน Kanban Board - Defining Person Responsible for Each Column in Kanban Board:
      Requirement: PO แต่ละ Product
      Team อื่นก็ชวนมาให้ครบจะได้มีคนรับผิดชอบ: UI/Graphic Designer & Operations ที่ดูแลเรื่อง Deployment
      image
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-kanban-board-38e623f6bb33

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - กำหนด Work In Progress สำหรับ Kanban Board - Setting WIP for Kanban Board:
      WIP = จำนวนคนที่รับผิดชอบในแต่ละ Column > น้อยไปป่าว?
      WIP = จำนวนคนที่รับผิดชอบ x 2 > สำรองเวลาไว้สำหรับเรื่องการสื่อสาร การประชุม การทำ Review บ้างมั้ย?
      WIP = (จำนวนคนรับผิดชอบ x 2) - 1?
      image
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-work-in-progress-kanban-board-cb1b6503c8c6

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - ปรับ WIP ให้สมดุลด้วยการเพิ่ม-ลดคนรับผิดชอบในงาน - Adjusting WIP by Increasing-Decreasing Person Responsible for Each Column:
      "ถ้า Team เจอปัญหาคอขวดก็ให้คนอื่นหยุดทำงานแล้วมาช่วยแก้ปัญหาในขั้นตอนนั้นๆ ก่อน"
      ก็ดึงคนจากงานที่มีคนมาก ไปช่วยซะ ก่อนที่จะเกิดคอขวด สลับกันคนละสองสัปดาห์
      image
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-work-in-progress-7d4df3ce41ab

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - ทำให้ปัญหาคอขวดมีประโยชน์ต่อ Team - Making A Bottleneck Problem Useful for The Team:
      อ่าว งาน Pre-Release ทำคนเดียว แล้วต้องทำ System Development/Integration ด้วย ทำไงดีหว่า งี้แล้วกัน:
      1. ทุกสองสัปดาห์ณชาและ Developer อีกหนึ่งคนจะหยุดทำงานเพื่อจัดการงานที่อยู่ใน Pre-Release
      2. ณชาและ Developer อีกคนจะหยุดงานตัวเอง ไปทำ Pre-Release เมื่อ Pre-Release มีงานที่หกเข้ามา
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-9ff8f961e9b6

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - กำหนดจังหวะการ Release - Defining Release Cadence:
      ส่วนงาน Release เมื่อ PO สั่งเราถึง Release ถ้าทำไม่ทันให้สมาชิกคนอื่นใน Team เข้าไปช่วย
      ช่วยทำงานตั้งสาม Product การที่จะกำหนดเวลาว่าต้อง Release อะไรพร้อมกันมันดูจะไม่สมเหตุสมผล Product Owner ยังต้องเตรียม พวก Marketing Communication, Documentation, Manual, etc. ต้องคุยกันเป็นกรณีๆ
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-release-3c5e464eb8b1

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - จัดตารางเวลาในการทำงาน - Scheduling Activities:
      Kanban ไม่ได้บังคับหรือกำหนดให้ต้องมีกิจกรรมใดตายตัว มันจึงเป็นเรื่องที่ Team สามารถตกลงและทดลองได้
      image
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-ae000f842708

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - มองย้อนเส้นทางที่ผ่านมา - Retrospecting the Path:
      Team: สิ่งที่สำคัญที่สุดคือเราต้องรู้จักและเข้าใจในสมาชิกใน Team ให้ดีว่าใครทำอะไร ชอบอะไร ถนัดอะไร
      1. ขอบเขตและหน้าที่ของ Team
      2. สมาชิกใน Team รวมถึงความสามารถความถนัดของแต่ละคน
      Process: เข้าใจกับกระบวนการทำงาน ขั้นตอนมีอะไร ใครเกี่ยวข้องบ้าง รวมถึงมองภาพการปรับปรุงในอนาคต
      1. รู้จักขั้นตอนการทำงานปัจจุบันด้วย Value Stream Mapping
      2. กำหนดขอบเขตการทำงานปัจจุบันของ Team
      3. ออกแบบขั้นตอนการทำงานที่น่าจะดีขึ้น
      4. หาแนวทางจัดการกับงานที่มีมากเกินไป
      5. แบ่งสัดส่วนการทำงานให้ชัดเจน
      6. กำหนดสิ่งที่ต้องการก่อนเริ่มงาน
      7. สร้าง Definition of Done ร่วมกัน
      Kanban Board:
      1. ร่าง Kanban Board Version แรก
      2. ดึงงานจาก Team อื่นที่เกี่ยวข้องขึ้นมาอยู่บน Kanban Board
      3. แบ่งสัดส่วนงานบน Kanban Board ให้ชัดเจน
      4. จัดการกับงาน Support ผ่าน Kanban Board
      Work In Progress (WIP):
      1. กำหนดคนรับผิดชอบในงานแต่ละ Column บน Kanban Board
      2. ทดลองกำหนด WIP ใน Kanban Board
      3. ปรับ WIP ให้สมดุลมากขึ้น
      Cadence:
      1. กำหนดจังหวะการทำงานในบางขั้นตอนผ่านปัญหาคอขวด
      2. กำหนดจังหวะการ Release
      3. กำหนดตารางเวลาการทำงานทั้งหมดของ Team
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-7def0d3b0d03

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - เริ่มต้นด้วย User Story - Starting with User Story:
      User Story คือคำอธิบายถึง Feature ที่สั้นและง่ายผ่านมุมมองคนที่ต้องการใช้ Feature นี้ (User/Customer)
      As a <type of user>, I want to <some goal>, so that <some reason>.
      ส่วนใหญ่จะถูกเขียนลงบนกระดาษหรือ Card เล็กๆ แล้วก็เอามาแปะบนผนังหรือ Board อย่าง Kanban
      เล็กๆ เพื่อให้เนื้อที่ไม่พอช่วยกระตุ้นให้คนใน Team ได้พูดคุยกัน ซึ่งเป็นสิ่งสำคัญในการทำงาน ไม่ยึดติดที่เขียน
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-21f10a4549fc

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - เขียน User Story ให้เป็นอิสระต่อกัน - Writing an Independent User Story:
      ตัวอย่าง Amazon.com:
      • As a user, I want to search for books, so that I can pick what I like.
      • As a user, I want to read book preview & sample, so that I can check if this fits my purpose.
      • As a user, I want to read book reviews, so that I can decide to buy the good ones.
      • As a user, I want to see my shopping cart, so that I know how much I have to pay.
      • As a user, I want to check out, so that I can complete my purchase.
      'INVEST' Rule for Good Stories:
      • Independent
        image
        medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-ee7e32a9eaad
      • Negotiable
      • Valuable (to users or customers)
      • Estimatable
      • Small
      • Testable
    B-)
    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - รวม User Story เพื่อลด Dependency - Combining User Stories to Reduce Dependency:
      1. Combine Them Into a Larger but Independent Story - ก็จับสอง Story มารวมกันเป็น Story ใหม่
        User Story A: As a user, I want to pull information for System A, so that ...
        User Story B: As a user, I want to see the information on my screen, so that ...
        New: As a user, I want to see information from System A, so that I can review ...
        แต่ถ้ารวมกันแล้วขนาดของ User Story นี้ใหญ่มาก มาดูวิธีที่สอง
      2. Then Split New Story from above - เอาข้อแรกมา Split ให้เล็กลงด้วยวิธีการที่จะไม่ให้มี Dependency
        image
        เลือกแสดงข้อมูลจาก System A บางส่วนก่อน แนวทางนี้เรียก การแบ่ง Story ด้วย Data Boundary
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-dependency-6c58b5be93b3

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - เขียน User Story เพื่อสร้างการพูดคุย - Writing a User Story that Drives Conversation:
      A Good User Story is Negotiable - User Story or Story Card is a pointer to a requirement.
      เป็นการสร้างการทำงานที่เน้น Individuals and interaction > processes and tools
      จะต้องคุยกับลูกค้าก่อนทำ เพราะข้อมูลใน Card อาจจะไม่ Update โดย User Story Card ที่ดีต้องมี
      1. ข้อมูลที่บอกว่าลูกค้าอยากได้อะไร แค่ 1-2 ประโยคก็พอ
      2. เขียน Note เพิ่มเติมที่ได้จากการพูดคุย รวมถึงคำถามที่ต้องการคำตอบด้วย
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-c61dd5e56b9c

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - เขียน User Story ให้มีคุณค่ากับผู้ใช้ - Writing a User Story That Has Value to Users:
      A Good User Story is Valuable to Users, or Purchasers. มีหลักการง่ายๆ เวลาเขียน Story ให้มีคุณค่าคือ:
      1. คิดถึงเวลาเรากิน Cake: ถ้าจะกินให้อร่อยก็ต้องใช้ช้อนตัดจากบนลงล่างให้ผ่านทุกชั้นของ Cake จริงมั้ย?
      2. หลีกเลี่ยงคำศัพท์ Technique ต่างๆ เช่น Multi-Thread, Partition, Page/Table Lock, etc.
        ตัวอย่าง: All external requests must be through Load Balancer. ลองเปลี่ยนมาเขียนมุมมองผู้ใช้เป็น
        As a user, I want to 10 reports concurrently in the background, so I can continue doing other jobs.
      3. เข้าใจความแตกต่างของ Users, และ Purchasers
        Users คือคนที่ใช้ ส่วน Purchasers คือคนที่ซื้อ อาจจะเป็นผู้บริหารระดับสูงหรือคนที่ดูแลระบบ (Admin)
        All configuration must be stored and read from the single file.
        ในมุมมองของ Users แล้วงานนี้ไม่มีคุณค่ากับเค้าเลยแต่ถ้าเป็น Admin จะมีประโยชน์กับชีวิตเค้ามาก
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-c43ed8acdd65

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - เขียน User Story ที่ประเมินขนาดได้ - Writing a User Story That Can be Estimated:
      ข้อมูลที่จะบอกได้ว่างานไหนใหญ่หรือเล็กมาจากการประเมินขนาดของงาน การแบ่งงานใหญ่เป็นงานเล็กจะช่วยได้
      โดยปกติแล้วมีอยู่สามสาเหตุที่ทำให้การประเมินขนาดของ User Story เป็นเรื่องยาก:
      1. Development Team ไม่เข้าใจเรื่องราวที่อยู่ใน Card เช่นไม่เข้าใจศัพท์บางคำ แก้โดยการเดินไปคุยกับคนเขียน User Story นี้ อาจจะเป็น Product Owner หรือ User ให้เค้าอธิบายให้ฟังในรายละเอียด
      2. มี Technology หรือ Technique ที่ไม่คุ้นเคยมาก่อน แก้โดยการให้ Developer ซักคนหรือสองคนไป Research ว่าคืออะไร เอามาใช้ยังไง กำหนดระยะเวลาให้ชัดเจน จะแบ่งออกได้เป็นสองส่วน:
        1. Spike หรือ Research เพื่อหาข้อมูลมา Estimate และ
        2. User Story ที่ Implement จริง
      3. User Story ใหญ่เกินไป แก้โดยการย่อยให้เล็กลง อาจจะด้วย Technique Data Boundary หรืออื่นๆ
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-929f17e16802

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - เขียน User Story ที่มีขนาดเหมาะสม - Writing a User Story That is Appropriately Sized:
      โดยทั่วไป User Story ใหญ่ (หรือที่เรียกว่า Epic) ที่เราเจอบ่อยๆ มันจะมีอยู่สองลักษณะ:
      1. The Compound Story: ใหญ่เพราะประกอบด้วย User Story เล็กๆ หลายอันรวมกัน เช่น
        I want to manage my resumes แตกเป็น create, edit, delete, deactivate, share, etc.
        อย่าง create ก็แตกลงไปได้อีก includes อะไรบ้าง, save as draft, publish, have multiple, etc.
      2. The Complex Story: สามารถใช้วิธีแบ่งมันด้วย Research หรือ Spike หรือ Implement
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-47811de17d03

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - เขียน User Story ให้ Test ได้ - Writing A Testable User Story:
      เช่น easy to use เปลี่ยนเป็น to complete common tasks without training or reading user manual
      never wait too long เปลี่ยนเป็น be able to complete this task within 10 seconds หรือ see a revenue report popped up on a screen within three seconds (in 85% of all cases)
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-ba11f1fab30a

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Technique CRUD - Splitting a User Story Using 'CRUD' Technique:
      As a user, I want to manage my resume, so that ...
      • Create: I want to create my resume
      • Read: I want to read my resume
      • Update: I want to update my resume
      • Delete: I want to delete my resume
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-crud-4042fccbed0d

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Technique Data Boundary:
      คือการแบ่งตามขอบเขตข้อมูล เช่นมองว่า User เป็น Object หนึ่งของระบบ จะแบ่งขอบเขตข้อมูลที่ชัดเจนเป็น:
      • Work and Education & Living
      • Relationship and Family & History by Year
      • About You & Basic Info
      • Contact Info & Favorite Quotes
      I want to see my User Profile เป็น I want to see my Work and Education, want to see my Basic Info
      CRUD + Data Boundary:
      • I want to create (CRUD) my Profile that includes Basic Info and Contact Info (Data Boundary).
      • I want to add (CRUD) my Living (Data Boundary) to my Profile.
      • I want to read (CRUD) my Profile that includes Basic Info and Living (Data Boundary).
      • I want to edit (CRUD) my Basic Info (Data Boundary). ...
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-data-boundary-4540f5f5a801

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Workflow - Splitting a User Story Using Workflow:
      เขียน User Story จากจุดเริ่มต้น ถึงจุดสุดท้าย ก่อน จากนั้นค่อยเพิ่มขั้นตอนระหว่างกลาง และกรณีพิเศษ
      image
      1. I want to publish my content directly on the corporate website.
      2. I want to send my content to the editorial team for review.
      3. I want to send my content to the marketing team for review.
      4. I want to send my content to the legal team for review.
      5. I want to publish my content to test/staging machine.
      6. I want to publish my content from test/staging machine to the corporate website.
      7. I want to save my drafted content.
      8. ...
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-workflow-98d4d6ecf5df

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Roles - Splitting a User Story Using Roles:
      image
      ถ้ามี User Story ไหนใหญ่เกินไปเราก็แบ่งย่อยมันด้วย Technique อื่นได้อีก เช่นแบ่งด้วย Workflow อีกครั้ง
      I want to approve content:
      • I want to send an approval message back to a creator. & I want to review content.
      • I want to make changes to content. & I want to save my change.
      • I want to continue adding my change. & I want to have 'track changes' feature.
      • I want to have multiple reviewers.
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-roles-57bcf678a2b1
    B-)
    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Business Rules - Splitting a User Story Using Business Rules:
      As a user, I want to generate a revenue report with flexible dates.
      • for 'today / this week'.
      • for 'this month / quarter'.
      • for 'this year/week to date'.
      • for 'month/year to date'.
      • for 'all time' / starting from 'x' to 'y'.
      As a user, I want to filter results in a revenue report by flexible criteria.
      • by 'sources of revenue - single, multiple, and all'.
      • by 'target vs. actual / tax included / excluded'.
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-business-rules-1d697a8f1590

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Data Entry Methods - Splitting a User Story Using Data Entry Methods:
      As a user, I want to create my first to-do-list.
      • ... to-do-list using Command Line. เช่นใช้ตอน Migrate จากระบบอื่นที่มี to-do-list เยอะๆ มาของเรา
      • ... using a simple UI. ยังยากอยู่ ก็แบ่งให้เล็กลงและง่ายขึ้นอีก เช่น ต้องมี Due Date ก็มีให้เลือก
        • พิมพ์วันที่เองทั้งหมด
        • เลือกวัน เดือน ปี จาก Dropdown Box
        • เลือกวันที่จากปฏิทิน
        • เลือกวันที่จากปฏิทินหรือพิมพ์วันที่ด้านบนก็ได้ เช่น Today, Fri, ...
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-data-entry-methods-44cdad366311

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Major Effort - Splitting a User Story Using Major Effort:
      As a user, I want to pay for my items using VISA, MasterCard, or American Express.
      Credit Card Type แรกจะมีขนาดใหญ่มาก เพราะต้องทำ Processing Infrastructure อีกสอง Type ก็มาใช้ด้วย
      • ... my items with one credit card type (VISA, MasterCard, American Express). -> Major Effort
      • ... my items with the rest of credit card types (given that one card type already implemented).
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-major-effort-c6618ba628f6

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย Error Handling Method - Splitting a User Story Using Error Handling Method:
      • Positive Case (Happy Path): การที่ผู้ใช้ใช้ Feature ได้อย่างถูกต้องและบรรลุวัตถุประสงค์ที่ต้องการ
      • Negative Case: จะพยายามใช้ Feature ด้วยวิธีการที่ไม่ถูกต้อง ซึ่งระบบเราก็ต้องป้องกันไม่ให้เกิดขึ้น
      As a user, I want to book movie tickets, ...
      • Positive: As a user, I want to successfully book movie tickets, ...
      • Negative: ... I want to be notified if something bad happens while I am booking movie tickets,
        ถ้าแจ้งเตือนทุกขั้นตอนอาจจะเยอะไป ใช้ Message เดียวทุก Error ก็ได้ แล้วค่อยทำให้ฉลาดขึ้น เช่น:
        • ระบุรายละเอียดใน Error Message ให้มากขึ้น
        • อาศัยการ Enable/Disable ปุ่ม ช่องว่าง หรือส่วนประกอบอื่นๆ บนหน้า Web ไปเลย
        • เพิ่มการเขียน Error Message และรายละเอียดทาง Technique อื่นๆ ลงใน Log File
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-error-handling-method-fcfa498f36db

    • Kanban ในชีวิตจริง - แบ่ง User Story ด้วย 'Spike' Technique - Splitting a User Story Using 'Spike' Technique:
      Spike คือ การใช้เวลาทำ Technical Investigation เพื่อตอบคำถามที่มีใน User Story นั้นๆ มีประโยชน์ดังนี้:
      1. ถ้า Team เราไม่มีความรู้เฉพาะทาง จะใช้เพื่อทำความคุ้นเคยกับ Technology นั้น ได้ศึกษาว่าคืออะไร
      2. ถ้าคิดว่า User Story ใหญ่ไปไม่สามารถ Estimate ได้ จะใช้เพื่อหาข้อมูลเชิงลึกเพิ่มเติมเพื่อช่วยแบ่ง
      3. ใช้ลองทำ Research หรือ Prototype ดูก่อน ช่วยให้มีความมั่นใจมากขึ้นว่า Solution นี้จะ Work
      4. ใช้พิสูจน์สมมติฐาน ในกรณีที่ไม่ชัดเจนว่าลูกค้าจะใช้งานหรือ Interact กับระบบยังไง (Functional Risk)
      โดยสรุป Spike แบ่งได้สองรูปแบบ:
      Technical Spike: ใช้สำหรับตอบคำถามเชิง Technique ล้วนๆ เช่น วิธีนี้จะช่วยแก้ปัญหา Performance ได้มั้ย?
      Functional Spike: ใช้สร้างความชัดเจนในเรื่องการใช้งานหรือความสัมพันธ์ของระบบกับผู้ใช้ (Prototype, etc.)
      เช่น Mobile Wallet App: As a user, I want to see my daily, weekly and monthly expenses displayed in pie chart so that I can review and understand my expense level quickly.
      • Technical Spike: To research what technique we can use to display a pie chart in iOS, check the level of battery this technique uses, and check app loading time.
      • Functional Spike: To create a prototype that displays daily, weekly, and monthly expense in a pie chart and get feedback from users.
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-user-story-spike-technique-9a4a924aaffa

    • Scrum is? - Easy Definition and Five Memorable Rules for Scrum:
      คือกรอบการปฏิบัติที่ยึดปรัชญาของ Agile Development ในการพัฒนา Product เป็นแนวทางการทำงานร่วมกัน
      "Sustainable & Efficient" Early Delivery of Business Value โดย Scrum บอกว่าต้องทำตามกฏห้าข้อนี้
      1. Split Organization: ดึงคนจากแต่ละแผนกเข้ามาสร้างเป็น Team ใหม่ (Cross-Functional Team)
      2. Split Work: แบ่งงานใหญ่ให้เล็กลงเพื่อที่จะทำให้งานเสร็จเป็นชิ้นได้เร็วขึ้น มีโอกาสส่งมอบผู้ใช้ได้เร็วขึ้น
      3. Split Time: แบ่งเวลาให้เป็นช่วงเวลาที่เท่ากัน แต่สั้นลง เช่น จากหกเดือนก็เหลือหนึ่งเดือนหกครั้ง เป็นต้น
      4. Optimize Release Plan: Scope หรือ Schedule เปลี่ยนได้ ส่งมอบงานที่สร้างประโยชน์ธุรกิจสำคัญกว่า
      5. Optimize Process: ให้เวลาในการคิดและทดลองปรับปรุงเปลี่ยนแปลงกระบวนการทำงานอย่างสม่ำเสมอ
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/scrum-is-4711ad19d927

    • Scrum ในหนึ่งนาที - Scrum Team, How Do You Work ... In One Minute?:
      1. Product Owner สร้าง List ของงานโดยเรียงลำดับตามความต้องการจากมากไปน้อย (Product Backlog)
      2. ดึงงานมาจำนวนหนึ่งจาก List บนสุดของข้อ 1. มาสร้างเป็น Sprint Backlog แล้ววางแผน Implement
      3. ใช้ระยะเวลาที่แน่นอน (Sprint) ปกติจะยาวสองถึงสี่สัปดาห์ ทำงานให้เสร็จ มี Daily Scrum ดูความคืบหน้า
      4. ระหว่างทำงานใน Sprint อยู่ Scrum Master จะคอยช่วยให้ Team ทำงานได้อย่างราบรื่นตามเป้าหมาย
      5. จบ Sprint งานควรอยู่ในสภาพส่งมอบ ไม่ว่าจะพร้อม Release to Production, หรือพร้อม Demo
      6. ส่วนใหญ่จะ Demo ต่อด้วยการมองย้อนกลับไปในกระบวนการทำงานเพื่อมองหาข้อควรปรับปรุงงานถัดไป
      7. วนกลับไปข้อ 2. เมื่อ Sprint ใหม่เริ่มต้น Development Team ก็จะเลือกงานจำนวนหนึ่งจาก List บนสุด
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/scrum-e33274a50756

    • Kanban ในหนึ่งนาที - Kanban Team, How Do You Work ... In One Minute?:
      1. Kanban Team ช่วยกันสร้าง Kanban Board ที่แบ่ง Column ตามลำดับขั้นในการทำงาน เช่น To Do, ...
      2. Team ประเมินปริมาณและความซับซ้อนของงานเปรียบเทียบความสามารถและจำนวนคน กำหนด WIP
      3. คนที่อยากให้ Team ทำงานให้ (Product Owner) เอางานของตัวเองมาติดบน Kanban Board
      4. Team จะเป็นคนเลือกหยิบงานมาทำด้วยตัวเองเมื่อค่า WIP ใน Column ของตัวเองมีค่าเหลืออยู่
      5. เมื่องานเสร็จสมบูรณ์แล้ว Team จะส่งมอบงานให้ตามความต้องการของเจ้าของงานว่าอยากได้ตอนไหน
      6. Team จะจดบันทึกเวลาที่ใช้ในการทำงานแต่ละงานให้เสร็จสมบูรณ์ (Lead Time) และนำไปปรับปรุงเสมอ
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-8a9b48337ca7
    B-)
  • 16 Feb:

    • High performing organizations are likely to focus on a number of foundational practices including knowledge transfer. A typical knowledge transfer life cycle includes Identifying, capturing and sharing.
      Formal knowledge-sharing and information-sharing procedures. These include learning reviews before, during, and after projects and project phases; for example, identifying, capturing, and sharing lessons learned from the current project and other projects.
      Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning are the five stages of team development.
      Initiating, planning, excuting, monitoring and controlling, closing are the five process groups.
      Plan, do, check life cycle is the basis for quality improvement.

    • การบริหารโครงการสำคัญอย่างไร:
      โครงการในปัจจุบัน เป็นโครงการที่มีลักษณะของความไม่แน่นอนสูง ความต้องการของระบบอาจไม่ชัดเจน ถ้าบริหารไม่ดี จะทำให้เสียเงิน เวลา และทรัพยากร จากสถิติการล้มเหลวของโครงการทางด้าน IT ในอเมริกาซึ่งสำรวจโดย Standish Group พบว่า ในปี 2012 โครงการที่ประสบความสำเร็จมีเพียง 29% หรือ 1 ใน 3 เท่านั้น อีก 71% หรือ 2 ใน 3 คือโครงการที่ล้มเหลว หรือต้องใช้เวลาและทรัพยากรมากกว่าที่ได้วางแผนไว้
      www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0023

    • Luarie is currently a consultant project manager for a large retail firm. She is monitoring risks and one of her team members just mentioned that there were new challenges in acquiring leases. Issue log she would record this information.

    • เส้นทางสู่การเป็นผู้จัดการโครงการมืออาชีพ:
      การจัดฝึกอบรมความรู้ด้านการบริหารโครงการ ให้กับ Project Manager ภายในบริษัท เป็นเรื่องที่ดำเนินการได้ง่าย และเป็นเรื่องที่ควรทำเป็นลำดับแรก โดยองค์ความรู้ที่ควรอบรม สามารถแบ่งได้เป็น องค์ความรู้ในการบริหารจัดการทั้ง 9 ด้าน ที่จำเป็นในการบริหารโครงการ ได้แก่ การบริหารขอบเขตงาน บริหารต้นทุน เวลา คุณภาพ ทรัพยากรมนุษย์ การสื่อสาร ความเสี่ยง การจัดซื้อจัดจ้าง และการบริหารโครงการอย่างบูรณาการ
      www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0022

    • The amount of cost variance allowed on a project usually Decrease over the life of the project.
      The closer we get to project completion the less cost variance we will often allow. The ability to influence cost is greatest at the early stages of the project, making early scope definition critical. At the beginning of a project, a wide cost variance is typically permissible. As we approach completion, the cost variance allowed tends to decrease.

    • Technique การสอบเพื่อ Certified PMP:
      • คุณสมบัติคนจบปริญญาตรี ต้องมีประสบการณ์เป็น Project Manager มาแล้วอย่างน้อย 3 ปี หรือ 4,500 ชั่วโมง และผ่านการอบรมมาอย่างน้อย 35 ชั่วโมง
      • 1.Discount on the PMP Certification Exam Fee
        Once you become a PMI member, the PMP certification exam fee will be reduced from 555 USD to 405 USD. This will help you save 150 USD.
        PMI Membership = $139 (including $10 application fee)
        PMP Exam Fee for members = $405
        Total cost for Membership and Exam = $544 (Member cost)
        PMP Exam Fee for Non-members = $555 (Non-member cost)
        Net saving for PMI Members = $555 – $544
        Note after paying 139 USD to become a PMI member you can save around 11$ in all.
        careertron.com/9-reasons-why-you-should-apply-for-pmi-membership
      www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0026

    • Adaptive VS Predicative project life cycles:

      • Adaptive life cycles are called agile or change-driven life cycles.
      • Predictive life cycles are referred to as waterfall life cycles.

      • The detailed project scope is defined and approved before each iteration
      • The project scope, time and cost are determined at the early phases of the project

      Hybrid life cycles are combination of predictive and adaptive life cycles.
      Well known project elements follow the predictive approach while elements that are still evolving follow the adaptive approach

    • การใช้ PM Maturity Model ในการพัฒนาการบริหารโครงการในองค์กร:
      ปัจจัยความสำเร็จของการบริหารโครงการ นอกจากทักษะความสามารถของ Project Manager และ Team งานแล้ว ยังต้องอาศัยความพร้อมขององค์กรในการส่งเสริมให้การบริหารโครงการเป็นไปอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ องค์กรส่วนใหญ่เล็งเห็นความสำคัญของการพัฒนาบุคลากรให้มีความรู้ความสามารถด้านการบริหารโครงการ (Personal Competency) แต่ต้องอาศัยความพร้อมด้านกระบวนการและเครื่องมือมาตรฐานในการบริหารโครงการร่วมด้วย
      www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0024

    • You are managing a project which is in planning phase. You have completed developing the project charter and this project contains multiple phases with multiple contractors. The contract contains proprietary information from the vendors. One of the functional managers of your organization wants to view this information. Deny the request to protect the confidentiality of the information should your response be to them.
      Professional code of ethics and professional conduct. Being the functional manager is not part of the project, you should not share the information with them because you need to protect the confidentiality of the contract.
    B-)
    • Technique การจัดการความเสี่ยงในโครงการ: ที่เกิดบ่อยเช่น ขอบเขตงานไม่ชัดเจน Team มีความรู้ไม่เพียงพอ
      • Proactively Manage: ประเมินความเสี่ยง และดำเนินการป้องกัน (Preventive Action) ก่อนที่จะเกิด
      • Focus on Stakeholder Expectation: เพื่อให้เกิดการร่วมมือในการทำงาน และได้รับการสนับสนุน
      • Motivate Project Team: เช่น สร้างเป้าหมายร่วมกัน สื่อสารอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ จัดเตรียมเครื่องมือ
      • Put the right man on the right job: สามารถผลักดันให้โครงการสำเร็จได้แม้จะประสบกับปัญหา
      • Well Plan & Managing Change: ทำให้ประสบกับปัญหาเฉพาะหน้าค่อนข้างน้อยและพร้อมเปลี่ยนแปลง
      • Close up with resource and decision maker: เช่น ผู้บริหาร, Functional Manager, หรือ Vendor
      • Sensor and alert to risk event: วิธีการที่นิยมใช้กันคือ Key Risk Indicators (KRI) ตรวจสอบอยู่เสมอ
        www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0027

    • Todd is a new Project Manager in your company. Your company has a culture where a new PM is helped by senior members of the team. You have been assigned as their PM BUDDY. The new PM asks you whose responsibility is it to determine the priorities between projects in a company. The project management office (PMO) should be your answer be to them.
      It is PMOs job to prioritize the projects.

    • Project Stakeholder Management: ถือเป็นปัจจัยสำคัญลำดับต้นๆ ที่จะสามารถกำหนดความสำเร็จและล้มเหลว
      • Unaware คือกลุ่มที่ไม่สนใจ เพราะคิดว่าไม่เกี่ยวกับตน, Resistant คือกลุ่มที่สนใจ แต่ต่อต้าน
      • Neutral คือกลุ่มที่สนใจ และไม่ต่อต้านหรือสนับสนุน, Supportive คือกลุ่มที่สนใจ และสนับสนุน
      • Leading คือกลุ่มที่สนใจ และสนับสนุนอย่างมากในระดับเป็นผู้นำการเปลี่ยนแปลงเพื่อให้สำเร็จ

      แนววิธีปฏิบัติในการจัดการ Stakeholder:

      • สื่อสาร โน้มน้าวและจูงใจ ให้เกิด Commitment ร่วมกันในการผลักดันโครงการ, สร้างเป้าหมายร่วมกัน
      • ชี้ให้ทุกคนเห็นถึงประโยชน์, บริหารความคาดหวังให้สอดคล้องหรือไปในทิศทางเดียวกันกับเป้าหมาย
      • คาดการณ์ถึงความคาดหวังที่จะเป็นปัญหา และกำหนดวิธีจัดการ, บริหารจัดการข้อขัดแย้งที่เกิดขึ้น

      www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0031

    • Your organization has been producing snack foods for over 50 years. Your current project is an extension of a very successful product line of highly processed chips. With the current interest in healthy food, your project has suddenly been terminated. There is a lot to do when a project is terminated. Reviewing work packages to understand current status is most important to focus on first.
      We need to understand the status of the work packages for multiple reasons. Actions and activities necessary to satisfy completion or exit criteria for the phase or project such as: Making certain that all documents and deliverables are up-to-date and that all issues are resolved. From a different standpoint we need to review the status of the work packages to collect lessons learned. Archiving all phase/project records, Releasing resources, and Working with subcontractors to end all open contracts. While we should do all of these activities, we first want to review the status of the work packages. We may need resources, including subcontractors resources to do this.

    • ปัจจัยความสำเร็จของโครงการ:
      จากงานวิจัยของ David Bacarrini, Curtin University of Technology เรื่องปัจจัยความสำเร็จของโครงการ ความรู้ความเข้าใจในรายละเอียดของโครงการ และทักษะของคนในโครงการ รวมถึงการสื่อสารที่ดี เป็นปัจจัยสำคัญลำดับต้นๆ ที่จะกำหนดความสำเร็จของโครงการ และพอจะสามารถกำหนดเป็นแนวปฏิบัติสำหรับองค์กรที่ต้องการสร้างความสำเร็จในการบริหารโครงการได้ โดยการจัดเตรียมปัจจัยต่างๆ ที่มีผลต่อความสำเร็จของโครงการให้พร้อม เช่น กำหนดให้มีการอบรม Project Manager และ Team งาน ให้เข้าใจองค์ความรู้และทักษะในการบริหารโครงการ หรือกำหนดกระบวนการในการยืนยันรายละเอียดในโครงการให้มีความชัดเจนก่อนเริ่มโครงการ ซึ่งจะส่งผลให้โครงการมีโอกาสประสบความสำเร็จมากขึ้น
      www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0032

    • Cause and Effect Diagram:
      A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesirable effect back to its root cause.

      Change:
      A modification to any formally controlled deliverable, project management plan component, or project document.

      Change Control:
      A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or rejected.

      Change Control Board (CCB):
      A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions.

      Change Control System:
      A set of procedures that describes how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled.

      Change Control Tools:
      Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.

      Change Log:
      A comprehensive list of changes submitted during the project and their current status.

      Change Management Plan:
      A component of the project management plan that establishes the change control board, documents the extent of its authority, and describes how the change control system will be implemented.

      Change Request:
      A formal proposal to modify a document, deliverable, or baseline.

    • การพัฒนาการบริหารโครงการในองค์กร:
      ปัจจัยความสำเร็จในการบริหารโครงการ มาจาก 2 องค์ประกอบหลักคือ
      1. องค์ความรู้และทักษะของผู้จัดการโครงการ และสมาชิกในโครงการ (Personal Competency)
      2. กระบวนการและเครื่องมือมาตรฐานในการบริหารโครงการ ที่องค์กรจัดเตรียมไว้ (Organization Maturity)

      โดยทั้งสองนั้น ต้องทำไปพร้อมๆ กัน และสอดคล้องกันเพื่อส่งเสริมให้ บุคคลากรที่มี Competency สามารถทำงานร่วมกันในองค์กร ด้วยกระบวนการบริหารจัดการที่มีประสิทธิภาพและเป็นมาตรฐานเดียวกัน

      www.knowledgertraining.com/index.php?tpid=0033

    • The act of collecting and distributing status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts is part of: Performance reporting.
      Performance reporting is part of the Monitoring and Controlling Project Work process.

    • 7 Basic Skills For Practitioner Project Manager:

      1. Clarify Scope & Requirements:
        "I need to know your requirements
        Tell me your expectation, problems, and wishes"

      2. Identify Risks & Success Factors:
        Success: Project, Planning, Quality, Management, Development, Analysis, Controlling, Plan, System, Resources, Team, Budget

      3. Clarify Activities & Project Works
      4. Sequence Acivities & Develop Project Schedule: Planning & Scheduling
      5. Estimate Project Cost
      6. Assign Roles & Responsibilities: Team
      7. Monitor & Control Project Work

    • For the Monitor and Control Project Work process, the lessons learned register may have information on effective response for variances, and corrective and preventive actions.
    B-)
    • 6 Skills For Professional Project Manager:
      Mega Project, Complex & High Risks, Long-Term Project, High Investment, Many Stakeholders
      1. Manage Risks:
        Identify & Forecast Risks
        Prevent The Problems
        Get Things Done
        "Focus On Preventive"

      2. Deliver Outcome:
        Quality & Time & Cost
        Complete Output
        "Create Business Value"

      3. Manage Expectation:
        I don't want to change.
        Is the new one better?
        Low Cost Please!
        Don't waste time. We need to start now.
        High Profit First.
        High Quality First.
        Don't forget my requirements.
        Active Listening
        "Listen By Your Heart Not Your Ears"

      4. Manage Changes:
        "Assess The Impact & Re-plan"

      5. Motivate & Inspire Team

      6. Communicate & Influence:
        "Communication is the real work of Project Manager"
        negotiation

    • About PMI:
      • The Project Management Institute www.pmi.org
      • Founded in 1969 by working project managers.
      • PMI delivers value for more than 2.9 million professionals.
      • Largest Not-for-Profit Organization for Project Management Professionals, Governed by a Board of Directors; elected "volunteer" members.
      • Chapters act as "franchises", providing education and networking Opportunities
      • PMI has 1400 REPs across the glob
      • More than 800,000 credential holders in 180 countries

    • About PMP:
      • PMI's Project Management Professional (PMP)® credential is the most important industry-recognized certification for project managers.
      • Globally recognized and demanded, the PMP® demonstrates that you have the experience, education and competency to lead and direct projects.
      • There are more than 750,000 PMP credential holder around the world till Feb 2016. PMI established Body of Knowledge PMBOK (1996, 2000, 2002, 2008, 2013, 2018)

    • Understand Project Management Office (PMO):
      Work, Products, Solution, Organisation, Strategy, Success, Service, Innovation, Target, Team Work,
      "We have 20-35 new projects to achieve in this year"
      • My Resources
      • I work on my own way
      • Don't share our mistakes
      • I need more resources
      • Do you have historical information of this project?

      "We have to achieve our projects to drive our business"
      CRM, ERP, Online Payment Project, e-Commerce, Mobile Banking, New Product Development
      "I need PMO"

    • CEO Expects PMO to do these works:
      • Supportive PMO:
        • Collaborate Multi-Projects
        • Set up PM Process
        • Train New PM
        • Report Project Status
      • Controlling PMO add:
        • Consult & Mentor PM
        • Govern & Audit Projects
      • Directive PMO add:
        • Manage Resources
        • Create Business Value
        • Prioritize Project

    • What's New in the 6th edition?:

      • The Process Groups remain the same

      • In Knowledge Areas: Name of a couple has been changed
        • Project Time Management is now Project Schedule Management,
        • Project Human Resource Management is now Project Resource Management

      • New added processes: There are three new processes (49 total)

        • Manage Project Knowledge, (Executing Process Group and Project Integration Management knowledge area).

        • Implement Risk Responses, which is now included as part of the Executing Process Group and Project Risk Management knowledge area.

        • Control Resources, which is now included as part of the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group and Project Resource Management knowledge area.

      • The Close Procurement process has been removed and portions have now been moved to Control Procurements and other portions to the Close Project or Phase process.

      • Other changes:
        • Perform Quality Assurance -> Manage Quality
        • Plan Human Resource Management -> Plan Resource Management
        • Acquire project Team -> Acquire Resources
        • Develop Project Team -> Develop Team
        • Manage Project Team -> Manage Team
        • Control Communications -> Monitor Communications
        • Control Risks -> Monitor Risks
        • Plan Stakeholder Management -> Plan Stakeholder Engagement
        • Control Stakeholder Engagement -> Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

    • Test Pre Requirements:

      • 36 training hours in PMP
      • fees of the test are 555 usd (with pmi membership)

      • For BSC Degree:
        • 4,500 hours or 3 years projects experience

      • For Secondary school Degree:
        • 7,500 hours or 5 years projects experience

      • The Study Design:
        • Phase 1 study by Knowledge area
        • Phase 2 study by process groups
        • Phase 3 review and questions solving

      • While attending the study ...:
        • Read the correspondent chapter first
        • Read whole chapter
        • Make your own summary
        • Solve at least 50 questions about each chapter or knowledge

      • Your self study path:
        In 3 major steps you can easily gain the certificate:
        • Make your own study plan (don't memorize but understand)
        • Solve at least 4,000 questions and know the wrong and the correct reasons
        • Solve at least 4 complete test simulations

      • Course contents:
        • Introduction
        • Project management framework
        • Project integration management
        • Project scope management
        • Project schedule management
        • Project quality management
        • Project cost management
        • Project risk management
        • Project resource management
        • Project communications management
        • Project procurement management
        • Stakeholder management
        • Revision by process groups
        • Revision questions
        • How to apply for the Exam

    • How about the exam?:
      • There are 200 total multiple choice questions which make up the PMP exam
      • 25 randomly placed "pretest questions" are included, and do not count towards the pass/fail determination. These questions are not identifiable during the exam.
      • Individuals have four hours to complete the exam.
      • Only correct answers count, and a passing score is determined by "sound psychometric analysis". This scoring method indicates that scores reflect the difficulty of the questions answered. As such, PMI does not identify a precise "score" needed to pass the exam.

    • What is the current exam format?:
      • Initiating the project 13%
      • Planning the project 24%
      • Executing the project 31%
      • Monitoring and controlling the project 25%
      • Closing the project 7%
      • Professional ethics and social responsibility Spread across all process groups
    B-)
    • Project Management Frame work:

      • Overview and Purpose:

        Project management is not new. It has been in use for hundreds of years.

        The project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied as well as innovative practices that are emerging in the profession.

        Pyramids of giza, Great wall of china, Landing on the moon, International space placement

        • The Standard for Project Management:

          The Standard for Project Management is a foundational reference for PMI's project management professional development programs and the practice of project management based on descriptive practices, rather than prescriptive practices.

        • Common Vocabulary:

          The PMI Lexicon of Project Management Terms provides the foundational professional vocabulary that can be consistently used by organizations, portfolio, program, and project managers and other project stakeholders.

        • Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct:

          • PMI publishes the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct to instill confidence in the project management profession and to help an individual in making wise decisions.

          • The values that the global project management community defined as most important were (RRFH) Responsibility, Respect, Fairness, and Honesty.

          • It contains both Aspirational standards and Mandatory standards.

      • Foundational Elements:
        Basic definitions related to the project management will be explained here such as:

        • Projects:

          A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

          Projects are temporary, but their deliverables may exist beyond the end of the project likewise building a national monument will create a deliverable expected to last for centuries.

          Projects drive change in organizations. From a business perspective, a project is aimed at moving an organization from the current state to the future state.

          Projects enable business value creation:
          business value is the net quantifiable benefit derived from a business endeavor which may be tangible or intangible

          Examples of tangible elements: Monetary assets, Stockholder equity, Utility, Fixtures, Tools, Market share.
          Examples of intangible elements: Goodwill, Brand recognition, Public benefit, Trademarks, Strategic alignment, and Reputation.

          Projects are Unique:
          A non repeatitive product, service, or result
          Examples of a project:
          • Developing a new pharmaceutical compound for market,
          • Merging two organizations
          • Exploring for oil in a region

          Projects are Temporary:
          A project has a definite beginning and end
          The end of the project is reached when one or more of the following is true:
          • The project's objectives have been achieved;
          • The objectives will not or cannot be met;
          • Funding is exhausted or no longer available for allocation to the project
          • The need for the project no longer exists (the customer no longer wants the project completed)
          • The human or physical resources are no longer available
          • The project is terminated for legal cause or convenience

          Project Initiation Context:
          Projects are initiated for one or more of the following factors:
          • Satisfy Stakeholder Requests or Needs
          • Implement or Change Business or Technological Strategies
          • Create, Improve, or Fix Products, Process, or Services
          • Meet Regulatory, Legal, or Social Requirements

        • The Importance of Project Management:

          Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.

          Effective project management helps to:
          • Meet business objectives; Satisfy stakeholder expectations;
          • Be more predictable; Increase chances of success;
          • Deliver the right products at the right time

          Poorly managed projects results in:
          • Missed deadlines, Cost overruns, Poor quality, Rework

        • Relationship of Project, Program, Portfolio, and Operations Management:

          • Overview:

            A program is defined as a group of related projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.

            Programs are not large projects. A very large project may be referred to as a megaproject.

            Megaprojects cost US$1billion or more, affect 1 million or more people, and run for years
            Example a satalite program

            A portfolio is defined as projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives
            Example a construction company wants to invest in oil and gas to increase its profits

          • Program Management is defined as the application of knowledge, skills, and principles to a program to achieve the program objectives and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing program components individually

            Program management focuses on the independencies between projects and between projects and the program level to determine the optimal approach for managing them

          • A portfolio is defined as projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives

            Portfolio management is defined as the centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives.

          • Operation management is concerned with the ongoing production of goods and/or services.

            It ensures that business operations continue efficiently by using the optimal resources needed to meet customer demands

          • Projects can intersect with operations at various points during the product life cycle, such as:
            • When developing a new product, upgrading a product, or expanding outputs;
            • While improving operations or the product development process;
            • At the end of the product life cycle;
            • At each closeout phase

    • เผย 15 IT Certificate เงินเดือนสูงสุดประจำปี 2017:
      www.techtalkthai.com/15-top-paid-it-certificates-for-2017-by-global-knowledge

    • 8 Coveted IT Certifications that Turn Managers into Leaders:
      techgenix.com/it-certifications

    • 15 IT Certificate เงินดีที่แนะนำให้สอบประจำปี 2019:
      www.techtalkthai.com/15-it-certificates-with-highest-salary-in-2019
    B-)
    • Project Management Professional Using PMBOK version 6

    • Matrix Organization type is BEST for managing complex projects involving cross-disciplinary efforts.

    • 9 สาเหตุของความล้มเหลว:
      9 ขาดการควบคุม
      8 ไม่มีการวางแผนความเสี่ยงหรือวางแผนไม่เพียงพอ
      7 งบประมาณไม่สมจริง
      6 ไม่ได้กำหนดเกณฑ์ความสำเร็จและไม่ได้กำหนดเกณฑ์การตรวจรับ
      5 การขาดการมีส่วนร่วม
      4 การกำหนดความต้องการของโครงการที่ไม่ชัดเจน
      3 ตารางการทำงานไม่สมจริง
      2 ไม่มีการวางแผนทรัพยากรที่เพียงพอ
      1 การสื่อสารที่ไม่ดี !
      PM never say 'No' > Yes, but ...

    • A person you are working with has just passed the PMP exam. You are familiar with her experience, and you know she does not meet PMI's experience requirement for taking the PMP exam. Contact PMI about the possible violation is the BEST thing to do.

    • ปัจจัยสำคัญที่ทำให้โครงการสำเร็จ:
      1. สนับสนุนจากฝ่ายบริหาร
      2. การมีส่วนร่วมของผู้ใช้งาน
      3. PM มีประสบการณ์พอ
      4. มีวัตถุประสงค์ทางธุรกิจที่ชัดเจน why do?
      5. การลดขอบเขต but can deliver & still have user value
      6. โครงสร้างพื้นฐาน Standard (Software / Template)
      7. ความต้องการขั้นพื้นฐาน
      8. ใช้วิธีการที่เป็นมาตรฐาน
      9. การประมาณการที่แม่นยำ from record / ask technician
      10. เงื่อนไขอื่นๆ

    • The engineering resource group, a matrixed organization of which a project manager's project team is a part, has a policy of no salary bonuses for project work. The project manager's current project has an aggressive timeline and a difficult technical obstacle to overcome. A new product offering is dependent on this project's success in the current timeline. The project manager has heard grumbling from his team members about the fact that they cannot be rewarded for their effort. The FIRST thing the project manager should talk to management to determine other rewards that can be given.

    • ทักษะและความสามารถที่สำคัญสำหรับผู้บริหารโครงการ:
    • Collection of records, Analysis of project success and effectiveness, and Archiving project information are part of administrative closure.

    • ปัญหาที่มักพบในโครงการ:
      • ค่าใช้จ่ายเกินงบ หรือ โครงการล่าช้า
      • ตารางเวลาไม่สมจริง
      • การเปลี่ยนแปลงที่มากเกิน know when can't control
      • การสื่อสารที่ไม่ดีและความขัดแย้งที่เพิ่มขึ้น join meeting is important
      • เวลาไม่พอเมื่อใกล้สิ้นสุดโครงการ
      • คุณภาพไม่ได้ตามความพอใจของลูกค้า
      • ขวัญกำลังใจต่ำ
      • ผู้คนใน Team งาน ไม่แน่ใจในสิ่งที่ต้องทำ
        • Plan
        • Follow up
        • Morning brief shouldn't more than 2 hours
          • what's task(s) done yesterday
          • what's task(s) will do today
      • แก้งานมากเกินปกติและมีการทำงานล่วงเวลาโดยไม่ได้วางแผน
      • การประชุมจำนวนมากเกินไป นานเกินไป
        • Minute of meeting (MOM) is important - Minute น่ะหรือคือหอกและโล่
        • Face-to-face is best, especially when request something
        • Agenda > what, when (start - end), who, where, why, how

    • The project is completed and the final deliverable has been sent to the customer, but the customer refuses to give final acceptance of the project. It is MOST important for the project manager to Document the situation.

    • Suggested Skills for Project Managers:
      • The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK)
      • Application area knowledge / technical skills, standards, and regulations
      • Project environment knowledge
      • General management knowledge and skills
      • Soft skills or human relations skills - Project sponsor's secretary is my friend

    • You are a seller with unclear directions and scope documentation. Time and cost are important considerations, and the buyer wants to be in full control. T&M Time and materials is the BEST contract to use.

    • Project Life Cycle

    • A project manager is starting work on a complex project. There will be people from two different countries involved. The project sponsor is from a third country, and the work is being done on an expedited schedule in your country, with 14 electrical engineers, 4 architects and their staffs, 3 mechanical engineers, and 2 maintenance experts. The project manager should Create a WBS with input from all parties involved to make sure all of the work on this projected is identified.


    • image
    • A market demand, a business need, and/or legal requirements are examples of reasons projects are initiated.


    • image
    • Halfway through the project, the client considers cancelling the remaining work and the contract. It would be BEST to look at The project description and need in the project charter to determine the purpose for the project.

    • 5 process groups:
      image
    • Negotiations between two parties are becoming complex, so party A makes some notes that both parties sign. However, when the work is being done, party B claims that they are not required to provide an item they both agreed to during negotiations, because it was not included in the subsequent contract. In this case, party B is generally correct, because both parties are only required to perform what is in the contract.

    • Group NOT Phase:

      image
    • You are the project manager for one part of a new program in your organization. You are four months into a three-year project when your project team makes significant discoveries on your project. Make certain you tell the other project managers involved in this program about the discoveries at the weekly meeting is the BEST thing to do.

    • Phase Examples:
      • Concept development,
      • Feasibility study,
      • Customer requirements,
      • Solution development,
      • Design,
      • Phototype,
      • Build,
      • Test,
      • Transition,
      • Commissioning,
      • Milestone review, and
      • Lessons learned.

    • You are a project manager for a U.S. $3,000,000 product development project. Your project is whey into the executing process group and remains on time, on budget, and on specification. This morning your project sponsor called to express concern about the project. Based on the schedule baseline, the project should be nearing implementation, but the sponsor does not know the current status of the project. You remind the sponsor that your team produces a detailed status report weekly and distributes it via e-mail. The sponsor indicates that e-mail is too impersonal and verbal updates are preferred. This situation suggests problems with Communicaitons planning project management process.
    Cr: ACIS B-)
    • 10 knowledge areas are:
      1. 4. Project Integration Management
      2. 5. Project Scope Management
      3. 6. Project Schedule Management
      4. 7. Project Cost Management
      5. 8. Project Quality Management
      6. 9. Project Resource Management
      7. 10. Project Communications Management
      8. 11. Project Risk Management
      9. 12. Project Procurement Management
      10. 13. Project Stakeholders Management

    • A project team member is talking to another team member and complaining that so many people are asking him to do things. If he works in a functional organization, The functional manager has the power to give direction to the team member.

    • Integration Management | เพื่อให้ความมั่นใจว่าองค์ประกอบต่างๆ ของโครงการมีการประสานงานอย่างถูกต้อง
      Scope Management; No = Monkey ต้องไม่ทำ | เพื่อให้ความมั่นใจว่าโครงการทั้งหมด (หมายถึงงานที่จำเป็นเท่านั้น) ถูกกำหนดเพื่อให้โครงการสำเร็จ
      Schedule Management | ดูแลให้โครงการ เสร็จทันเวลา
      Cost Management | ให้ความมั่นใจว่าโครงการจะแล้วเสร็จภายในงบประมาณที่ได้รับการอนุมัติ
      Quality Management | ให้ความมั่นใจว่าโครงการจะตอบสนองความต้องการ ที่จำเป็นต้องดำเนินการ

    • You are assigned as a project manager to lead a new quality improvement project. Management is asking for a project management plan. A preliminary project scope statement should create FIRST.

    • Resource Management | ให้ความมั่นใจว่าสมาชิกใน Team ของโครงการทำงานได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพมากที่สุด
      Communications Management | ให้ความมั่นใจว่าข้อมูลของโครงการถูกสื่อสารอย่างเหมาะสม การเผยแพร่ (Privacy) การจัดเก็บ ถูกทำไปในทิศทางเดียวกัน
      Risk Management | ระบุวิเคราะห์และการตอบสนองต่อความเสี่ยงโครงการ
      Procurement Management | การจัดซื้อหรือได้มาของผลิตภัณฑ์บริการที่จำเป็นต่อการปฏิบัติงานในโครงการ (จากภายนอก) ให้กับ Team งาน
      Stakeholders Management | การบริหารผู้มีส่วนได้ส่วนเสีย; Kickoff is important

    • A project may be selected based on Benefit measurement, Net present value (NPV), and The number of resources used.

    • Balance these Triple Constraints:
      image
    • Consideration of on-going operations and maintenance is crucially important to products of projects. On-going operations and maintenance should: not be viewed as part of a project. A project is temporary with a definite beginning and end.

    • Processes by Knowledge Area

    • Benchmarking (Compare with others) is an example of a tool used in quality planning.

    • Project Integration Management:
      1. Develop Project Charter
      2. Develop Project Management Plan
      3. Direct and Manage Project Work
      4. Manage Project Knowledge
      5. Monitor and Control Project Work
      6. Perform Integrated Change Control
      7. Close Project or Phase

    • Another project has had a major defect, and the project manager has gotten the project team and the process engineers involved in analyzing how this might affect their project. Quality planning is the BEST group involved in.

    • Project Scope Management:
      1. Plan Scope Management
      2. Collect Requirements
      3. Define Scope
      4. Create WBS
      5. Validate Scope
      6. Control Scope

    • Your company has a policy that only a certain hotel chain may be used for business travel. You discover that a more expensive hotel is offering a discount on the days you need to be In town. You should use the company's hotel chain.

    • Project Schedule Management:
      1. Plan Schedule Management
      2. Define Activities
      3. Sequence Activities
      4. Estimate Activity Durations
      5. Develop Schedule
      6. Control Schedule

    • A difference between the requirements is BEST resolved in favor of the: customer.

    • Project Cost Management:
      1. Plan Cost Management
      2. Estimate Costs
      3. Determine Budget
      4. Control Costs

    • Important aspects of a product include the on-going operations and maintennance. Work involved in turning over the product of the project should be included as part of the project BEST describes how operations and maintenance activities impact a project.

    • Project Quality Management:
      1. Plan Quality Management
      2. Manage Quality
      3. Control Quality

    • You have been working on a very large software development project that has made use of more than 230 people. Finally, all the scope has been completed. It would be BEST to: analyze project success or failure.

    • Project Human Resource Management:
      1. Plan Resource Management
      2. Estimate Activity Resources
      3. Acquire Resources
      4. Develop Team
      5. Manage Team
      6. Control Resources

    • The project manager determines the project scope requirements of a new project.

    • Project Communications Management:
      1. Plan Communications Management
      2. Manage Communications
      3. Monitor Communications

    • Project manager is trying to coordinate all the activities on the project and has determined the following:
      1. Can start immediately and has an estimated duration of one week.
      2. Can start after 1. is completed and has an estimated duration of four weeks.
      3. Can start after 2. is completed and has an estimated duration of five weeks.
      4. Can start after 1. is completed and has an estimated duration of eight weeks.

      Both 3. and 4. must be completed before the end of the project. If there is an approved change to 4. and it now takes 10 weeks, 11 (10+1) is the duration of the critical path.

    • Project Risk Management:
      1. Plan Risk Management
      2. Identify Risks
      3. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
      4. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
      5. Plan Risk Responses
      6. Implement Risk Responses
      7. Monitor Risks

    • You have a firm fixed price (FP) contract with a clause stating that all changes to the contract statement of work must be written. One of your team members verbally instructed the seller to add a change that resulted in a 100 percent work package overrun. In this situation, Problem solving conflict management strategy should use (as the project manager) with the team member.

    • Project Procurement Management:
      1. Plan Procurement Management
      2. Conduct Procurements
      3. Administer Procurements
      4. Control Procurements

    • A company has just contracted with a well-known software developer to provide services during the planning and design phases of your project. Invoicing requirements were specifically defined within the contract, but limits on the seller's expenses were overlooked. As the project manager, Modify the terms of the contract should take action.

    • Project Stakeholder Management:
      1. Identify Stakeholders
      2. Plan Stakeholder Engagement
      3. Manage Stakeholder Engagement
      4. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

    • A project manager has very little project experience, but he has been assigned as the project manager of a new project. Because he will be working in a matrix organization to complete his project, he can expect communications to be: complex.
    Cr: ACIS B-)
    • You have been working as engineer for many years in your organization just over a year ago, you were promoted to a project management role and assigned a very large project. Your team has over 400 team members from around the world. Your technical background did not prepare you for the work you are doing today. Most of your team members are virtual. Your current focus is on negotiating for the team members you already have been working with. You are currently engaged in Executing project management process group.
      During the Develop Team process we provide training and team building. Negotiation happens on the Acquire Resources process, which is carried out during the Executing process group.

    1. The construction of a new soccer stadium in your country is finally complete. The first large sporting event to be held there, a tournament is about to begin. Over the next few days, athletes will begin to arrive from several different countries. The tournament will run for five consecutive evenings. There seems to be confusion on basic issues related to transportation and housing for the athletes. Determine the impacts of these issues on the current project and resolve should do first.
      Inform your sponsor of the issues and Develop a better plan to collect all transportation and housing requirements for future events are both great ideas but do not do them first. Regarding Not worry too much about this. There certainly are enough hotels locally to support the athletes, as the project manager, we are responsible for addressing these issues but we must address the immediate problem first.

    2. The Olympics are coming to your hometown. Excitement builds as transportation systems are upgraded, venues are built and the world watches. It has been decided that meeting the schedule is more important than minimizing cost at this point. Because delay is unacceptable, we decide to use Monte Carlo to simulate the schedule. We most likely will run Monte Carlo simulations on a weekly basis to help us account for uncertainty. Schedule network diagram and duration estimates is used as a model in a schedule risk analysis.
      Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components. When running a Monte Carlo analysis for schedule risk, the schedule network diagram and duration estimates are used. An integrated quantitative cost-schedule risk analysis uses both inputs. The output is a quantitative risk analysis model.

    3. You are the manager of the design/build of a large manufacturing facility. With your customer, you have signed a Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contract. You recognize that in this type of contract the risk is shared between the buyer and the seller. The time at which your organization picks up all of the financial risk is called the: Point of total assumption.
      Contract award is the point at which the buyer and the seller sign the contract. On the other hand, contract breach is a failure lacking legal excuse to perform a promise of the contract. Contract termination is the end of the contract with at least one of the parties still having open obligations. The point of total assumption is the point where sharing relationship changes to a share ratio of 0/100. At this point the seller assumes 100% of the cost risk.

    4. Severe weather has hit your community. Bridges and roads have been washed away by the flooding. Your projects is to oversee the re-construction of a major highway. Many stakeholders are involved in the project, including your friends and neighbors. Everyone has an option as to what is necessary to ensure quality construction. Due to time constraints, you need a tool that will help you focus on the most critical issues related to quality. Most likely you will use a: Histogram.
      Cause and effect diagrams help us find the root cause of certain negative effects. On the other hand, flowcharts give us a visualization of the steps to transform an input(s) into a desirable output. Check sheets are used to visibly collect data. Histograms show a graphical representation of numerical data. Histograms can show the number of defects per deliverable, a ranking of the cause of defects, the number of times each process is non-compliant, or other representations of project or product defects. The bars represent the individual values of the problem (in descending order from left to right) and the line represents the cumulative sum.

    5. For the first 24 months, your project progressed well and team members work together successfully. Now, however, the project schedule has been pulled in dramatically to address a changing market window. Meetings are tense, and conflict is rising with the biggest issue concerning accountability. You want to use a tool to make it clear who is the one person accountable for each activity. Most likely you will use a: Responsibility assignment matrix.
      An organizational breakdown structure shows the organization's departments and which work packages are assigned to which department. On the other hand, organizational chart shows reporting relationships. A resource calendar shows when specific resources will become available. Responsibility assignment shows who is responsible for what activity. It is critical that only one person be accountable for each activity.
    Cr: OpenPM B-)
    1. You have just become the project manager of a project that involves designing and building a factory. The project has numerous stakeholders, including several government agencies. The project is already behind schedule and over budget. Providing for risk management is critical to the project's success because the factory will contain rooms that will house hazardous chemicals and gases. Since these rooms will be considered high risk areas when the factory is operational alarm system are being identified for installation in case of a leak or spill of hazardous materials. Alarm #1 will sound if there is a gas leak, and its activation requires personnel to put on gas masks but continue to work in the factory without evacuating. Alarm 2 activation will notify factory personnel to shut down operations and then evacuate the building. The activation of Alarm #2 signals that Risk threshold has been reached.
      Risk appetite is the degree of uncertainly one is willing to accept in anticipation of a reward. A workaround is an unplanned response to a risk event. Risk Threshold is the level of risk exposure above which risks are addressed and below which risks may be accepted.

    2. You are managing an internal Information Technology (IT) project for your organization. During planning, the WBS, schedule, and cost estimates developed by your team were approved and set as the project baselines but your critical resources keep getting pulled away from the project to support other projects and programs. Setting priorities across projects and programs in the performing organization is often responsibility of: Senior management.
      The customer may not be the best since each project or program may have different customers. The same happen with project sponsors. On the other hand, project managers have the authority to manage to the objectives set for their own projects but not across projects. Senior management is responsible for setting priorities across projects and programs. It also manages portfolio.

    3. Your project is to build the first green roof in your island community. Green roofs serve many purposes including absorbing rainfall, providing insulation, and creating a habitat for wildlife. The government has created a new regulation related to collecting rain water that may affect your project. Based on this government mandate, Evaluate the change request should do first.
      We do not want to meet with our management or sponsor until we have information about the impact of the requested change and are able to recommend alternatives. Every change request must be evaluated, even if it is government mandated. We may decide to cancel the project instead of making the change on the project. Evaluating the change request is the first thing we do when a change request is submitted, regardless of the source of the request. Change requests may require information on estimated schedule impacts and estimated cost impacts prior to approval. Whenever a change request may impact any of the project baselines, a formal integrated change control process is always required.

    4. Your organization has been assigned to manage Mumbai new soccer stadium, its largest construction contract in 40 year history. Because of your 10 year career with the organization, you have been selected to lead the project. Based on rumors you have heard, you expect the project to last over 5 years and to have at least 300 stakeholders from dozen of countries. Performing on schedule is critical. Even though no sponsor has been assigned, you begin work on the project charter. However, your manager tells you there isn't time to worry about a charter and directs you to begin working on the project plan instead. Explain to your manager the risk of proceeding without a project charter should do now.
      It is important to have the charter developed and approved before we begin planning. How can we plan if we are unsure of the project objectives? Also, a sponsor is needed to provide financial resources for the project. The sponsor should sign the charter. On the other hand, we can not proceed with planning until we have agreed on the project objectives. The project charter provides the project manager with the authority to plan, execute, and control the project.
    Cr: OpenPM

    • Processes by Group:

    • You are a project manager for a major information systems project when someone from the quality department comes to see you about beginning a quality audit of your project. The team, already under pressure to complete the project as soon as possible, objects to the audit. You should explain to the team that the purpose of a quality audit is: to identify inefficient and ineffective policies.


    • image
    • According to your project network diagram, the critical path for the project is six weeks. One week into the project, the manager of the project management office informs you that the executive steering committee has moved the project's finish date to two weeks sooner than your published finish date. Assuming you are on schedule, Minus two weeks is the project float.

    • PMBOK 49 Steps:
      Initiating Process Group:
      • 4.1 Develop Project Charter
      • 13.1 Identify Stakeholders
      Planning Process Group:
      • 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan
      • 5.1 Plan Scope Management
      • 5.2 Collect Requirements
      • 5.3 Define Scope
      • 5.4 Create WBS
      • 6.1 Plan Schedule Management
      • 6.2 Define Activities
      • 6.3 Sequence Activities
      • 6.4 Estimate Activity Duration
      • 6.5 Develop Schedule
      • 7.1 Plan Cost Management
      • 7.2 Estimate Costs
      • 7.3 Determine Budget
      • 8.1 Plan Quality Management
      • 9.1 Plan Resource Management
      • 9.2 Estimate Activity Resource
      • 10.1 Plan Communications Management
      • 11.1 Plan Risk Management
      • 11.2 Identify Risks
      • 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
      • 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
      • 11.5 Plan Risk Responses
      • 12.1 Plan Procurement Management
      • 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement
      Executing Process Group:
      • 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work
      • 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge
      • 8.2 Manage Quality
      • 9.3 Acquire Resources
      • 9.4 Develop Team
      • 9.5 Manage Team
      • 10.2 Manage Communications
      • 11.6 Implement Risk Response
      • 12.2 Conduct Procurements
      • 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement
      Monitoring and Controlling Process Group:
      • 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work
      • 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control
      • 5.5 Validate Scope
      • 5.6 Control Scope
      • 6.6 Control Schedule
      • 7.4 Control Costs
      • 8.3 Control Quality
      • 9.6 Control Resources
      • 10.3 Monitor Communications
      • 11.7 Monitor Risks
      • 12.3 Control Procurements
      • 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement
      Closing Process Group:
      • 4.7 Close Project or Phase

    • A company and its seller are in the middle of a long dispute over the costs of terminating the contract. The project manager determines that the only way to resolve the problem is to have it heard and resolved by a neutral party. To accomplish this, the project manager should use an arbitrator.
    Cr: ACIS B-)
    • Project Selection Method:

    • During project planning in a matrix organization, the project manager determines that additional human resources are needed. From The functional manager would be request these resources.

    • Methods for selecting projects include:
      • Focusing on broad organizational needs
      • Performing net present value or other financial analyses
      • Using a weighted scoring model
      • Implementing a balanced scorecard

    • A watch-list is an output of Qualitative risk analysis risk management process.

    • Strategic Planning & Project Selection:
      Strategic planning involves determining long-term objectives, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services
      SWOT analysis:
      • Analyzing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
      As part of strategic planning, organizations:
      • Identify potential projects
      • Use realistic methods to select which projects to work on
      • Formalize project initiation by issuing a project charter

    • A project has seven activities: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G.
      • Activities A, B and D can start anytime.
      • Activity A takes three weeks
      • Activity B takes five weeks, and
      • Activity D takes 11 weeks.
      • Activities A and B must be completed before Activity C can start.
      • Activity C takes six weeks.
      • Activities B, C, and D must be completed before Activity E can start.
      • Activity E takes two weeks
      • Activity F can start as soon as Activity C is completed and requires four weeks.
      • Activity E must be completed before Activity G can start.
      • Activity G takes three weeks.
      • Activities F and G must be completed for the project to be completed.
      Activity A has two weeks float; Activity F has one week.

    • Selection Criteria:
      • Payback period (คืนทุน) - prefer short - 1 year is good:
        The amount of time it will take to re-corp the project investment. Does not take into account the cost of capital, which is also called hurdle rate.
      • Discounted cash flow:
        The value of the investment, discounted to take into account the time value of money. This technique looks at the present value of an investment by deducting the amount of earnings required to cover the cost of capital from the expected return.
      • Net present value (NPV):
        The present value of an investment minus the initial investment. A negative NPV signals a poor investment risk.
      • Internal rate of return (IRR) - prefer high:
        The discount rate that makes the NPV of the future cash return equal to the initial capital investment. A favorable IRR should be higher than the hurdle rate.

    • A seller is giving you so much trouble that your time available allocated to the project has gone from 20 percent to over 80 percent for this small piece of the overall project. Most of the seller's deliverables are late and inadequate, and you have little confidence in his company's ability to complete the project. Terminate the seller for convenience, and hire another seller should you do.

    • Cost-Benefit Analysis:
      The costs:
      • current operating costs
      • expected project costs related to the function under analysis.
      The benefits:
      • quantifiable benefits (such as increased sales)
      • reduced costs expected as a result of the project
      • intangible benefits (such as enhanced image or brand awareness) that can only be described subjectively.

    • On one of your company's medical research projects, you object to how the research is being handled. However, you signed a confidentiality agreement with the company that prohibits you from talking about your research. It would be BEST to: quit and do not talk about what you know.

    • Net Present Value Calculate:
      NPV = Sum of Present Value
      PV = Future Value / (1+interest rate)number of years
      FV = Cash flow of each year
      Example: Discount/interest rate: 10%
      Year 1: Cash flow: -$5,000
      Year 2: Cash flow: $1,000
      Year 1: PV = -$5,000/1.1 = -4,545
      Year 2: PV = $1,000/1.12 = 826
      NPV = -4,545 + 826 = -$3,719

    • The customer wants to expand the project scope after the project performance measurement baselines have been established. The customer will need to follow Change control procedure.
    Cr: ACIS

    1. You receive notification that a major item you are purchasing for a project will be delayed. Meet with the team, and identify alternatives is the best thing to do.

    2. (Your company is a major manufacturer of doors and has received numerous
      awards for quality. As the head of the manufacturing department, you
      have 230 people reporting to you on 23 different projects.) Experience shows that each time you double the production of doors, unit costs decrease by 10 percent. Based on this, the company determines that production of 3,000 doors should cost $21,000. This case illustrates: Parametric cost estimating.

    3. The ongoing definition of a project as more information becomes available to the team is called: Progressive elaboration.

    4. The process of decomposing deliverables into smaller, more manageable components is complete when: Cost estimates can be developed for each work element.

    5. In a matrix organization, information dissemination is most likely to be effective when: Information flows both horizontally and vertically.

    6. The seller on the project has presented the project manager with a formal notification that the seller has been damaged by the buyers activities. The seller claims that the buyer's slow response to requested approvals has delayed the project and has caused the seller unexpected expense. The first things the project manager should do are: Review the contract for specific agreed-upon terms that relate to the issue, see if there is a clear response, and consult an attorney if needed.

    7. When managing a project, the order to deal with problems that arise is Resolve problems with resources you control, go to resource managers, go to the customer.

    8. Saying > Exam:
      The project is behind schedule, > The project float was zero and has recently gone to negative 2.
      The team is not reporting properly, > The team has lost sight of the communications management plan

    9. Type of PMO:
      Directive:
      • Manages all projects throughout the organization
      • Appoints project manager
      • Has the highest level of control over projects
      Controlling: Provides support and guidance; requires all projects within the organization to use designated project management software and templates, but doesn't otherwise exert control over the project
      Supportive: Recommends common terminology, templates, reporting, and procedures to be used on projects throughout the organization to promote consistency and streamline efforts
      Controlling or Directive:
      • Coordinates all projects within the organization
      • Prioritizes projects
    B-)
    1. Organizational Structure:

      Functional:
      Advantages:
      • Easier management of specialists
      • Team members report to only one supervisor
      • Similar resources are centralized, as the company is grouped by specialties
      • Clearly defined career paths in areas of work specialization
      Disadvantages:
      • People place more emphasis on their functional specialty to the detriment of the project
      • No career path in project management
      • The project manager has little or no authority

      Project-Oriented:
      Pros:
      • Efficient project organization
      • Team loyalty to the project
      • More effective communications than functional
      • Project manager has more power to make decisions
      Cons:
      • No "home" for team members when project is completed
      • Lack of specialization in disciplines
      • Duplication of facilities and job functions
      • May result in less efficient use of resources

      Matrix:
      Pros:
      • Highly visible project objectives
      • Improved project manager control over resources (as compared to functional)
      • More support from functional areas
      • Maximum utilization of scarce resources
      • Better coordination
      • Better horizontal and vertical dissemination of information
      • Team members maintain a "home"
      Cons:
      • Extra administration is required
      • Project team members have more than one boss
      • More complex to monitor and control
      • Resource allocation is more complex
      • Extensive policies and procedures are needed
      • Functional managers may have different priorities than project mangers
      • Higher potential for conflict

    2. The Role of the Project Sponsor/Initiator:
      A basic definition of a sponsor is one who provides the financial resources for the project; however, the exam has attributed additional duties to the sponsor - including providing support for the project and protecting the project from unnecessary changes. The role of the sponsor may be filled by two or more individuals, working together.

      In procurement situations, the customer (buyer) may also be the sponsor. In such cases, the selling organization should also have a sponsor.

      Think about your company's management as you read this. Do they know what their role is on projects? Do you? How can you help them better understand their role? Without having the sponsor or someone in management performing the functions detailed in the lists that follow, the project will suffer, wasting time and resources. Management must serve as a protector of the project (so long as the project continues to meet the organizations strategic goals). Management is anyone senior to the project manager in the organization, including program or portfolio managers.

      Read the following list carefully to understand the role of the sponsor and/or senior management in an organization. Since the list is so long - and since many project managers have gaps in their knowledge here - we have organized this section by process group.

      During or prior to project initiating, the sponsor:
      • Has requirements that must be met
      • Is a project stakeholder
      • Participates in developing the business case for the project
      • Helps to define the measurable project objectives
      • Advocates for or champions the project, especially while the project concept is being put together
      • Serves as a voice of the project or spokesperson to those who do not know about the project, including upper management
      • Gathers the appropriate support for the project
      • Ensures buy-in throughout the organization
      • Provides funding
      • Provides high-level requirements
      • Provides information regarding the initial scope of the project
      • May dictate milestones, key events, or the project end date (along with the customer)
      • Determines the priorities between the constraints (if not done by the customer)
      • Provides information that helps develop the project charter
      • Gives the project manger authority as outlined in the project charter
      • Sets priorities between projects
      • Encourages the finalization of high-level requirements and scope by the stakeholders
      • Guides the process to get the project approved and formalized, assisted by the project manger as necessary

      During project planning, the sponsor:
      • Provides the project team with time to plan
      • May review the WBS
      • Identifies risks
      • Determines the reports needed by management to oversee the project
      • Provides expert judgment
      • Helps evaluate trade-offs during crashing, fast tracking, and re-estimating
      • Approves the final project management plan

      During project executing and project monitoring and controlling, the sponsor:
      • Supports the efforts of the project manager
      • Protects the project from outside influences and changes
      • Enforces quality policies
      • Provides expert judgment
      • Helps evaluate trade-offs during crashing, fast tracking, and re-estimating
      • Resolves conflicts that extend beyond the project manager's control
      • Approves, rejects, or defers changes, or authorizes a change control board to do so
      • May direct that a quality review be performed
      • Clarifies scope questions
      • Works with the project manager to monitor progress

      During project closing, the sponsor:
      • Provides formal acceptance of the deliverables (if they are the customer)
      • Enables an efficient and integrated transfer of deliverables to the customer
      • Supports the collection of historical records from the project
    B-)
    1. The Role of the Project Team:
      The project team is a group of people, including the project manger, who will complete the work of the project. The team members can change throughout the project as people are added to and released from the project.

      Generally, it is the teams role to help plan what needs to be done by creating the WBS and schedule estimates for their work packages or activities. During project executing and monitoring and controlling, the team members complete activities to produce the deliverables represented in work packages and help look for deviations from the project management plan. More specifically, the team may help:
      • Identify and involve stakeholders.
      • Identify requirements.
      • Identify constraints and assumptions
      • Create the WBS.
      • Decompose the work packages for which they are responsible into schedule activities.
      • Identify dependencies between activities.
      • Provide schedule and cost estimates.
      • Participate in the risk management process.
      • Comply with quality and communications plans.
      • Enforce ground rules.
      • Execute the project management plan to accomplish the work defined in the project scope statement.
      • Attend project team meetings.
      • Recommend changes to the project, including corrective actions.
      • Implement approved changes.
      • Share new knowledge.
      • Contribute to the lessons learned knowledge base.

      In agile environments, team members are responsible for clarifying user stories with the customer so that they can estimate and plan the releases and iterations, hold reviews and retrospectives, and update the project information using tools such as Kanban boards and burndown charts.

      On large projects, there may be too much project management work for one person to perform. Therefore, the project manager may select some project team members to help perform the project management activities. The PMBOX* Guide refers to these people as the project management team. Members of this team must have project management training. Keep all this information in mind when the exam uses the term "project management team" versus "project team" or "team."

    2. The Role of the Stakeholders:
      A stakeholder is anyone who will be impacted by the project or can positively or negatively influence the project. This includes the customer or end user, the project manager and team, the projects sponsor, program and portfolio managers, the project management office, functional or operational managers within the organization, other departments or groups within the organization (such as business analysis, marketing procurement, quality, or legal), and external sellers that provide services or materials for the project.

      The stakeholders' role on a project is determined by the project manager and the stakeholders themselves. Stakeholders should be involved in planning the project and managing it more extensively than many people are used to on their real-world projects. For example, stakeholders may be involved in:
      • Creating the project charter and the project scope statement
      • Developing the project management plan
      • Approving project changes and being on the change control board
      • Identifying constraints and assumptions
      • Identifying requirements
      • Managing risk

      In an agile environment, the project owner role can be filled by someone from the business who is responsible for working with the agile team to prioritize features and functions. This person may also:
      • Attend reviews and accept the deliverables presented.
      • Be a risk owner.
      • Participate in phase gate reviews.
      • Be involved with governance.
      • Identify issues.
      • Document lessons learned.
      • Provide expert judgment.

    3. The Role of the Functional or Resource Manager:
      A functional or resource manager manages and is responsible for the human and physical resources in a specific department, such as IT, engineering, public relations, marketing, etc. They are responsible for working with the project manager to meet the needs of the project. As managers of people, facilities, or equipment, functional or resource managers maintain a calendar indicating availability of these resources for projects and other organizational work, and they coordinate with project managers who need the resources. This might involve negotiation if people, facilities, or equipment are needed by more than one project at the same time. If the project manager has issues with resources provided by the functional manager, the managers collaborate to resolve the issues.

      The degree to which functional managers are involved in a project depends on the organizational structure. In a matrix organization, the functional managers and project manager share responsibility for directing the work of individuals and managing physical resources needed on the project. In a project-oriented organization, the project manager does all the directing of team resources. In contrast, the project manager does little directing in a functional organization, where that responsibility falls to functional managers. To avoid conflict, the project manager and functional managers must balance their respective needs regarding the use of resources to complete project and functional work. It is generally the responsibility of the project manager to manage this relationship by using clear communication and interpersonal and team skills, such as conflict management and emotional intelligence.

      The specific activities performed by functional managers on a project vary greatly based on the type of organizational structure, as well as the type of project, but may include the following:
      • Assigning specific individuals to the team and negotiating with the project manager regarding team and physical resources
      • Letting the project manager know of other projects or departmental work demands that may impact the project
      • Participating in the initial planning until work packages or activities are assigned
      • Providing subject matter expertise
      • Approving the final schedule during schedule development when it involves team or physical resources under their control
      • Approving the final project management plan during project management plan development when it involves team or physical resources under their control
      • Recommending changes to the project, including corrective actions
      • Managing activities within their functional area
      • Assisting with problems related to team or physical resources under their control
      • Improving resource utilization
      • Participating in rewards and recognition of team members
      • Participating in risk identification
      • Participating in quality management
      • Sitting on the change control board
    B-)
    1. The Role of the Project Manager:
      To put it simply, the project manager is responsible for managing the project to meet project objectives and deliver value and benefits to the organization.

      Remember that as a project manager, you must come up with a project management plan that people agree to and believe is realistic, and, even more importantly, that you can stake your reputation on. A project manager is responsible for ensuring that a project is completed according to the project schedule and budget, including approved changes, and that it meets other objectives. The project manager is held accountable for delivering project benefits.

      In today's project environments, people managing projects may not realize they lack knowledge of what proper project management involves, and many companies do not understand why project management is so important in delivering the benefits they
      want to realize. People with the title of project manager are often not really project managers at all; instead, their role is more of a project coordinator. Before taking the exam, it is important that you understand not only the project manager's role but also all the roles of other people involved in projects.

      Remember that the work of the project manager may be shared by members of the project team, referred to as the project management team.

      The project manager's level of authority can vary depending on the structure of the organization and other factors, such as whether they are assigned part-time or under contract. On the exam, however, the authority of the project manager has generally been interpreted to mean that the project manager:
      1. Is assigned to the project no later than project initiating
      2. Helps write the project charter
      3. Is in charge of the project, but not necessarily the resources
      4. Does not have to be a technical expert
      5. Identifies and analyzes constraints and assumptions
      6. Leads and directs the project planning efforts
      7. Selects appropriate processes for the project
      8. Identifies dependencies between activities
      9. Analyzes unrealistic schedule requirements, and takes action to produce a realistic schedule
      10. Develops time and cost reserves for the project
      11. Has the authority and accountability necessary to accomplish the project management work
      12. Says no when necessary
      13. Integrates the project components into a cohesive whole that meets the customer's needs
      14. Finalizes and gains approval of the project management plan
      15. Influences the project team and the atmosphere in which the team works by promoting good communication, insulating the team from politics (both internal and external to the project), enhancing the positive aspects of cultural differences, and resolving team issues
      16. Spends more time being proactive than dealing with problems (being reactive)
      17. Understands how cultural differences may impact the project, particularly in the case of global teams, virtual teams, or projects involving multiple organizations
      18. Ensures professional interactions between the project team and other stakeholders
      19. Coordinates interactions between the project team and key stakeholders
      20. Understands and enforces professional and social responsibility
      21. Assist the team and other stakeholders during project executing
      22. Communicates
      23. Develops the team
      24. Uses rewards and recognition
      25. Identifies and delivers required levels of quality
      26. Identifies stakeholders, supports stakeholder engagement, and manages stakeholder expectations throughout the project
      27. Manages project knowledge, including sharing lessons learned
      28. Solves problems
      29. Makes decisions
      30. Demonstrates ethics and leadership
      31. Manages and controls resources
      32. Maintains control over the project by measuring performance and determining variances from the plan
      33. Monitors risk, communications, and stakeholder engagement to ensure they are in conformance with expectations
      34. Determines the need for change requests, including recommended corrective and preventive actions and defect repair
      35. Approves or rejects changes as authorized, manages the change control board, and frequently sits on the change control board
      36. Uses metrics to identify variances and trends in project work, and is responsible for analyzing the impact of these variances and trends
      37. Works with team members to resolve variances from the project management plan
      38. Keeps the team members focused on risk management and possible responses to the risks
      39. Performs project closing at the end of each phase and for the project as a whole
      40. Performs or delegates most of the activities outlined
      41. Applies project management knowledge and uses personal and leadership skills to achieve project success
      42. Is accountable for project success or failure

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      1. สมัครเป็นสมาชิก PMI $139:
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        www.examspm.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/How-to-get-your-PMP-application-approved-on-your-first-try.pdf
        www.examspm.com/2014/09/27/pmp-application-project-description-examples

    How to Get PMP Certified:
    Blueprint to passing your PMP

    What's Stopping you?:

    image
    My Question is... What if...:
    • We gave you a clear cut blueprint
    • We gave you a way to do it in your spare time (without going back to school)
    • We show you how you can do it with literally a little experience
    • And EXTENSIVELY prove it

    Would you go ALL IN?

    From Consultant for a major insurance company > Promoted to team lead

    The truth is...:
    • You don't have to wait years to see results
    • You don't have to go back to school
    • You can get started with just the free time you have now

    Can you relate to this?:
    • PMBOK is tough to read
    • I don't know where to start
    • I'm scared of failing the exam

    We often have test takers tell us that after they read the PMBOX, they are totally confused and have no idea what they just read.

    How the !@#$ do I remember any of this!? Everything sounds the same. I read the whole thing and learned nothing cause it's all so confusing in my head.
    Cr: examspm B-)
  • 'As a project manager and business analyst/architect with 20 years of professional experience, the subtle change I have noticed during this economic recession applies to the level of scrutiny by which job applicants are screened.
    Having a combination of hard and soft skills coupled with academic degrees typically opens doors and affords qualified candidates opportunity. However, during this employment malaise, the PMP continues to be a sought after credential, but only when complemented with a particular industry experience.' - Change Manager

    image

    image
    www.pmi.org/learning/library/2020-salary-survey-11883

    It increases your marketability.:
    A PMP certification is accredited internationally, and it is recognized by the entire global business community. One of its biggest advantages is that it can help you increase your marketability and legitimize your experience as a project manager. As a result, you will be able to seek employment wherever there are project management jobs available.
    www.liquidplanner.com/blog/why-a-pmp-certification-is-important-for-your-career

    PMP makes you a better perceived project manager.

    HR managers perceive PMP-certified project managers to be more capable because they've spent the time and money to go through the certification process.

    You are probably wondering, 'How can I do this for myself?'

    PMP Exam Information:
    • 200 questions
    • 175 marked and 25 unmarked
    • 4 Hours to complete
    image
    Understanding and Memorizing the Process Chart in 10 Mins:

    image
    10 Knowledge Areas:
    • Integration Scope Schedule Cost Quality Resources Communications Risk Procurement Stakeholders
    • I Saw Six Cars Quickly Rip Carol's Rear Passenger Side
    • Integrating Scope and Schedule will Cost our Quality Resource to Communicate with Risk of Procuring Stakeholders
    • I Scoped Schedule, Cost, and Quality with Resources Communications as Risk on Procurements to Stakeholders
    • I Suddenly Saw Crows Quietly Reading Code and Referring to Poetic Songs
    • I Suddenly Saw Cat. Quick! Romeo Can Run Pretty Swiftly

    5 Process Groups:
    • Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing
    • In Physical Education Mary Cries Constantly

    Monitoring & Controlling > M5C2MCM

    Choosing the Right Answer:

    You must do as many practice questions as possible!

    Practice, Practice, Practice!:
    • Minimum = 1,000 questions with 2 full length exams
    • Suggested = 1,500 questions with 3+ full length exams
    • Target score = 80%+

    Test Taking Strategies:

    Process of elimination:

    Ask yourself, 'what's the best thing to do NEXT?'

    Sally, your developer, tells you that the activities you've assigned to her will be delayed. Call a meeting to discuss the situation and alternatives with your team is the best thing to do.

    Figure out what's important and what's not

    Knowing how to apply PMBOK concepts on situational questions

    5 Strategies To Deal With Threats:
    • Avoid
    • Accept
    • Transfer
    • Mitigate
    • Monitor

    Go with your first impression.

    Guess!

    Brain Dumps:

    Formulas to Know for EXAM:

    Activity & Project Duration Formulas:
    In order to calculate Estimated Activity Duration (EAD) of an activity, Optimistic (O), Most Likely (M) and Pessimistic (P) estimates for an activity are determined first.

    • PERT Triangular Distribution:
      EAD = (O+M+P)/3

    • PERT Beta Distribution:
      EAD = (O+4M+P)/6
      Your team members tell you that an activity you are working on is most likely to be completed in 20 days. However, the worst case, it might take 30 days, and if all conditions are favorable, it might be completed in 15 days.
      EAD = (15+4(20)+30)/6 = 45+80/6 = 125/6 = 20.83 days

    Cr: examspm & masterofproject

    • Understanding the culture, policies, and procedures of the organization in which the project is being performed is most/especially challenging in Global organizations. The culture, policies, and procedures of the performing office may be different from those of the office from which the project is managed, and may also vary between international offices of the same organization.
      This will influence how the project is managed.

    • A project team is discussing the benefits and drawbacks of working on projects within their organization now that it has become project oriented. They can agree on many advantages for the team and for the organization, but also agree there are some drawbacks relative to the strong matrix structure the organization used to have. In a project-oriented organization, the project team: Will not always have a "home".
      The main drawback of a project-oriented organization is that at the end of the project when the team is dispersed, they do not have a functional department ("home") to which to return. They need to be assigned to another project or get a job with a different employer.

    • In a Functional organization, A project manager is trying to complete a software development project, but cannot get enough attention/has the least support for the project. Resources are focused on completing process-related work, and the project manager has little authority to assign resources. Project expediter and project coordinator are roles in a weak matrix organization.

    • A project manager has little project experience, but she has been assigned as the project manager of a new project. Because she will be working in a matrix organization to complete her project, she can expect communications to be: Complex.
      Because a project done in a matrix organization involves people from across the organization, communications are more complex.

    • Project team member's talking to another team member and complaining that many people are asking him to do things. If he works in functional organization, Functional manager has the power to give direction to the team member.
      In a functional organization, the team members report to the functional manager. The project manager probably reports to the functional manager as well.
    B-)
    • Two project managers have just realized that they are in a weak matrix organization and that their power as project managers is quite limited. One figures out that he is really a project expediter, and the other realizes she is really a project coordinator. The project expediter cannot/has no authority to make decisions is a project expediter different from a project coordinator.
      The project coordinator reports to a higher-level manager and has authority to make some decisions.

    • In a project-oriented organization, the entire company is organized by projects, giving The project manager (has) the most power.

    • The characteristics of a project are temporary, has a definite beginning and end, and interrelated activities. Not repeats itself every month.
      'It repeats itself every month' implies that the whole project repeats every month. Generally, the only things that might repeat in a project are some activities. The whole project does not repeat. This is more likely a characteristic of ongoing business operations.

    • A framework for keeping an organization focused on its overall strategy is Organizational project management.
      Organizational project management (OPM) provides a framework and direction for how projects, programs, portfolios, and organizational work should be done to meet the organization's strategic goals.

    • A project managers primary responsibility is to deliver the product of the project within project constraints. Actions taken and changes made to the benefit of one constraint could negatively affect another. Scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk, resources, and customer satisfaction best describes/is the most accurate list of the major constraints, or competing demands on a project, that a project manager must deal with.

    • If a project manager is concerned with gathering, integrating, and disseminating the outputs/information of all project management processes, she should concentrate on improving the Project management information system (PMIS).
      The scope management plan and the WBS focus on project scope. The communications management plan addresses who will be communicated with, when, and in what format.

    • A project manager is managing his second project. It started one month after the first one did, and both projects are still in process. Though his first project is small, the new project seems to be quickly growing in size. As each day passes, the project manager is feeling more and more in need of help. The project manager has recently heard that there was another project in the company last year that was similar to his second project. He should Obtain historical records and guidance from the project management office (PMO).
      There are many things the project manager could do. Asking the other project manager for assistance is not the best, as the other project manager might not be an experienced mentor. Her advice might not be adequate to help this project manager. Waiting to assess the impact on the project is reactive; a project manager should be proactive. Gaining agreement of all the stakeholders on the project scope is also not the best. It would be helpful, but does not specifically address the issue in this situation. By contacting the PMO, the project manager can access the knowledge of many project managers, historical information from many projects, and the assistance of someone whose job it is to help.

    • To obtain/gain support for the project throughout the performing organization, its best way if the project manager Correlates/Correlating the need for the project to the organizations strategic plan.
      Connecting the project to the sponsors objectives might be a good idea, but it does not address the issue of obtaining support throughout the performing organization. Neither ensuring there is a communications management plan nor confirming that the management plan includes the management of team members directly addresses the need to obtain support for the project.

    • Your management team has decided that all orders will be treated as projects and that project managers will be used to update orders daily, to resolve issues, and to ensure the customer formally accepts the product within 30 days of completion. Revenue from the individual orders can vary from $100 to $150,000. The project manager will not be required to perform planning or provide documentation other than daily status. Would define this situation is a recurring process.
      Because orders are numerous and of short duration, not a project.

    • As a project manager, you have had to develop skills to help plan and manage projects successfully. Networking, communication models, and SWOT skills would best help encourage project teams to reach levels of high cooperation and achievement, promote a positive relationship with sellers on a project, and involve stakeholders appropriately through all aspects of the project.
      Active listening, negotiating, and political awareness are all important interpersonal and team skills a project manager should strive to develop.

    • A project team is working on manufacturing a new product, but they are having difficulty creating a project charter. The real problem is They are working on a process and not a project.
      Manufacturing a product is an ongoing process; it is operational work, not project work. Therefore, the manufacturing team would have no reason to create a project charter and would have difficulty doing so if they tried, because of the ongoing nature of the work. If referred to a team developing a new product, however, that would qualify as a project.

    • One of team members informs that he does not know which of the many projects he is working on is the most important. The project management office (PMO) should determine the priorities between projects in a company.
      This cannot be the role of the project manager, the project management team, or the project team.

    • A project is a temporary endeavor with a beginning and an end, a program is a group of related projects, and a portfolio is a group of projects and programs related to a specific strategic organizational objective.

    • Operational work is different from project work in that operational work is Ongoing and repetitive/frequently requires performing job functions repeatedly to sustain an organization.

    • Company procedures require the creation of a lessons learned register. Historical records for future projects is the best use of lessons learned.
      The best uses of lessons learned are as continuous improvement within the current project, historical records for future projects, and improving the organizations processes and systems.

    • A complex aerospace engineering project is nearing completion. Because the work was highly technical and new to the organization, the product of the project was released two months later than planned. Despite the late delivery, management is appreciative of the effort expended and believes that this product will generate additional opportunities for the organization. Management also thinks that the experience of this team will provide great value for teams working on similar projects in the future. The sponsor requests that lessons learned be thoroughly documented. Lessons learned are best completed by The stakeholders.
      As their input is critical for collecting all the lessons learned on each project. The term 'stakeholders' includes all The project manager, team, and sponsor.
    B-)
    • Consideration of ongoing operations and maintenance is crucially important to products of projects. Ongoing operations and maintenance should Not be viewed as part of a project.
      The definition of a project: temporary and unique. Operations and maintenance are considered ongoing activities, not temporary. Therefore, such work is not considered a project or part of a project.

    • Program is A means to gain benefits and control of related projects.

    • A company is making an effort to improve its project performance and create historical records of past projects. Create lessons learned is the best way to accomplish.
      Lessons learned help to avoid future pitfalls and use the good ideas of past projects. This leads to improvements in future projects. The organization benefits from creating a lessons learned repository.

    Planning < What Comes Before?:

    1. Determine critical path < Estimate activity duration and costs
    2. < Estimate resource requirements < Create network diagram
    3. < Create activity list < Create WBS and WBS dictionary < Determine planning team

    4. Finalize procurement strategy and documents < Go back - iterations
    5. < Perform risk identification, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, and risk response planning < Plan communications and stakeholder management

    6. Plan communications and stakeholder engagement < Determine team charter and all roles and responsibilities
    7. < Determine quality standards, processes, and metrics < Develop budget < Develop schedule

    8. Assess what to purchase and create procurement documents < Create project scope statement < Define and prioritize requirements

    9. Hold kickoff meeting < Gain formal approval of the plan
    10. < Develop realistic and sufficient project management plan and baselines < Finalize all management plans

    If know what efforts are involved in project initiating (such as drafting the project charter and identifying and analyzing stakeholders), the inputs are easier to logically identify. To initiate a project, need to know or have the following:
    • The business case and the benefits management plan for the project
    • The product description and requirements as they are known up to this point; in other words, what is the project supposed to do?
    • How the project fits into or supports the company's strategic plan
    • A list of likely stakeholders
    • Any known constraints (such as imposed schedule, budget, or resources), risks, and assumptions
    • Any relevant agreements, including contracts, if any of the work will be done under contract
    • Industry standards
    • Marketplace trends and legal, regulatory, or compliance factors
    • The company's change control system
    • Defined processes and procedures for how the company operates
    • Relationships with the sponsor of the project, likely stakeholders, and possible team members
    • Templates from past projects
    • Historical WBSs
    • Historical estimates
    • Lessons learned from previous projects
    • What is going on in the company today, including major projects and the potential impact that current and planned initiatives could have on this project
    • An understanding of the company's culture
    • A list of people who may be good team members
    • Information on organizational and project governance
    Make sure identify anything from the previous list that did not think of, and add it to gaps list.

    The specific actions required to complete project initiating:
    If thinking only in terms of high-level processes, probably came up with the following:
    • Develop Project Charter
    • Identify Stake holders
    Knowing the names of these two processes will not be enough to pass the exam. Need to have a more detailed understanding of what really should be done (the actions) in project initiating.

    The following provides a list of the actions involved in project initiating - from the time the project manager is assigned. Remember that what needs to be done on a project varies based on the specific project, its life cycle, development approach, and the industry, so it may not be practical to do all these actions on every project. The items in the list are not in any particular order.

    Actions Involved in Project Initiating:
    1. Sponsor(s) selects the project manager.
    2. Sponsor(s) determines the authority of the project manager.
    3. Collect historical information.
    4. Divide large projects into phases. Use project governance rules and apply them to the project.
    5. Identify stakeholders, and determine their influence, expectations, and impact. Document that information in a stakeholder register.
    6. Determine high-level requirements, constraints, assumptions, and risks.
    7. Turn high-level stakeholder needs, wants, and expectations into requirements.
    8. Make sure the business case and the analysis supporting the need for the project and documented and understood.
    9. Use the benefits management plan to understand the benefits that the project is expected to deliver to the business.
    10. Ensure the high-level product scope is documented with as much detail as is practical.
    11. Understand how the project supports the organizations strategic objectives.
    12. Collect and use any relevant, existing agreements (including contracts) that might be generating the project or that will be required during the project.
    13. Determine success criteria and measurable project and product objectives.
    14. Facilitate the resolution of conflicting objectives.
    15. Become familiar with the company culture and structure as they relate to the project.
    16. Find existing processes, standards, and compliance requirements that affect the project.
    17. Understand how the organization does business (business knowledge) and what governance, procedures, and policies are already in place to use on the project.
    18. Do planning on a high-level basis.
    19. Perform high-level estimating for the project schedule and budget.
    20. Use the high-level planning and estimating data to determine whether the project objectives can be achieved within the given constraints and whether the expected benefits can be realized.
    21. Determine what form the project charter will take, including its level of detail.
    22. Coordinate project initiating efforts with stakeholders, including the customer.
    23. Work with the customer and others to determine high-level acceptance criteria and clarify what is and is not in the project.
    24. Determine the initial project organization.
    25. Identify any inherent or required milestones on the project.
    26. Finalize the project charter.
    27. Obtain formal approval of the project charter.
    28. Define the exit criteria for the project (when and why the project or phase should be closed).
    29. Involve subject matter experts in developing the project charter and identifying stakeholders.
    30. Develop project documents such as the risk register, the stakeholder register and the assumption log, including data on identified risks and stakeholders.
    31. Use stakeholder mapping to analyze data on identified stakeholders to understand their power, interest, and influence.
    B-)
  • The specific actions required to complete project planning:
    • Integration Management:
      • Develop Project Management Plan
    • Scope Management:
      • Plan Scope Management
      • Collect Requirements
      • Define Scope
      • Create WBS
    • Schedule Management:
      • Plan Schedule Management
      • Define Activities
      • Sequence Activities
      • Estimate Activity Duration
      • Develop Schedule
    • Cost Management:
      • Plan Cost Management
      • Estimate Costs
      • Determine Budget
    • Quality Management:
      • Plan Quality Management
    • Resource Management:
      • Plan Resource Management
      • Estimate Activity Resources
    • Communications Management:
      • Plan Communication Management
    • Risk Management:
      • Plan Risk Management
      • Identify Risks
      • Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
      • Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
      • Plan Risk Responses
    • Procurement Management:
      • Plan Procurement Management
    • Stakeholder Management:
      • Plan Stakeholder Management

    Again, simply knowing the names of processes will not be enough. Need to have a detailed understanding of what really should be done (the actions) during each part of the project. To be well prepared, need to identify and understand any required actions do not know or have never done.

    Actions Involved in Project Planning:

    1. Determine how you will plan the planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling efforts for stakeholders, requirements, scope, schedule, cost, quality, resources, communications, risk, procurement, changes, and configuration, and put that information into the beginnings of management plans.

    2. Refine the high-level requirements from project initiating so they are more specific and detailed, and look for additional requirements, being sure to consider any internal or external analysis, reports, or regulations; analyze and prioritize requirements.

    3. Expand on the assumptions identified in project initiating, looking for new assumptions and documenting the details of the assumptions.

    4. Refine the high-level constraints (such as resources, schedule, and cost) from project initiating so they are more specific and detailed.

    5. Create a description of the project deliverables, the work required to complete those deliverables, and their acceptance criteria (project scope statement).

    6. Use the project scope statement to gain approval of the 'final' scope from stakeholders before further planning is done.

    7. Assess what may need to be purchased on the project. Identify any pieces of work that may be outside the organization's abilities to complete, and determine if new equipment or technology is needed to perform the project work.

    8. Select the procurement strategy for each contract. Create a draft of the procurement documents for necessary contracts, including bid documents, procurement statements of work, source selection criteria, and contract provisions.

    9. Determine what subject matter experts will need on the project team to help with project planning.

    10. Break down the deliverables into smaller, more manageable pieces (WBS).

    11. Create descriptions of each work package in a WBS dictionary so that the work can be understood and produced without gold plating.

    12. Break down the work packages from the WBS into lists of activities to produce them.

    13. Sequence activities and determine predecessors and successors in the network diagram.

    14. Estimate resource requirements (such as staff, facilities, equipment, and materials).

    15. Meet with managers to gain resource commitments.

    16. Decide what level of accuracy is needed for estimates.

    17. Use historical data to support estimating time and cost.

    18. Involve experts or those who will work on activities to estimate time and cost.

    19. Determine how long the project will take without compressing the schedule (determine critical path).

    20. Develop a schedule model, evaluate it against the schedule constraint in the project charter, and use schedule compression techniques to reconcile the two to come up with a final schedule for the project management plan.

    21. Develop a preliminary budget and compare it to the budget constraint in the project charter. Then, develop options to reconcile the two to come up with the final budget for the project management plan.

    22. Determine quality policies, practices, and standards, and then determine metrics to measure quality performance.

    23. Determine processes to fulfill quality requirements and conform to organizational standards and policies.

    24. Determine how will improve the processes in use on the project.

    25. Create a system for recognizing and rewarding the efforts of project team members to help keep them motivated and engaged in project efforts.

    26. Plan for acquisition, team building, training, assessment, and release of team members. Plan for physical resources requirements, including acquisition and logistics.

    27. Clearly determine all roles and responsibilities so team members and stakeholders know their roles on the project and what work they will need to do.

    28. Work with the project team to develop a team charter defining their commitments and interactions with each other, including ground rules for meetings, conflict resolution processes, etc.

    RMC Cloud:

    99: Your project is going reasonably well and is ahead of the cost projections when one of the local officials informs you he will make sure the project work stops unless you pay him US $50. Do not make the payment is the best thing to do.
    Such payments, however small, are bribes and could incur millions of dollars in fines for the company, including fines for the project manager, and possibly even jail time.

    105: You are working on an 18-month project with a small, colocated team. The project sponsor and senior management are in another city and have requested weekly updates. The customer requires monthly meetings. Because the team members are busy with the project executing work, they would like to reduce the frequency of meetings. The frequency and level of meetings, as well as the format and type of information to be exchanged, should be defined in the project's communications management plan during project planning best describes how status meetings should be managed on this project.
    The communications management plan should cover all phases of the project.

    111: Another project manager has a family emergency and must leave. He has asked you to fill in for him during a team meeting to discuss a minor problem with the project. He has already distributed a detailed agenda and provided you with a copy. When you attend the meeting, several members of the team are making fun of the absent project manager's ethnic heritage. Your company does not have a formal diversity policy covering such behavior. You should initiate a discussion of diversity and professional behavior to avert similar behavior in the future.
    You have a responsibility to address this situation. Reporting the incident is not problem-solving; it is a form of withdrawal.
    B-)
  • 117: You are assigned to a project that senior management has already decided to outsource. As a project manager, you need to work with the contracts department to select the seller and then oversee
    the seller through project completion. Company policy requires a project of this size to go through a formal procurement process. A vice president in your company tells you his friend owns one of the companies that might submit a proposal and the company would be an excellent choice as a seller. This vice president has a reputation for making or breaking careers. Follow the procurement process, and show the vice president why the favored seller is or is not the best choice is generally the best course of action.
    As a project manager, it is your responsibility to provide criteria to the procurement department based on the project needs, and to protect your project along the way. Leaving the situation to the procurement department is not correct project management practice. Bypassing the procurement process is not practical, nor is it in the best interest of the project. Letting the evaluation team know of management's preferred seller will increase the chance of biased results during the evaluation. You need to follow the established procurement process, and you will be able to justify the outcome to the vice president.

    122: You are a project manager for one of many projects in a large and important program. At a high-level status meeting, you note that another project manager has reported her project on schedule. Looking back on your project over the last few weeks, you remember many deliverables from the other project that arrived late. Meet with the other project manager should you do.
    You should confront the situation by discussing it with the other project manager. You can then find out if the other project is really on schedule and thereby confirm or deny your information. Meeting with the program manager or with your manager would be the next step if meeting with the other project manager does not satisfactorily resolve the issue. You might also develop a risk response plan to deal with the risk to your project. First, though, you need to meet with the other project manager regarding those late deliverables.

    147: During construction of a new manufacturing facility in another country, one of your team members complains to you that the wage paid to the workers is below the acceptable wage in your home country. In this situation, it is best to Pay the workers an appropriate wage for the country in which they work.
    One generally needs to work within the laws and customs of the host country.

    150: You have a cost plus fee (CPF) contract with the customer and an arrangement with your manager, whereby you will receive 10 percent of the contract amount as your payment for services. While completing the project, you discover the actual cost will be lower than expected, thus decreasing your fee. You have discovered a number of additional value-added services you could provide to the customer while completing the work in the contract. Notify the project sponsor of the probable decreased cost should you do.
    This situation tests ethics. Adding activities that provide additional, but nonessential, benefits is gold plating and should not be done without the customer's approval. Increasing the critical path is even worse because it provides no additional benefit to the customer. You should discuss value-added services with the customer, but that does not address the immediate problem. So, although that is a good answer, there is a better choice. The best thing to do is to notify the sponsor and the buyer of the anticipated decrease in cost.

    162: A project manager is finalizing a project that has had repeated problems with cost conformance. He is concerned about what management will say. Senior managers have talked about the problems multiple times in their executive meetings, and it's been reported they feel their concerns have not been addressed. The most recent CPI would be best for the project manager to use to evaluate performance.
    The project budget deals with cost, but not performance, as there is nothing to compare against the budget listed here. There is no comparison to a previous budget or a comparison of actual to budget. Addresses cost and performance is the Cost Performance Index.

    166: A team member has been late to several recent team meetings, and the last two deliverables he submitted were not acceptable. The project manager decides he can no longer wait for things to improve, and must address the issue with the team member. Informal verbal communication is the best form of communication for addressing this problem.
    Your communications management plan should include a process for dealing with such issues. It is best to start this discussion informally. The project manager should also document the problem and a summary of the conversation with the team member. If informal communication does not solve the problem, formal written communication is the next course of action.

    175: You managing a project and are well into the development phase. Approximately 35 percent of the interim deliverables have been created, tested, and approved, and another 25 percent are nearing completion, or are already in testing. Discover changes as early as possible best describes your role regarding project changes.
    The project manager should not necessarily prevent all scope or cost changes, and the sponsor is not involved in all changes. Changes found early will have less of an impact on the project. Thus, it is best to discover needed changes as early as possible.

    279: A person is writing a document identifying the business need for a project and is including a description of the product to be created by the project. She includes a list of stakeholders and preassigned resources is the role of The sponsor or the project manager on the project.
    The project charter is issued by the sponsor. The project manager may have a role in its creation.
    B-)
  • 307: The process of scope definition is key to a successful project.Estimate Costs, Activity Duration, and Plan Resource Management come/are all done after the Define Scope process.
    Remember that the project scope statement is an output of the Define Scope process. The scope baseline, which includes the project scope statement, is an input to each of these processes. Only the Collect Requirements process occurs before Define Scope.

    308: The team has just been formed for a new data management project. Several of the team members recently attended a training session in which they learned how to create work breakdown structures and how valuable they are on a project. They are excited to use the project information they currently have, and begin creating a WBS. Other team members suggest that they are getting ahead of themselves, as they do not yet have all the inputs they need to create the WBS. All the following are used to create the WBS: Requirements documentation, Project scope statement, and Organizational process assets.

    334: It ensures customer acceptance, shows the deliverable meets specifications, and provides a chance for differences of opinion to come to light best describes the Validate Scope process.
    The project management plan is completed before the Validate Scope process. The Validate Scope process does not deal with time, but rather with acceptance. The Validate Scope process does not occur before the Define Scope process.

    384: You are the project manager at a media company. You have been busy working on a large campaign that will result in print, TV, social media, and online ads for your client, a hardware manufacturer. The campaign is expected to be very innovative, as it includes so many different media outlets. You and your team completed all the work specified in the procurement statement of work and the final deliverable has been received by the customer. The customer has confirmed that the deliverables satisfies the contract requirements. The procurement is in the closure process is the status of the project.
    You are beyond the Validate Scope process, as customer has confirmed acceptance of the final deliverable. Many people believe the project is completed, but this is incorrect. The procurement must be closed before the project can be closed.

    424: A project manager is taking over a project from another project manager during project planning. If the new project manager wants to see what the previous project manager planned for managing changes to the schedule, it would be best to look at the Schedule management plan.
    It includes plans for how schedule changes will be managed.

    464: The total float of an activity is the length of time the activity can be delayed without delaying the critical path.

    470:
    image
    Based on the chart, this project will take 18 weeks.

    509: A project manager for a small construction company has a project that was budgeted for US $130,000 over a six-week period. According to her schedule, the project should have cost US $60,000 to date. However, it has cost US $90,000 to date. The project is also behind schedule because the original estimate were not accurate. Project manager has the primary responsibility to solve this problem.
    Schedule management is a responsibility of the project manager.

    510: During planning, activity G was estimated to take 5 days. Activity G is on the critical path. On day 2, it becomes clear that activity G will take 15 days, which will impact the imposed project end date. The project team meets to perform root cause analysis to identify the cause of the variance and to plan schedule recovery with activities to be performed later in the schedule. Recommended corrective action should always be the output of this kind of meeting.
    Corrective action is anything done to bring expected future performance in line with the project management plan. Such action should always be an output of such a meeting.

    528: A major construction project has been having a lot of schedule changes due to unanticipated weather problems. The weather issues are likely to result in cost overruns if they persist beyond the current week. If the weather improves within the next few days, the team will be able to make up for lost time without having to work overtime. Avoiding overtime will allow the project manager to control against cost overruns. Stakeholders is best to notify of these changes.
    You need to communicate changes and problems with the stakeholders. This includes the sponsor, team members, and functional managers.

    533: A project manager is informed midway through project planning that she was given inaccurate data regarding new regulations affecting the required end date of her project. She may need to make a few adjustments, but she thinks she can still manage the project to complete it before the regulations take effect. She confirms this by analyzing the sequence of activities with the least amount of scheduling flexibility. She is using Critical path method technique.
    Precedence diagramming is a diagramming technique that deals with the relationship between activities, not schedule flexibility. The project manager is analyzing the critical path.

    558: A project manager is working with management to create the project estimate. During the initiating process group, -25 percent to +75 percent level of accuracy should the estimate have.
    The only estimate that is usually made in the initiating process group is the rough order of magnitude estimate. As the project progresses and more is known, this estimate will be refined to a more limited range.

    579: Your manager has asked you for a cost baseline for the project, but it is early in the project management process and there is very little project information. In this circumstance, Provide a rough order of magnitude estimate is the best way to estimate this project.
    Historical information is not enough to base an estimate on. Team estimates or estimating using the schedule model are not possible because you are still in project initiating. You have not yet identified activities, nor do you have a schedule model. It is best to provide a rough order of magnitude estimate based on your current understanding of this project.

    581: You are leading a project to introduce a new healthcare appointment scheduling application. As you are creating plans detailing how the team will respond to possible events that may impact the project, you and the team determine the amount of cost contingency reserve needed. The cost contingency reserve should be Added to the costs of the project to account for risks.
    Hiding the reserve is an inappropriate action. Adding cost to each activity will not shorten the critical path, and is an incorrect statement. Management reserves, not contingency reserves, are maintained by management to cover cost overruns. During the risk management process, you determine appropriate contingency reserves to cover the cost of identified risks. These costs are included in the project cost baseline.
    B-)
  • 591: Bottom-up estimating method tends to be most costly for creating a project cost estimate.
    Because you need project details to estimate this way, the effort expended will be greater with bottom-up estimating.

    599: If a project manager is completing detailed estimating, Bottom-up type of estimating is most likely being used.
    Bottom-up refers to estimating based on the details of the activities.

    600: You are communicating with the project sponsors and working to make sure all five of them understand the variability of the project. You have estimated the project cost to be US $850K within -25/+75 percent of actual. This is a Rough order of magnitude estimate.
    The rough order of magnitude estimate has a range of -25/+75 percent of actual and is done during the initiating process group.

    604: A rough order of magnitude estimate is made during Initiating project management process group.
    This estimate has a wide range. It is done during project initiating, when very little is known about the project.
    B-)
  • 606: A new testing center is going to be constructed over the next two years. The project sponsor and project manager have been identified and high-level estimates begun. It is expected that the project can be completed within budget and on schedule. The only difficulty is in acquiring the number of team resources with the correct expertise to complete the work. Under these circumstances, the project manager should spend more time creating a Resource-limited schedule.
    A responsibility assignment matrix shows who is responsible for what, as does a responsibility chart. These will not help you manage the project with limited resources. Only a resource-limited schedule will help meet the defined need. A risk analysis may help, but not as much as a resource-limited schedule.

    620: You just completed a cost estimate on the project, and you're assuming there is a 15 percent chance you will exceed this estimate. You are Above the mean.
    With normal distribution, the mean indicates you have a 50 percent chance of being over or under your estimate. Since you have only a 15 percent chance of being over, you are above (or to the right of) the mean.

    623: The best description of costs that are directly impacted by the amount of production is Variable costs.
    Fixed costs do not vary with the amount produced. Direct costs could be either fixed or variable. Sunk costs are already spent.

    630: Halfway through project executing, a team member alerts you to a potential cost overrun for a specific deliverable. Determine the cause of the overage you do first.
    A project manager must always evaluate the situation before making a decision.

    638: Direct type of cost is team training.
    You are training the team on skills required for the project. The cost is directly related to the project and is therefore a direct cost.

    655: You are a project manager for a small construction project. Your project was budgeted for US $72,000 over a six-week period. As of today, you've spent US $22,000 of your budget to complete work that you originally expected would cost US $24,000. According to your schedule, you should have spent US $30,000 by this point. Based on these circumstances, your project could be best described as Under budget.
    CPI = EV/AC. In this case CPI = 24,000/22,000 or 1.09. A CPI of 1.09 indicates you are under budget.

    672: During the execution of the project, a new ISO version of standard 9000 is issued, and the project team is meeting with the quality department to determine how the standard will apply to the project. This is part of Plan Quality Management process.
    In Plan Quality Management, we determine what quality standards are applicable to the project and how to implement and control them. In this case, a potential new standard has been identified during the execution of the project. Team members will need to review the changes to the standard, and determine if the updated standards will require change requests, including corrective actions. Determining what standards to use is part of the Plan Quality Management process. Don't get fooled because this situation is occurring during project executing.

    698: The Validate Scope process is different than the Control Quality process in that Control Quality focuses on the quality of the project, while Validate Scope focuses on customer acceptance.
    Both Control Quality and Validate Scope occur during project monitoring and controlling. Therefore, neither of these processes are parts of Plan Quality Management.

    709: A project manager is working with quality professionals in the Manage Quality process of the project. Determining if the right processes are being used activities is being performed.
    Determining what process should be used describes Plan Quality  Management. Evaluating quality describes Control Quality. In the Manage Quality process, quality audits are performed to make sure the correct processes are being used and that they are effective.

    713: It is more expensive to determine quality by inspection than by planning best reflects the phrase, 'Quality is planned in, not inspected in'.
    Quality is addressed during all parts of the project, not just during planning. Planning for quality is done before the work is done, not after.

    786: You are planning a project. The functional managers will not commit any particular people to your project because it will not begin for a few months. It will be difficult for you to estimate the duration of the work without knowing who will be assigned to the team, and what their exact skill levels are. Use the average productivity factor for each department, Use expert judgment to determine the number of hours, and Use the average daily rate of the resources in each department times the number of resources needed of each resource type methods could be used to handle this situation.

    829: Expectancy theory proposes/states that employees who believe their efforts will lead to effective performance and they will/who expect to be rewarded for their accomplishments will stay productive as rewards meet their expectations.
    This is why the project manager performs evaluations of team members, and provides recognition and rewards accordingly.

    857: A project manager is trying to settle a dispute between two team members. One says the systems should be integrated before testing, and the other maintains each system should be tested before integration. The project involves over 30 people, and 12 systems need to be integrated. The sponsor is demanding that integration happens on time. Let's do limited testing before integration and finish testing after integration is the best for the project manager can make to resolve the conflict.

    859: A team member complains to the project manager that another team member has once again failed to provide necessary information. The project manager meets with both team members to uncover the reason for the problem. This is an example of Collaborating.
    In this situation, the project manager is problem-solving, or facilitating collaboration.

    883: At the end of a two-year project, the key stakeholders agree that the project has met all the objectives outlined in the project charter and further defined in the project scope statement. The project was within budget and finished on time. The management of one of the functional areas is quite upset because over half of his staff quit during the project, citing long hours and lack of management support. The project manager did not obtain adequate resources and did not set a realistic deadline based on resources available.
    The project manager is responsible for obtaining upper management buy-in to provide adequate resources, set realistic schedules, and promote team building.
    B-)
  • 889: Inputs to the Plan Communications Management process include:
    • The stakeholder register identifies individuals and groups the project will communicate with.
    • Available communications technology
    • Historical information, including lessons learned, from previous projects may indicate issues with communications that will be useful on the current project.
    • The Stakeholder engagement plan addresses how communication will be used on the project to manage stakeholder expectations.
    • Company culture is an enterprise environmental factor and is a consideration in planning the project communications.
    The scope baseline is not an input to this process.

    922: You are managing a complex project for a large company. Company executives are planning a quarterly meeting. They would like you and other project managers within the company to prepare reports that predict future status on your projects. Forecasting report you will submit for the quarterly meeting.
    A trend report addresses past performance. A status report is generally static (relating to a moment in time). A variance report looks at specific project items or activities.

    939: To a project manager, Progress reports generally show problems after they have occurred is the biggest disadvantage of progress reports as compared/opposed to watching what is going on in a project, asking questions, and assisting team members.
    Many project managers spend all their time while the work is being done issuing and using status reports. Great project managers know that these reports are necessary but are not a replacement for properly managing a project. By interacting with the team, watching what is going on, and listening to the team members, you will find out sooner than later what the 'real' status of the project is. Reports are normally a week or two behind the actual work, causing a delay in reacting to problems.

    962: An output of the Close Project or Phase process is the creation of Project archives.
    The project charter is created in initiating. The project management plan and risk management plan are outputs of project planning. Project records, including the charter and all management plans, are archived in the Close Project or Phase process.

    987: The probabilistic analysis of the project is an input to Plan Risk Responses part of the risk management process.
    A prioritized list of quantified risks from Quantitative Risk Analysis is an input to the Plan Risk Responses process.

    999: During a voice conference, one team member suggests that a more experienced person be used on the project. Another proposes using a person with more training. The Plan Risk Responses best describes what is being done.
    Resource optimization involves analysis of the number of resources necessary. Estimate Activity Resources focuses on the type and quantity of resources needed. This activity is unrelated to developing the project team. The team is in the Plan Risk Responses process, trying to avoid a risk by selecting the best resource.

    1,010: You have finished the Plan Risk Responses process for a highway safety project that includes incorporating an accident reduction site area into a busy local highway. You are left with residual risks. You will soon attend a project status meeting that includes several city officials. Document them in the risk register and revisit them later should you do with the residual risks.
    All remaining risks that you decide not to do something about should be documented and revisited later.

    1,039: Delays in obtaining required approvals risk events is always causes a time delay, and is therefore most likely to interfere with attaining/threaten a project's schedule objective.
    Cost increases and contract disputes for payments will not necessarily interfere with schedule. If a post-implementation review meeting slips, it may not interfere with the project schedule.

    1,048: A project team is trying to decrease risk on the project. Management has a good relationship with a seller who is experienced in areas your company is not experienced in. Management wants all activities with a US $50,000 or higher risk to be transferred to the seller. They believe this will eliminate the impact of those higher risks from the project. The transference of a risk does not remove all impacts of the risk why this would not be effective.

    1,122: The sponsor is excited that the product of the project is finally being produced. In the Project executing the project must be involved.
    This is about the process of project management. Remember that every project has a product, service, or result. Some of those could be intangible. The product of the project is created in project executing.

    1,159: You are the project manager for the seller. Your work crews are digging a trench to lay fiber for a high-speed internet connection. All the work permits have been obtained and funding has been approved. There have been several weather-related delays, but due to the perseverance of the entire team, the project is on schedule. It is the customer's responsibility to provide entrance facilities so the connection into the building can be made. You discover the customer does not have adequate facilities and will not have them in time. Continue working according to your contract. Remind the customer both verbally and in writing of their responsibilities. Provide the customer with an estimate of the impact if they do not meet their responsibilities should you do.
    Slowing down the work would have a cost and lost-profit impact on your company. Continuing to work without addressing the upcoming problem is not ethical. If you are under contract, you can generally never stop work, so stopping work until the customer has met their responsibilities is not acceptable. You need to be proactive in ensuring everyone completes their activities (including the customer). Since your company is under contract to provide a product, you will need to ensure that your contractual obligations are fulfilled. In contract situation, it is best to follow up serious verbal discussions with a letter.

    1,180: Material breach, Breach, and Default are reasons/grounds to terminate a contract.
    Think from a buyer's perspective. A seller might terminate for nonpayment.

    1,191: Answer sellers' questions about the procurement documents is the best thing for a project manager to do in the Conduct Procurements process.
    Risk analysis is done before the Conduct Procurements process begins, as procurement is a risk mitigation and transference tool. Selecting a contract type is part of Plan Procurement Management. Market research is also performed in the Plan Procurement Management process, to enable selection of the appropriate sellers for the needs of the project. During the Conduct Procurements process, the project manager answers questions submitted by prospective sellers.

    1,202: You are nearing the end of executing and monitoring and controlling on your project. Reporting so far has shown that interim deliverables have been completed on time and within the allotted budget. Many team members believe the project work is all completed, and your most recent reports indicate as much. Only with Formal acceptance is the best way for you to ensure the project work is really complete.
    B-)
  • 1,241: An Ishikawa, fish-bone, or cause-and-effect diagrams may be used to help Organize thoughts and generate discussion.
    A histogram is used to show information in its order of priority.
    Team and functional responsibilities are shown on many responsibility charts.

    1,290: Since The project under-spent because all work was not completed, but overspent for work that was done would be the best explanation for the following: Both the cost variance and schedule variance are negative, but the cost variance is lower than the schedule variance.
    Remember, for variances, negative is bad. In this situation, both the cost and schedule variances are negative.
  • 1,337: You have been tentatively assigned to a project that has not yet received final approval. Several stakeholders who will likely be involved or impacted by the project have already been identified. Stakeholders can be identified during Initiating, planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling project management process groups.
    Stakeholders can be identified throughout the project. However, the earlier stakeholders are identified, the better for the project. If all stakeholders' needs and requirements are taken into account before plans are finalized and project work is begun, fewer changes will be needed later in the project, when they will be more costly.

    1,361: The project has 13 team members and affects more than 15 departments in the organization. Because the project is 20 percent complete to date and the team has had successful performance reports from five of the affected departments, the project manager holds a party to celebrate. The project manager invites key stakeholders from all of the departments to the party, in order to give those providing good reviews an informal opportunity to communicate good things to those departments that have not yet been affected by the project. At the party, the project manager walks around to try to discover any relevant information that would help him make the project even more successful.
    She happens to hear a manager of one of the departments talking about setting up more regular meetings on the project. The best thing for the project manager to do would be to first Review the methods of providing project information to the stakeholders.
    The party may well generate lessons learned, and recording them would certainly be a good idea, but what to do first. There is a more immediate issue - the manager. Meeting with all the stakeholders could be useful, but there is only one stakeholder, the manager, who definitely has an issue. Besides, a good project manager would be holding regular meetings with the stakeholders already. Making sure that manager has a copy of the communications management plan might be a good idea, as the manager apparently is not communicating with the project manager. However, this would not be enough to ensure the manager does communicate. The manager is, in effect, saying he is not getting the information he needs. His lack of needed information is causing him to suggest more meetings. However, too many meetings are a problem on projects. A great project manager does not just add meetings, but solves the real problem in the best way. A goal of communications management is to get information to those who need it. The project manager may decide to adjust her communications management process by changing the format of a report, or sending existing reports to the manager with the issue, rather than adding meetings.

    1,369: An organization's project management office (PMO) has established new procedures to help prevent variance from the performance measurement baseline for all projects. Each project manager in the organization has been charged with planning and taking action to influence the factors that cause changes and sharing their ideas with the group. The information they have gathered is in an organizational database and recommendations have been made on how project managers should influence the factors that cause change. Notify all stakeholders that no more changes will be allowed is the least effective way to influence the factors that create changes to the cost baseline.

    1,370: Your sponsor has been concerned about a seller performing work on time and at the required quality level, as there have been challenges with this seller on past projects. It's very difficult for you to know all the details of how the seller will perform the work, but your procurement statement of work and the contract are aligned. The seller submits an invoice that is outside the funding limit reconciliation completed during project planning. The critical path was fast tracked during project planning is the least likely cause.
    Final funding limit reconciliation would have been done after fast tracking. There was a cost increase to the successor activity of a critical path activity, Equipment was received earlier than planned, and An activity has taken longer to complete than planned are all possible explanations for an invoice to be outside the funding limit reconciliation.

    1,429: In Monitoring and controlling process group the closing of a procurement does occur.
    Procurement are closed as part of Control Procurement in monitoring and controlling.

    1,448: Conduct Procurement, which includes selecting a seller and awarding a contract, is a part of project Executing process group.

    1,462: Expected monetary value is the probability times impact of a threat or opportunity, and net present value is the benefits less costs over many time periods.
    Expected monetary value is used in risk management, but it is not the estimated value of risk response plans.

    1,531: Your project to measure the factors that influence algae's ability to create a bio-fuel with the richest hydrocarbons includes 1,000 separate ponds. You want to determine which factors yield the highest percentage of burnable hydrocarbon. The ponds are kept at different temperatures, some are fed a different nutrient combination, others receive different amounts of shade, and other get a daily four-hour session of baroque music. Some of the ponds get a variety of these treatments. These activities are an example of Design of experiments.
    Design of experiments attempts to combine variables to determine which combination of variables produces the required level of quality. The quality measure here is the percentage of burnable hydrocarbons.

    1,555: Having a purpose for each/the meeting, Distributing a meeting agenda beforehand (and sticking to it!), and Document and publish/distributing meeting minutes after the meeting are all important aspects of a rule regarding an effective meeting management.

    1,559: As member of your team are focused on their individual assignments, you are working to coordinate their efforts so that all deliverables are completed on time and within the constraints identified in the project charter. To do this, you are reviewing the team members' progress reports, and, when necessary, requesting changes to the plan. Project deliverables are produced in the Direct and Manage Project Work process.
    Develop Project Management Plan is a planning process, Manage Team is a resource management process, and Control Scope is a scope management process.

    1,563: The difference between push and pull communication can be described as Push communication is sent to those who need to know the information. Pull communication requires that the recipients access the information at their own discretion.
    You must analyze carefully which information you must push so stakeholders don't get overloaded with information.
    B-)
  • 1,606: The organization that you work for supports the achievement of its strategic objectives by empowering project managers and teams. The project managers have the authority to structure their teams, plans, and work however they deem necessary to best achieve results. They are responsible for controlling the schedule and the budget, and for providing the steering committee and other departments of the organizations with forecasts. Management reserves part of the cost budget would these project managers not have control over.
    Management reserves are set aside to cover unforeseen risks to the project. Management approval is required to use these funds.

    1,633: A definitive estimate is made as the project progresses and is in a range from -10 percent to +10 percent from actual.
    A rough order of magnitude estimate is usually made in initiating, and is in a range from -25 percent to +75 percent from actual. A budget estimate is usually made in planning and is in a range from -10 percent to +25 percent from actual. Note that some project managers use a range of -5 percent to +10 percent from actual for a definitive estimate.

    1,655: It allows the buyer to evaluate relative strengths of each seller is a weighting system of value in selecting a seller.
    The weighting system assigns a percentage value to each of the criteria considered in the evaluation of prospective sellers based on the needs of the project.

    1: Co-location concept of locating team members can help them best to enhance their performance as a team.
    Colocation involves placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team. Colocation can be temporary, such as at strategically important times during the project, or can continue for the entire project. Colocation strategies can include a team meeting room, common places to post schedules, and other conveniences that enhance communication and a sense of community.

    2: You are going to take over a new project as the project manager in an enterprise unknown to you. Enterprise environment factors should you investigate during the develop project charter process.
    Enterprise environment factors is an input of the develop project charter.

    3: Postmortem analysis after scheduled finish date of a project shows a CPI of 0.8 and an SPI of 1.25. The project was terminated early. At that time, it was over budget and ahead of schedule is a plausible explanation for that.
    CPI is inferior than 1, so the project is over budget. SPI is superior than one, so the project is ahead of schedule.

    4: A project manager is preparing two documents for risk management. One contains sources of overall project risk and also summary information on individual risks. The second describes individual risks identified. Risk report name should the project manager give to the first document.
    The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout the Project Risk Management process.

    5: The Change Control Board reviews all of the change requests for every project in your company. This board follows all the recommended activities outlined in the PMBOK Guide. Based on this scenario, Documenting change request decisions and recommendations, Reviewing change requests, and Accepting or rejecting change requests would be performed by the Change Control Board.
    According to the PMBOK Guide, the Change Control Board is responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to a project, with all decisions and recommendations being recorded. It is up to the individual project team members to actually create the change requests.

    6: Retaining resource to complete the project is a common problem in close project/phase process.
    The common problem is that people start looking for their next project and leave before administrative closure.

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    • Analogous Estimating Vs Parametric Estimating:

      Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. It is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project (Can be used at the early stages of the project).
      Analogous estimating is generally less costly and less time-consuming, however it is less accurate.

      Parametric is estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters, where a statistical relationship between relevant historical data and other variables is used to determine duration or costs.
      Duration are calculated by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by the number of labor hours per unit of work.
      Parametric estimating is higher in accuracy than analogous.

    • Enterprise Environmental Factors Vs Organizational Process Assets:

      EEFs originate from the environment outside the project and often outside the organization.
      They are out of the project team control, but may constrain or direct the project and may have a positive or negative influence on its outcome.
      They may internal to the organization (eg: organizational culture & structure, employee capability and resource availability), or external to the organization (eg: marketplace conditions, government and industry standards and legal restrictions).

      OPAs are internal to the organization. These may arise from the organization itself.
      They may be updated as part of the project Work.
      They are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization including the organization's lessons learned from previous projects and historical information.

    Cr: PMP Hub B-)
    • Lessons Learned Register Vs Lessons Learned Repository:

      Lessons
      Learned Repository is a store of historical information about lessons learned in projects, where lessons learned and knowledge gained throughout the project are transferred to it for use by future projects.
      It is part of the organizational process assets.

      Lessons Learned Register is a project document used to record knowledge gained during a project to be used in the current project and entered into the lessons learned repository to be used in future projects.
      It is output from the Manage Project Knowledge process.

    • Project Changes: Corrective Action, Preventive Action, and Defect Repair:

      Corrective action is any intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan. They are steps taken to address a problem. Eg: replacing a machine part that causes high error rates.

      Preventive action is any intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan. They are steps taken to avoid future problems. Eg: install alarms to warn you when the machine starts to deviate.

      Defect repair is any intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component. Eg: repairing the defected part or replacing it.

    Cr: PMP Hub

    • Project manager is managing a software development project. One of team members makes a change to the project without letting him know. She assures him that it didn't affect the cost, and it significantly enhances the product. The project manager should Evaluate the impact of the change to understand how it affects scope, time, and cost, quality, and project risks next.

    1. Facilitated workshops is a tool or technique used in the create WBS process.

    2. The project manager is the Key Person in the kick-off meeting.

    3. A project has been ongoing for a year Early in the year, its schedule performance index (SPI) was 12, its most recent SPI is 0.7. The project manager use Variance analysis to track and communicate this information.

    4. You have just joined a new organization as a project manager. The project is currently in the executing phase. You then realize that no stakeholder register exists for the project. Since you are new to the organization, you want to ensure that you use its templates for documents. Therefore, your search for a template for a stakeholder register in the Organizational process assets.

    5. A collection of procedures used to track project artifacts, monitor and control changes on the project is Configuration Management System.

    6. You are a project manager managing a global project. You have stakeholders located in various parts of the globe. Data-gathering is an important technique in the Identify Stakeholders process. Due to the nature of the project, you also have large volumes of information that needed to be collected from the project stakeholders. Questionnaires and surveys is an important tool available for gathering and organizing stakeholders' information.

    7. A project manager, working on a project with members in different locations, spends a significant amount of time explaining to the team that the lack ownership of their work and that project performance is deteriorating. Some team member are frustrated and want to resign, as they feel overloaded. The project manager should Conduct regular team meeting to ensure that team member are updated on overall project performance first to control this situation.

    8. A project manager working on a software development project. He evaluated certain responses from prospective sellers and wanted to select a contract model that will transfer risk to the seller. Fixed price contract should select in order to transfer the highest risk to the seller.

    9. During project execution the project manager notices that the majority of change requests are from one person on the client team met reviewing these requests the project manager notes that they were at rejected because of misalignment with the scope of work. The project manager should Continue to reject all future change requests from this client team member.

    10. As an automation project nears completion, the engineering team leader proposes adding a function that will make the production the more efficient without impacting the schedule. The project manager should Follow the change management plan next.

    11. A project manager is initiating a highly controversial project with numerous stakeholders. Several of these stakeholders fail to support the project. The project manager should use Stakeholder engagement plan to manage stakeholder expectations.

    12. A senior project manager and member of the Project Management Office. The CIO wants him to present a snapshot of the status of various projects going on in the organization. The milestone chart for this project would be most suitable for the purpose.

    13. If a project has a 40 percent chance of a $10,000 profit and a 20 percent chance of a $5,000 loss, the expected monetary value of the project is EMV = Risk 1 + Risk 2 = (10,000 x 0.4) + (-5,000 x 0.2) = 4,000 - 1,000 = $3,000 profit.

    14. A project manager working on gathering requirements and establishing estimates for the project. He is working in Planning process group.

    15. A vendor has a contract to deliver products for a project on the first day of each month. An inspection reveals that some product components are not meeting design requirements. The project manager should Insist that the vendor make all necessary corrections, and update the risk register next.

    16. During a project meeting, a junior engineer escalates a technical issue with a project task directly to the project manager. The project manager should advise the engineer to review Project management plan.

    17. When writing the roles and responsibilities of team members, should document the role, authority, responsibility, and competency for each team member. This information must be documented in Resource management plan.

    18. You have contracted some work to a sub-contractor and would like to identify successes and failures of other procurement contracts within the performing organization. This can be performed through Procurement audit.

    19. A project upgrade the phone system in customer service center. Examining a process and looking for opportunities for improvements by identifying and analyzing problems, constraints, and non-value added activities. Techniques are most likely to using is Process analysis.

    20. A project manager working on a software development project. You've developed the risk management plan, identified risks, and determined risk responses for the risks. You have recently identified risks in your project and decided not to change the project management plan to deal with the risk. The risk response strategy that you used in this scenario is an example of Acceptance.
    B-)
    • Resource Leveling Vs. Resource Smoothing:

      In resource leveling the start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints to balance the demand for resources with the available supply.
      It often cause the original critical path to change. Available float is used for leveling resources. Consequently, the critical path through the project schedule may change.

      In resource smoothing the schedule model activities are adjusted so requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits.
      In resource smoothing, as opposed to resource leveling, the project's critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed, i.e activities may only be delayed within their free and total float.

    Cr: PMP Hub

    2x:
    1. A project manager is performing a set of processes in the Initiating phase. He is developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. Project Charter documents contains this information.

    2. A proved is delivered that meets the approved business requirements. However, the client identifies a few unrelated issues that will cause a delay in final product approval and impact project closure. The project manager should Document the unrelated issues develop the hand-over report and formally close the project.

    3. The sponsor of project is particularly interested in reviewing the roles of different stakeholders on the project. As a project manager, should direct the sponsor of the project to Stakeholder Register document.

    4. A company notices that. During the last six projects, the scope changed substantially. The project manager of a new project should Review lessons learned from the previous projects first to reduce the likelihood of scope changes.

    5. The project manager for a construction company that is building a new city and country office building in city. Calculated earned value measurements and found that the current CPI is 1.08 and the current SPI is 0.88. Looking for options to reduce the project schedule. Look at the network diagram and start identifying the sequence of activities which can happen in parallel. Fast Tracking technique are using.

    6. While developing the project charter stakeholders disagree about the project's most important objectives. Ask a subject matter expert (SME) should the project manager do to resolve this.

    7. While reviewing project performance, the project manager notices misalignment with the project management plan. The project manager works with the team to modify an activity to ensure future success. This describe Preventive action.

    8. After a major milestone release, one of the key stakeholders are not happy and complain their requirements are not being met. In Validate scope process should the project manager have involved them to ensure their acceptance of the project deliverables.

    9. A product development manager, who is unsure of an initial prototype's requirements, is upset to learn that it must be compared in two months. The project manager should Ensured that the right resources were assigned to the project to avoid this.

    10. An organization a restructuring project to align with its new strategy. During the project's initiation phase, resistance to change was flagged as a major risk. The project manager should Track trigger conditions to monitor this risk.

    11. A project has closed, and the project manager moves on to a new project. During this project, it is discovered that many of the mistakes made in the first project have been repeated. The project manager should Added the relevant information to the corporate knowledge base to avoid this.

    12. During project planning, a project manager meets with several departments to organization brainstorming sessions. This describes Identify Stakeholders process.

    13. A client adds a new feature and requests a budget update the development of this feature cannot extend the project schedule for more than one month. The client has already agreed to a cost per hour. The project manager should Calculate project performance using the earned value management (EVM) method next.

    14. A project charter is approved, and its scope is my defined to build the schedule, Project scope statement input does the project manager need.

    15. A project manager for a large project. Early on, he can identify a number of risks in the project and want to prepare them, and during the implementation phase, he has identified a potential risk. He has identified the response strategy for this risk, he has decided to purchase insurance to deal with this risk; however, the purchase of insurance will cost him $500. This is an example of Transfer risk response strategy.

    16. A set of high-impact repetitive tasks must be executed during a project. The project manager can use Quality checklists to ensure that all team members consistently perform these tasks in the same manner.

    17. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 0.3. The CFO instructs the project sponsor to restrict the project scope to bridge the CPI back to 1 within the months. While reviewing the approval change requests for removed activities, the project manager becomes concerned about the resulting cost the non-conformance. The project manager should Maintain the current risk register, but transfer the risks with the highest impact on cost to the quality management plan.

    18. A project manager working on a software development project. His project team begins to address the project work, technical decisions, and the project management approach - If team members are not collaborative or open to differing ideas, Storming stage of the Tuckman ladder has his team just entered.
      www.peoplevalue.co.th/content/9480/อยากมี-teamwork-ต้องสร้าง-team-ให้-work
      scrum123.com/พัฒนาการของทีมตามรูปแบบของ-tuckman-ตอนที่-1-forming-และ-stroming-1618f010a226

    19. Quality audits are an important part of quality management because Audits randomly audit product result to see if they are meeting quality standards.

    20. A project manager working on a project when the customer wants another feature added to the product. However, the project sponsor agreed to implement the new feature immediately. As a project manager, should Analyze the impact of the new feature with his project team members next.
    B-)
  • 4x:
    1. A supplier deliver most of a project's functional requirements, but a few minor, latent defects correction before the contracted payment can be made. Since the company's financial year end is approaching project manager should Arrange an extended financial project close until contract closure is completed.

    2. Managing an information technology project. Using a histogram chart to analyze the number of issues per the process, then ranking of the cause of the issue to figure out if the way doing project fits into company's standards. Involved in Manage Quality.

    3. A project manager want team to use (WBS) in cost estimation developed for project. Bottom up estimating technique most likely to use.

    4. A project manager develops a business case during project initiation. Business benefits provided by project deliverables and the organizational strategy areas should the project manager consider when developing the business case.

    5. A project manager for a software project. Various tools and techniques determine project requirements during the Collect Requirements process. These requirements form the basis for defining the project scope. During project status meeting, team members do not agree on the way in which certain requirements should be implemented. So, decide to take a vote, where the largest block in a group would decide, even if a majority is not achieved. This is an example of Plurality.

    6. A project manager want to create a bar chart showing when resources are required, and the amount of time that resources are scheduled to work over a series of time periods within the project. The Resource Histogram will create to accomplish the task.

    7. Stakeholders determine that the business case considers 3D lessons learned from previous projects. However, laws regulating the company's operations have changed. The project manager should use Facilities techniques and the project charter to resolve this situation.

    8. A project manager creates a risk management plan and obtains project sponsor approval. One new risk was identified. The project manager should Perform a qualitative risk analysis first.

    9. A schedule has two tasks that cannot be started at the same time. Task 1 can only be started 3 days after Task 2 has started. Start-to-Start relationship between the activities, with a 3-days lag on Activity B can these tasks be scheduled in a scheduling tool.

    10. A project manager is taking over a project. The former project manager was implementing a major tax reformation. The project team has already applied the modified tax reforms into its finance applications. During the transition, the new project manager realizes that the project charter is missing. The project manager should Develop a project charter, and present it to the change control board (CCB).

    11. During user acceptance testing, key stakeholders express their dissatisfaction with the new features. After investigating the issue if the determined that requirements were not approved. The project manager should have created Statement of work (SOW) to prevent this issue.

    12. Organizational process assets, Project management plan, Accepted deliverables, etc. are an inputs of the close project phase process.

    13. A project manager performs an audit of a subcontracted supplier to determine if scope, quality, and time requirements are being met. Procurement strategy process is the project manager using.

    14. Stakeholder analysis is a tool and technique of the Identify Stakeholders Process.

    15. From prior experience with an organization, a project manager is aware of the possibility that key resources may be reassigned to other, more urgent projects. This project manager should update Lessons learned repository to ensure that other project managers are also aware of this.

    16. The project manager of the CFC project for organization where team members are conducting a meeting to evaluate the effectiveness of the risk management process, and how the risk management plan and the risk response plan are working as the project progresses and also whether the risks which were identified and prioritized are actually occurring. This as a part of Risk audit and Risk re-assessment.

    17. Government regulations require that project deliverables be tested and approved by stakeholders before they can be accepted. However, these stakeholders are frequently too busy to perform the acceptance tests. Without these tests, project quality standards will be unmet, and the project cannot complete its deliverables. The project manager should Ask the quality assurance team plan and execute the acceptance tests and present the results to the stakeholders.


    18. One of the stakeholders on the project led a change request a month back. He reached out to the project manager stating that he has not received any response yet. This situation can be resolved By reviewing the integrated change control process.

    19. A geographically dispersed team is executing a project. A team member beings to execute a task necessary to meet a critical milestone on the same day, but discovers that the predecessor task has not yet been completed. The owner of the predecessor task is located in a time zone where the working day has not yet started. Waiting would cause to miss the milestone. The project manager should Let the owner of the predecessor task know the day before that the work needed to be completed to prevent this situation.

    1. A project manager is managing an infrastructure project when a key stakeholder asks for the inclusion of an unexpected requirement. Change log project document should the project manager update first.

    2. During the initiation phase of a healthcare IT project the project manager analyzes the project's key benefits based on input from stakeholders and finds that they are inconsistent. The project manager should Evaluate the benefits based on organizational strategy first.

    3. Some members of a project team work from home. During a weekly video-conference. Much time is lost due to disconnected or dropped participants, background noise, strong interference, or multiple people speaking simultaneously. People are becoming annoyed and ask not to participate. The project manager should Hold individual meetings with team members and consolidate the information in meeting minutes for distribution.

    4. To implement a customer relationship management (CRM) software solution, a systems project manager must identity the required human resources. The project manager should reference Resource requirements.

    5. During execution of a critical project, a project manager is removed due to continuous customer and stakeholder complaints about lack of communication. The new project manager should Meet with the project team first.

    6. During a project steering committee meeting, the project manager reports that a formerly supportive key team member has become resistant to and negative about changes. This information should be captured in Stakeholders engagement assessment matrix.

    7. An important project stakeholder is replaced, and their successor is unhappy with the progress and direction of the project. The new stakeholder wants to implement changes that will cause delays. The project manager should Meet with the new stakeholder to gain an understanding of their concerns and expectations.

    8. An independent, third-party auditor conducted scope verification. The client questions the impartiality of the third-party's report. The project manager should Submit a change request to update the scope management plan.
    B-)

    1. Enterprise Environment Factors includes some elements such as Project closure guidelines or requirements.

    2. An asphalt company is demanding a code change to a software module. Your team is implementing to generate Safety Data Sheets for them. The change will add only one week to the critical path. As the project manager, Issue a change request is next step.

    3. After completing the scope management plan, the project manager determines that no-house in expertise exists to develop a critical product component. Discussion with another project manager reveals that multiple vendors have been engaged in the past for similar jobs. The project manager should Create a procurement statement of work (SOW) next.

    4. Budget at Completion (BAC) US$9,000, Earned Value (EV) US$1,000, Actual Cost (AC) US$1,500, and Planned Value (PV) US$1,200. The estimate at completion (EAC) for this project is BAC / CPI, CPI = EV / AC = 1,000 / 1,500 = 0.67, EAC = 9,000 / 0.67 = about US$13,500 and it represent the revised estimate for total project cost (based on performance to date).

    5. A project manager is in the planning stage of a new software development project when the supplier states there will be an extra cost for a software product. The project manager should Check if there is a contingency reserve in the project budget next to avoid a budget change.

    6. A project to comply with a regulatory requirement needs to go live in eight months to avoid fines. The project schedule now has a high-probability risk that is impacting the ability to meet the deadline. The project manager should Assess the impact of missing the due date to avoid incurring fines.

    7. During the construction of a port, a nearby fishing community blocks the projects access route and demands construction or a paved road connecting the community with the port. This increases the project cost by five percent. The project manager should have done Performed a risk analysis to prevent this.

    8. An external provider is late with the delivery of a finished item. As a measure of goodwill, and to maintain the project schedule. The provider offers to bear the cost of renting a temporary system. Since no schedule slippage will occur, the project manager should Conduct the Perform Integrated Change Control process next.

    9. During a project's execution phase, a new stakeholder is identified who is critical to the project's success. The project manager should Update the stakeholder engagement plan next.

    10. A project manager joins a new project that will be implemented by a virtual team located in various time zones and utilizing different native languages. During project planning, the project manager identifies significant disagreements among team members. The project manager will help obtain Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix team consensus.

    11. A design project is ready to be transferred to production. Manage quality is required for phase closure.

    12. A client adds a new feature and requests a budget update the development of this feature cannot extend the project schedule for more than one month. The client has already agreed to a cost per hour. The project manager should Calculate project performance using the earned value management (EVM) method next.

    13. Sensitivity analysis helps to determine which risks might have the greatest impacts on the project and will require a carefully crafted risk assessment. Your project team has identified several potential risks on your current project that could have a significant impact if they occured. The team examined the impact of the risks by keeping all of the uncertain elements at their baseline values. The team will use Tornado Diagram to display this information.

    14. During a project update meeting, one of the key stakeholders expressed his displeasure over the project management approach. One of the key deliverables had major defects which required a rework. You took responsibility for searching out the facts of this problem and created a change request to resolve the issue. You should recommend a corrective action to bring anticipated future project outcomes back into alignment with the project management plan.

    15. During project initiation, the project manager team that the charter was not approved by the proper authorities. The project manager approaches their line manager about this issue, but the line manager instructs the project manager to immediately begin work on the project plan. The project manager should Explain the implications of working without approval.

    16. One week after project deployment, a project manager unsuccessfully tries to resolve an issue on their own. The project manager failed to inform stakeholders, which results in their frustration. To avoid stakeholder frustration, the project manager should have done Adhered to the communications management plan.

    17. The communication technology being applied in a project was tested in simulated environments but never in actual projects. This lack experience with the technology must be addressed in detail. Mitigate the risk by conducting a pilot strategy should be used in the project's planning process.

    18. During the collection of stakeholder requirements, a disagreement between two key stakeholders delays sponsor approval of the project charter. The project manager should Use conflict resolution techniques.

    19. Due to commitments to another project, an accountant fails to deliver an important report, the project manager should have referenced Resource calendar to avoid this.

    20. A project manager wants to create the risk register. The project manager should Build the risk breakdown structure (RBS) to categorize risks next.

    21. A new execute asks the project manager to share sensitive project information that had not been apart of communications with the previous executive. The project manager should Refer to the communications management plan.

    22. A project manager is assigned to an ongoing project and receives notification from another department that they were not made aware of timelines slippage on one of the key deliverables. To Communications management plan document should the project manager first refer.

    23. After conducting a data analysis, a project manager determines the cause and degree of variance relative to the approved scope. The project manager should Decide if a corrective or preventive action is required next.

    24. The project team learns from a key stakeholder that some deliverables have been forwarded for approval without their knowledge. The project manager should have Verified the communications management plan to prevent this situation.

    25. As part of a project, a new plant is being constructed in a typhoon-prone area. This may impact the projects schedule and quality. The project manager should Establish a contingency reserve to address this.

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    B-)

    1. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 0.3. The CFO instructs the project sponsor to restrict the project scope to bridge the CPI back to 1 within the months. While reviewing the approval change requests for removed activities, the project manager becomes concerned about the resulting cost the non-conformance. The project manager should Maintain the current risk register, but transfer the risks with the highest impact on cost to the quality management plan.

    2. A company has decided to use agile methodology for the first time on a project. During the middle of the third sprint, it becomes apparent that the project communications are not adequate and that most team members do not have a good understanding of what other team members are doing. The project manager should have Held daily stand-up meetings to avoid this issue.

    3. During the execution of a project, the project manager finds there are some initial requirements for each team member that have not been considered in the scope. The project manager should Implement corrective actions approved by the change control board (CCB).

    4. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 1.05 and its schedule performance index (SPI) is 0.95. Based on this information, Behind schedule and within budget is the result of the project.

    5. A project manager identifies a risk for a complex module in a project. Before executing work on this module, a technical specialist suggests adopting a proven technology rather than using a new experimental technology. The project manager accepts this suggestion. Avoid risk response strategy the project manager use.

    6. A project manager leading the implementation of a company's new financial system needs to evaluate the system's quality. Quality control measurements can the project manager use to understand the project quality metrics and policies.

    7. An organization has contracts with an external supplier to support a critical part of a project. Senior management and the project team have differences about what deliverables the external supplier should provide. Procurement management plan should be reviewed to eliminate these differences.

    8. Midway through the design phase of a software development project, the project manager realizes that planned tasks will be delivered tale. The project manager should Update the issue log first.

    9. A project manager is assigned to a project that is in progress. In Project management plan document would a new project manager find information regarding the scope baseline.

    10. A project's cost performance index (CPI) is 1.05 and its schedule performance index (SPI) is 0.9. Based on the information, Behind schedule and within budget is the result of the project.
      CPI มากกว่า 1 แสดงว่ากิจกรรมนั้นได้ใช้เงินทุนไปน้อยกว่างบประมาณที่ได้ตั้งไว้
      SPI น้อยกว่า 1 แสดงว่ากิจกรรมที่กำลังพิจารณาอยู่ได้ดำเนินการไปล่าช้ากว่าแผนที่ได้วางไว้

    11. A project manager must obtain approval for a network cabling project. After preparation of detailed project information, some team members remain dissatisfied, as the selected equipment is new and insufficiently tested. The project manager determines that the equipment meets technology needs. Leadership skill should the project manger use to obtain team consensus and sponsor approval.

    12. A client asks a global IT company to develop a supply-chain monitoring system, a project manager then designs to assist in the creation of the project charter for the project sponsor. The project manager should Search the lessons learned repository for historical information on project charter development next.

    13. A sponsor proposes a project scope change that is popular with the project team and key stakeholders. The project manager should Follow the scope change request process.

    14. Midway through a project's execution phase, the client asks to add new product features. The project manager should Assess the impact of the request on the overall project management plan first.

    15. In a project with a multi generational team, some resources are under performing due to differing viewpoints. This may cause project delays. The project manager should Use the collaborate/problem solve technique.

    16. At project inception, market demands result in a shift in the client's organizational strategy. Upon learning this, the project manager immediately requests a meeting with the project team and project sponsor. In preparation for this meeting, the project manager should analyze and evaluate Business case.

    17. A project manager receives an email from a vendor that a key deliverable will be delayed by a month. The project manager should Assess the impact of the delay on the project plan.

    18. Power/interest grid can the project manager use to group stakeholders based on level of authority and level of concern.

    19. A project manager finds that a specific work package was not delivered on time and will be delayed by an additional three weeks. The project manager worries that this might impact project completion. The project manager should Determine it the work package is on the critical path first.

    20. A collection of procedures used to track project artifacts, monitor and control changes on the project is Configuration Management System.

    21. A Project Manager want team to use (WBS) in cost estimation developed for your project. Bottom up estimating technique is most likely to use.

    22. A project manager for a software project, various tools and techniques determine project requirements during the Collect Requirements process. These requirements form the basis for defining the project scope. During project status meeting, team members do not agree on the way in which certain requirements should be implemented. So, he decides to take a vote, where the largest block in a group would decide, even if a majority is not achieved. This is an example of Plurality.

    23. Managing a software development project. Divided the project into five iterations that are typically time-boxed to 30 days. This project is producing deliverables in short periods of time. Work with the product owner, project team holds daily standup meetings, and they hold retrospective meetings at the end of the working period. This describe Agile methodology.

    24. During project initiation, the project manager teams that the charter was not approved by the proper authorities. The project manager approaches their line manager about this issue, but the line manager instructs the project manager to immediately begin work on the project plan, the project manager should Explain the implications of working without approval.

    25. At project inception, market demands result in a shift in the client's organizational strategy. Upon learning this, the project manager immediately requests a meeting with the project team and project sponsor. In preparation for this meeting, the project manager should analyze and evaluate Business case.

    26. A security team notifies a project manager of a change in security procedures. The project manager uses the change control process update the project management plan. After seeing the change, a stakeholder complains that it was unnecessary because the project is almost complete. The project manager should Convince the stakeholder of the benefits resulting from the change.

    27. A project manager discover that material costs have increased significantly since project initiation. The project manager should refer Business case to determine if the project is still feasible.
    B-)

    1. A project's earned value (EV) report indicates that can activity's cost variance (CV) is -50,000 and its schedule variance (SV) is 1,000, the project Ahead of schedule and over budget.
      CV เป็นลบ หมายความว่าการทำงานนั้นต้นทุนที่เกิดขึ้นจริงมากกว่าที่ได้วางแผนไว้
      SV เป็นบวก แสดงว่าการทำงานนั้นใช้เวลาน้อยกว่าที่ได้วางแผนไว้

    2. The project manager of a multinational project discovers that the project which had been on track, has suddenly fallen behind schedule. After review, the project manager determines that the schedule is not being clearly communicated to a key supplier. The project manager should Review and update the communications management plan to ensure that correct information is understood by the supplier to address this issue.
    B-)
    • Project Delay กับการทำงานเกินเวลา - Working Over Time - Your Exception or Norm?:
      image
      การทำงานเกินเวลาสร้างปัญหามากมายอย่างที่ทุกคนรู้ (แต่แกล้งทำเป็นลืม): ประสิทธิภาพในการทำงานลดลง, คุณภาพงานลดลง, ขวัญกำลังใจแย่ลง, สุขภาพทรุดโทรม
      อย่าคิดถึงทำงานเกินเวลาเป็นตัวเลือกแรกเพื่อ Project Delay ต้อง (1) ลด Scope และ (2) ขยาย Schedule
      การทำงานเกินเวลาควรจะเป็นข้อยกเว้น (Exception) ไม่ใช่ธรรมเนียมปฏิบัติ (Norm)
      medium.com/pure-project-management/-10a058c7d36f

    • www.coraline.co.th/single-post/2018/01/07/แนวคิดการทำงานของบริษัทยุคใหม่แบบ“Agile”

    • ที่มาของ Agile Development - Marshmallow Challenge:
      1. ไม่ได้มีโอกาสครั้งเดียวในการบรรลุเป้าหมาย ลงมือทำ ล้มเหลวให้เร็ว ปรับปรุงคุณภาพมีประสิทธิภาพกว่า
      2. อย่าทำงานชิ้นใหญ่ในครั้งเดียว แบ่งงานเป็นส่วนเล็กๆ และมุ่งมั่นไปที่เป้าหมาย ทดลองเสมอ
      3. หลายครั้ง Team ต้องการคนที่มีทักษะในเรื่องการประสานงาน เข้าใจกระบวนการทำงาน นิสัยคนใน Team
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/agile-development-e87542982e7b

    • ความหมายอย่างสั้นของ Agile Development - Early Delivery of Business Value:
      เป็นหลักการ เป็นปรัชญาที่ใช้เพื่อส่งมอบคุณค่าทางธุรกิจให้เร็วขึ้นหรือตั้งแต่เนิ่นๆ ถ้า Team เราทำได้ดังนี้ก็ถือว่าเป็น Agile หรือ Agility แล้ว
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/agile-development-76dd6844eed1

    • หลักการของ Agile Development - Twelve principles to build sustainable & efficient agile team:
      1. สิ่งที่สำคัญสูงสุดคือการทำให้ลูกค้าพึงพอใจด้วยการส่งมอบ Software ที่มีคุณค่าอย่างรวดเร็วและต่อเนื่อง
      2. ยินดีให้มีการเปลี่ยนแปลงความต้องการได้แม้ในระยะสุดท้ายเพื่อให้ลูกค้ามีความได้เปรียบในการแข่งขัน
      3. ส่งมอบ Software อย่างสม่ำเสมอ จากทุกไม่กี่สัปดาห์ถึงไม่กี่เดือนและถ้าเป็นไปได้ ระยะเวลายิ่งสั้นยิ่งดี
      4. คนที่ทำงานด้านธุรกิจและนักพัฒนาต้องทำงานร่วมกันทุกวันตลอดทั้ง Project
      5. สร้าง Project จากกลุ่มคนที่มีแรงจูงใจทำงาน ให้สภาพแวดล้อมที่ดีและสนับสนุน และเชื่อมั่นในเขา
      6. วิธีการที่มีประสิทธิผลและประสิทธิภาพสูงสุดในการสื่อสารข้อมูลระหว่าง Team พัฒนาคือการเจอหน้ากัน
      7. Software ที่ทำงานได้เป็นตัวชี้วัดหลักสำหรับความคืบหน้าของงาน
      8. ผู้บริหาร นักพัฒนา และผู้ใช้หรือลูกค้าควรจะรักษาความเร็วในการพัฒนาที่คงที่อย่างไม่มีที่สิ้นสุด
      9. การให้ความสนใจอย่างต่อเนื่องในความเป็นเลิศในด้าน Technical และการออกแบบจะเพิ่มความคล่องตัว
      10. ความง่าย - ศิลปะในการเพิ่มสิ่งที่ไม่ต้องทำหรือไม่ควรทำ - นั้นเป็นเรื่องสำคัญ
      11. การวางโครงสร้างระบบ ความต้องการของลูกค้า และการออกแบบที่ดีที่สุดมาจาก Team ที่จัดการตัวเองได้
      12. พิจารณาว่าจะทำงานให้มีประสิทธิภาพมากขึ้นได้อย่างไร? สม่ำเสมอ และเปลี่ยนพฤติกรรมให้เป็นตามนั้น
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/agile-development-d1b58fe55be8

    • เจตนารมณ์ของ Agile Development - Manifesto for Agile Development:
      1. ให้ความสำคัญกับบุคคลและการมีปฏิสัมพันธ์กัน มากกว่ากระบวนการและเครื่องไม้เครื่องมือ
      2. ให้ความสำคัญกับ Software ที่ใช้งานได้ มากกว่าเอกสารที่ครบถ้วนสมบูรณ์
      3. ให้ความสำคัญในการทำงานร่วมกับลูกค้า มากกว่าการเจรจาต่อรองกันเรื่องสัญญา
      4. ให้ความสำคัญกับการตอบสนองกับการเปลี่ยนแปลง มากกว่าการทำตามแผนงานเพียงอย่างเดียว
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/agile-development-6cedc8c045de

    • Agile Development กับวิธีปฏิบัติยอดนิยม - Famous Agile Development Practices:
      1. มุ่งสร้าง "Sustainable & Efficient Early Delivery of Business Value"
      2. เน้นการทดลอง (Empirical) แทนที่จะทำตามทฤษฎี และกฏเกณฑ์เพียงอย่างเดียว
      3. พัฒนาปรับปรุงอย่างสม่ำเสมอ (Continuous Improvement)
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/agile-development-b7d61389f1de

    • Kanban's Rules:
      image
      1. Visualize the workflow: แบ่งงานใหญ่ให้เป็นชิ้นเล็กๆ เขียนลงบนกระดาษหรือ Card และติดไว้บนผนัง
      2. Limit number of work in progress (WIP): กำหนดตัวเลขสูงสุดของงานที่จะมีอยู่ได้ในแต่ละ Column
      3. Measure the lead time: วัดเวลาเฉลี่ยที่ใช้ในการทำงานให้เสร็จ (Cycle Time) ต้องปรับปรุงเสมอ
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-a7e063411d1e

    • ประโยชน์ของ Kanban และ Kanban Board - Benefits of using Kanban and Kanban Board:
      image
      1. คนเห็นง่ายเพราะติดอยู่บนกระดานหรือกำแพง
      2. เห็นขั้นตอนการทำงานชัดเจนจากชื่อ Column
      3. เห็นสถานะของงาน (Card) ว่าอยู่ในขั้นตอนไหนอย่างชัดเจนเช่นกัน
      4. เห็นว่างานไหนเสร็จแล้ว (ได้กำลังใจ)
      5. เข้าใจภาพรวมของปริมาณงานในแต่ละ Team หรือแต่ละคน
      6. รู้ว่าปัญหาอยู่ที่ขั้นตอนไหน
      7. รู้ได้ว่างานไหนใช้เวลาทำนานผิดปกติถ้ามีการเขียนวันเริ่มงาน (Start Date) บน Card
      8. ช่วยในการคำนวณ Lead Time (Cycle Time) ได้ง่ายๆ ด้วยสูตร Lead Time = End Date - Start Date
      9. มีส่วนช่วยหรือผลักดันให้คนใน Team พูดคุยกันในเรื่องงานและปัญหาที่เจออยู่
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/kanban-kanban-board-75429221a775

    • ที่มาของ Work In Progress (WIP) - Where does WIP come from?:
      image
      การจำกัดปริมาณงานที่ทำได้ในเวลาหนึ่งๆ จะช่วยให้งานเสร็จมากขึ้น Multi-Tasking เป็นตัวทำลาย Productivity
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/work-in-progress-wip-f41872417fa2

    • ผลกระทบของ WIP ที่มีต่อการทำงาน - The WIP Effect:
      เมื่อมีการเพิ่มความสำคัญของงาน F ทำให้มี WIP เพิ่มเข้ามา เราจะทำอย่างไรดี?
      1. Accept Change (รับ F มาทำทันที): นอกจากจะเสียวินัยแล้วยังอาจเกิดปัญหาคอขวดที่ขั้นตอนต่อไป
      2. Reject Change: ทำเป็นงานแรกเมื่อ WIP ว่าง แต่จะไม่ Responding to Change over Following Plan
        เหมาะเวลา WIP นึงใกล้จะเสร็จแล้ว เพราะหยุดงานที่ทำอยู่ เริ่มทำงานใหม่ และกลับมา มี Overhead สูง
      3. Increase WIP (เพิ่ม WIP เพื่อรับงานทันที): ข้อเสียก็จะเหมือนข้อ 1. Accept Change
      4. Accept Change & Remove Existing (รับมาทำทันทีโดยเลือกงานหนึ่งออกไป): OK, WIP เท่าเดิม
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/wip-4c52d703d43d

    • จำเป็นต้องมี WIP ในทุกขั้นตอนการทำงาน? - Do we need a WIP for every step?:
      • ถ้าไม่กำหนดเลย: มีงานให้ทำล้นมือไปหมดแต่งานไม่ค่อยเสร็จ
      • กำหนดบางขั้นตอน: เป็นไปได้ที่จะเกิดปัญหาคอขวด
      • กำหนดทุกขั้นตอนที่มีการทำงานเกิดขึ้นจริง: ปัญหาคอขวดจะน้อยลง งานจะไหลได้คล่องมากขึ้น
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/wip-e2fa01705965

    • WIP กับการประยุกต์ใช้ - WIP and Its Applications:
      เราสามารถดัดแปลงตัวเลข WIP เพื่อสร้างแนวทางในการทำงานใหม่ๆ ที่น่าสนใจได้ ตัวอย่าง:
      1. WIP = 2 ไม่ได้แปลว่าจะมีได้แค่สองงาน แต่มันคือจะมีงานจากไม่เกินสอง Project เท่านั้น
      2. ระบุ Delayed Tasks เมื่องานอยู่บน Kanban Board นานกว่าค่าเฉลี่ยของ Lead Time / Cycle Time
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/wip-a8468c1b057

    • เมื่อไม่สามารถเริ่มงานใหม่เพราะ WIP เต็ม - What to do when your WIP is full?:
      Team จะหยุดงานทั้งหมดเพื่อช่วยกันทำให้งานที่สร้างปัญหาคอขวดเสร็จไปก่อน โดยจะแก้ที่ปลายน้ำก่อน
      Test > Integrate > Dev
      image
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/wip-fc8e7141f3

    • ความสัมพันธ์ของ WIP, Cycle Time และปริมาณงาน - A Relationship of WIP, Cycle Time, and Number of Features:
      image
      WIP น้อยเหมือนโดนบังคับให้ทำงานจำนวนน้อยๆ ให้เสร็จ ทำให้เวลาที่ใช้ในงานแต่ละงาน (Cycle Time) จะน้อย
      จุดที่ 1, 2, และ 3 ... จุดอิ่มตัว (Equilibrium Point) ไหนเหมาะสมกับ Team เราที่สุด อันนี้ต้องลองเลือกเอง
      medium.com/agile-development-in-thai/wip-cycle-time-6b03ccdf9f79
    B-)