IELTS
  • เรียน IELTS ที่ไหนดี ?
    คำถามยอดฮิต ฮิตมากจนใน google มีแต่โฆษณาเต็มไปหมด เรามาเปรียบเทียบแต่ละที่กันเลยดีกว่า
    • I-Genius 500 ชั่วโมง 49,000 ฿ Gaurantee 6.5 = 15 ฿/ชั่วโมง/คะแนน
      ต้องสอบให้ผ่าน 4.5 และต้องเซ็นต์ชื่อเข้าเรียนครบ 80% ก่อน ถึงจะรับรองผล ต้องบอกด้วยว่าจะเอารับรองผล ผมโดนมากับตัวเองคับ ก็นึกว่าไม่มีเงื่อนไขอะไร ใกล้หมดคอร์สเท่านั้นแหละ เจอตอเข้าให้ กลับไปแก้อดีตไม่ได้แล้ว
    • House of Griffin 160 ชั่วโมง 37,000 ฿ Gaurantee 6.0 = 39 ฿/ชั่วโมง/คะแนน
    • Thesmarttutor 96 ชั่วโมง 34,500 ฿ สอบฟรี 1 ครั้ง 6,300 Guarantee 6.5 = 46 ฿/ชั่วโมง/คะแนน
    • IELTSThai 133 ชั่วโมง 37,600 ฿ Gaurantee 6.0 = 48 ฿/ชั่วโมง/คะแนน
    • EduFirst 72 ชั่วโมง 92,000 ฿ Gaurantee 6.5 = 197 ฿/ชั่วโมง/คะแนน
    • Realistic English ชั่วโมงละ 1,500 ฿ Gaurantee 7.0 = 215 ฿/ชั่วโมง/คะแนน
    • British Council 117 ชั่วโมง 35,000 ฿ = 300 ฿/ชั่วโมง
    • Westminster 240 ชั่วโมง 79,600 ฿ = 332 ฿/ชั่วโมง
    • Trinity Thailand 69 ชั่วโมง 22,900 ฿ = 332 ฿/ชั่วโมง
    • IELTS INSTITUTE 130 ชั่วโมง 44,600 ฿ = 344 ฿/ชั่วโมง
    • Chulatutor 44 ชั่วโมง 18,000 ฿ = 410 ฿/ชั่วโมง
    • New Cambridge 226 ชั่วโมง 94,000 ฿ = 416 ฿/ชั่วโมง
    ใครไปเรียนที่ไหนมาแล้วดี มาบอกกันบ้างนะคับ

    Articles
    http://www.ielts.in.th/Articles/grammar-tips/ความแตกต่างของ-a-number-of-กับ-the-number-of.html


    สองความหมายอันแตกต่างกันของ any number of
    http://www.ielts.in.th/Articles/grammar-tips/15.html

    http://www.4shared.com/rar/HWwX0PZB/101_Helpful_Hints_For_IELTS.html

    http://www.ielts.in.th/Articles/grammar-tips/amount-or-number.html

    http://www.ielts.in.th/Articles/grammar-tips/if-structures-part-i.html


    Basic English for Beginners

    Part of Speech

    Nouns


    (คำนาม) คือคำที่ใช้เรียกชื่อ คน สัตว์ สิ่งของ สถานที่ คุณสมบัติ สถานการณ์ การกระทำ

    A. How to use!

    คำนามแบ่งออกได้เป็น 2 ชนิด คือ

    1. นามนับได้ (Countable Noun)

      นามประเภทนี้สามารถแยกออกมานับเป็นจำนวน หนึ่ง สอง สาม หรือ แยกออกมาเป็นชิ้นๆ หรือเป็นอันได้ กล่าวคือ ไม่ต้องใส่ลงในสิ่งของอย่างอื่นก็สามารถแยกนับได้เลย เช่น คนหนึ่งคน (one man) คนสองคน (two men) หรือยกตัวอย่างเช่น นกหนึ่งตัว (one bird) นกสองตัว (two birds) เป็นต้น

      จะเห็นว่านามที่นับได้นั้น สามารถแยกออกมานับได้ ทำเป็นพหูพจน์ (Plural) ได้ และใช้ตัวเลขเข้ามาประกอบนับจำนวนได้

    2. นามนับไม่ได้ (Uncountable Noun)

      นามประเภทนี้ไม่สามารถแยกแยะออกมานับเป็นชิ้นๆ หรือเป็นอันๆ ได้ ต้องรวมตัวกันอยู่เป็นกลุ่มๆ เป็นหมู่ หรือเป็นก้อนเท่านั้น และการนับก็คงเป็นไปในลักษณะของการแสดงจำนวนว่า มาก หรือ น้อย ด้วยปริมาณเพียงคร่าวๆ เช่น น้ำมาก หรือ น้ำน้อย (much water/little water) จะนับว่าน้ำหนึ่งชิ้น หรือสองชิ้นไม่ได้

      • นามนับไม่ได้ที่ไม่มีตัวตนหรือรูปร่าง เช่น ความสุข (happiness) หรือ ความทุกข์ (distress)
      • นามนับไม่ได้ที่มีตัวตนหรือมีรูปร่างแต่นับไม่ได้ เช่น น้ำ (water) หรือ น้ำมัน (oil)
      • นามนับไม่ได้ที่มีตัวตนหรือมีรูปต่างแต่แยกออกมานับไม่ได้ต้องมีภาชนะบรรจุ เช่น ข้าว (rice) หรือ น้ำตาล (sugar)

      Note: ดังนั้น นามที่นับไม่ได้จึงมีรูปเป็นพหูพจน์ไม่ได้ เป็นได้แต่เอกพจน์อย่างเดียว และนับได้เพียงการกะคร่าวๆ ว่าน้อย หรือมากเท่านั้น แต่ถ้าจะแยกนับต้องมีคำศัพท์อื่นมาเชื่อมต่อจึงนับได้ เช่น น้ำหนึ่งหยด (a drop of water) สบู่สามก้อน (three bars of soap)

      B-) Example of uncountable nouns

      water, iron, air, silver
      oil, copper, coffee, stone
      chalk, earth, meat, cotton
      mud, wood, beef, gold
      sugar, brick, salt, cement
      blood, wire, sand, cloth
      soap, wool, bread, timber
      flour, paper, milk, liquor
      tea, beer, coal, ice
      ink, cheese, iron, fruit
      butter, pork, wheat

      ยังมีวิธีที่จะนับได้ โดยอาศัยภาชนะหรือคำศัพท์อื่นๆ เข้ามาประกอบเพื่อให้เป็นนามนับได้ ดังนี้

      two sacks of sand, three lumps of sugar
      a glass of milk, a loaf of bread
      a piece of chalk, three bottles of ink
      five cups of tea, a bar of soap
      two drops of water, a bag of flour
      a bag of salt, a cup of coffee
      a drop of blood, a ton of coal

    B-) Number of Nouns

    1. Singular หมายถึง คน สัตว์ หรือสิ่งของที่มีเพียงคนเดียว ตัวเดียว หรือสิ่งเดียว เช่น

      a man - He is a man.
      a cat - She has a cat at home.
      a book - Susie is reading a book.

    2. Plural หมายถึง คน สัตว์ หรือสิ่งของที่มากกว่าหนึ่งขึ้นไป

      two men - There are two men in the classroom.
      three cats - Three cats slept on my bed.
      four books - My friend bought me four books.

    วิธีเปลี่ยนนามเอกพจน์ให้เป็นพหูพจน์

    1. ให้เติม s หลังนามเอกพจน์ทั่วๆ ไป

      Singular | Plural
      book | books
      cat | cats
      pen | pens
      girl | girls
      bird | birds
      river | rivers
      star | stars
      month | months
      arm | arms
      hand | hands

    2. เติม s ได้เลยเมื่อนามนั้นลงท้ายด้วย e

      Singular | Plural
      house | houses
      face | faces
      nose | noses
      cause | causes
      size | sizes
      bridge | bridges
      plate | plates
      place | places

    3. คำนามเอกพจน์ใดก็ตามที่ลงท้ายด้วย s, ss, x, sh, ch, z, ให้เติม es

      Singular | Plural
      bus | buses
      glass | glasses
      box | boxes
      bush | bushes
      bench | benches
      buzz | buzzes
      topaz | topazes

    4. คำนามเอกพจน์ที่ลงท้ายด้วย o และหน้า o เป็นพยัญชนะให้เติม es

      Singular | Plural
      hero | heroes
      tomato | tomatoes
      mango | mangoes
      torpedo | torpedoes

      ยกเว้น: นามที่ลงท้ายด้วย o ต่อไปนี้ให้เติมแค่ s เท่านั้น แม้หน้า o จะเป็นพยัญชนะหรือสระก็ตาม

      Singular | Plural
      bamboo | bamboos
      studio | studios
      radio | radios
      kilo | kilos
      piano | pianos
      zoo | zoos
      photo | photos
      memo | memos

    5. คำนามเอกพจน์ที่ลงท้ายด้วย y และหน้า y เป็นพยัญชนะให้เปลี่ยน y เป็น i แล้วเติม es

      Singular | Plural
      city | cities
      baby | babies
      country | countries
      fly | flies
      duty | duties
      army | armies
      penny | pennies
      story | stories
      lady | ladies
      pony | ponies
      body | bodies

      ยกเว้น: ถ้าหน้า y เป็นสระ ไม่ต้องเปลี่ยน y เป็น i ให้เติม s ได้เลย

      Singular | Plural
      monkey | monkeys
      day | days
      toy | toys
      boy | boys
      key | keys

    6. คำนามเอกพจน์ที่ลงท้ายด้วย f หรือ fe ให้เปลี่ยน f หรือ fe เป็น v เสียก่อนแล้วจึงเติม es

      Singular | Plural
      knife | knives
      wife | wives
      leaf | leaves
      wolf | wolves
      life | lives
      loaf | loaves

      ยกเว้น: นามที่ลงท้ายด้วย f หรือ fe ต่อไปนี้ไม่ต้องเปลี่ยน f หรือ fe เป็น v ให้เติม s ได้เลย

      Singular | Plural
      chief | chiefs
      roof | roofs
      cliff | cliffs
      safe | safes
      proof | proofs
      hoof | hoofs

    7. นามเอกพจน์ต่อไปนี้เมื่อทำให้เป็นพหูพจน์ ให้เปลียนสระภายใน

      Singular | Plural
      man | men
      woman | women
      foot | feet
      louse | lice
      goose | geese
      mouse | mice
      tooth | teeth

    8. นามเอกพจน์ต่อไปนี้ เมื่อทำเป็นพหูพจน์ ให้เติม en หรือ ren ที่ท้ายนามนั้น

      Singular | Plural
      ox | oxen
      child | children

    9. นามต่อไปนี้รูปศัพท์เป็นพหูพจน์ แต่ใช้อย่างเอกพจน์ คือมีรูปเดียวเป็นพหูพจน์ แต่ให้เป็นเอกพจน์

      politics | physics
      news | civics
      means | economics
      statistics | headquarters
  • 32 Comments sorted by
  • fear v. 1 be afraid of something or someone: Do you fear the dark? กลัว 2 have a feeling that there will be trouble, danger, pain, etc.: I'll try to hurry but I fear I'll be late. กลัวว่า, เกรงว่า n. for fear of, because you are worried about something: We talked softly for fear of waking the baby. โดยกลัวว่า
    fridge abbrev. refrigerator; cold cupboard for food. ตู้เย็น
    guy n. 1 man; fellow: He's a nice guy. หนุ่มๆ, ผู้ชาย 2 sort of big doll that English children burn on Guy Fawkes Day. หุ่น
    left adj. opposite of right: I always kick the ball with my left foot. ซ้าย adv.: Turn left when you reach the church. ซ้ายมือ n.: In England we drive on the left. ด้านซ้าย past part. & past tense of v. leave. ออกจาก, ละทิ้ง
    matter n. 1 (no pl.) what everything is made of. วัตถุ 2 (pl. matters) affair; something to talk about or do: There is a business matter I must talk to you about. เรื่องราว as a matter of fact, words that you say when you are going to tell someone a new, true, and interesting thing: I'm going home early - as a matter of fact it's my birthday. อันที่จริง what's the matter? what is wrong? มีอะไรหรือ 3 (no pl.) being important. no matter, it's not important. ไม่สำคัญ no matter how, in any way. ไม่ว่าจะเป็นอย่างไร no matter who, whoever it is: Don't open the door - no matter who knocks. ไม่ว่าจะเป็นใคร no matter what, whatever happens. ไม่ว่าอะไรจะเกิดขึ้น no matter why, whatever the reason. ไม่ว่าจะเพราะอะไร v. be important: It doesn't matter that you come late. สำคัญ
    mess n. (pl. messes) many things, all in the wrong place, untidy and dirty: After the party there was a terrible mess in the room. เลอะเทอะ in a mess, (a) untidy: The room was in a mess. ระเกะระกะ (b) in trouble: Can you help me? I'm in a mess. ลำบาก, ยุ่งยาก v. mess about, mess around, do something in a silly way; play when you should be working: You'll never finish this job if you mess about. ทำให้วุ่นวาย mess something up, make something go wrong: The pilots' strike messed up our holiday. ทำให้วุ่น
    seem v. make you think that something is so: That apple is bad but this one seems all right. ดูเหมือน seem as if, seem as though, be likely that: It seems as though Ken will win the race. ดูเหมือนว่า
    steal v. (past part.stolen, past tense stole) 1 secretly take something that is not yours: Someone has stolen my money. ขโมย 2 move quietly, so that people do not hear you: I was late for work so I stole past my boss's office. ย่องออกมา
    E. Games!
    I can think of six thin things and of six thick things too.

    am/is/are Usage
    A. How to use!
    A. Forms
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]| Negative[/td][td]| Question[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]I am[/td][td]| I am not[/td][td]| Am I?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]She is[/td][td]| She is not[/td][td]| Is she?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]He is[/td][td]| He is not[/td][td]| Is he?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]It is[/td][td]| It is not[/td][td]| Is it?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]You are[/td][td]| You are not[/td][td]| Are you?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]We are[/td][td]| We are not[/td][td]| Are we?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]They are[/td][td]| They are not[/td][td]| Are they?[/td][/tr][/table]
    Short forms:
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Negative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]I'm[/td][td]I'm not[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]He, She, It's[/td][td]He, She, It's not[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]You, We, They're[/td][td]You, We, They're not[/td][/tr][/table]
    B. Questions
    Yes-No Questions
    [table][tr][td]Are you tired?[/td][td]Yes, I am.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Are you hungry?[/td][td]No, I'm not but I'm thirsty.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Is your friend English?[/td][td]Yes, he is.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Are these your keys?[/td][td]Yes, they are.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]That's my seat.[/td][td]No, it isn't[/td][/tr][/table]
    WH-Questions
    [table][tr][td]Where is your mother?[/td][td]She is in the kitchen.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]What is in your pocket?[/td][td]It's my nail-scissors.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]How are your parents?[/td][td]They're well.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]How much are these postcards?[/td][td]Fifty pence.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Where is your friend from?[/td][td]She is from Canada.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]How old is Joe?[/td][td]He's 24.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Why are you angry?[/td][td]Because, she is late.[/td][/tr][/table]
    B. Conversation!
    [table][tr][td]David:[/td][td]What's your sister Anita doing?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]John:[/td][td]She's practicing tennis.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]David:[/td][td]Does she practice very often?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]John:[/td][td]Yes, she does. She practices every day after school.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]David:[/td][td]Is she a good tennis player?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]John:[/td][td]Yes, she is. Her tennis instructor says she's excellent, and her friends tell her she plays tennis better than anyone else in the school.[/td][/tr][/table]
    C. Try out!
    1. She is a nurse in BNH hospital now.
    2. Sorry, I am late because of the bus strike.
    3. Susan and Cara are good friends.
    4. Sophie's car is blue.
    5. Jenny's parents are doctors.
    6. They are now very friendly.
    7. I am getting better than it was yesterday.
    8. The students are doing their homework right now.
    9. What color is your car?
    10. My favorite sport isn't soccer, but hiking.
    11. How old is your grandmother?
    12. Tom and I are friends. We have been friends for 13 years
    13. My father and my mother are very proud of me this time.
    14. Sara isn't a website designer but she is an engineer.
    15. Jan is a student at I-Genius also.
    16. (at home / your mother?) Is your mother at home?
    17. (your parents / well?) Are your parents well?
    18. (interesting / your job?) Is your job interesting?
    19. (the shops / open today?) Are the shops open today?
    20. (interested in sports / your dad?) Is your dad interested in sports?
    21. (near here / the post office?) Is the post office near here?
    22. (at school / your children?) Are your children at school?
    23. (why / you / late?) Why are you late?
    24. (where / she / staying?) Where is she staying?
    25. (this exercise / very difficult?) Is this exercise very difficult?
    D. Vocabulary
    excellent adj. very good: an excellent film. excellently adv. ดีมาก, ดีวิเศษ, ยอดเยี่ยม
    instructor n. someone who teaches or trains: a driving instructor. อาจารย์, ครูฝึก
    penny n. (pl. pence or pennies) piece of British money. เพนนี (หน่วยเงินของอังกฤษ และอเมริกัน)
    pocket n. small bag in your clothes for carrying things: I have a handkerchief in my pocket. กระเป๋า (เสื้อ, กางเกง, กระโปรง) pick someone's pocket, steal from someone's pocket. ล้วงกระเป๋า
    practice n. 1 (no pl.) doing something: training; doing something often, so that you will do it well: It takes a lot of practice to play the piano well. การฝึกฝน in practice, good at something because you have trained well. ในทางปฏิบัติ out of practice, not good at something, because you have not trained much. ขาดการฝึกฝน 2 (pl. practices) work of a doctor or lawyer: Dr. Price has a large practice. งานบางประเภทที่ต้องมีการฝึกฝน เช่น แพทย์, ทนาย
    strike n. time when workers will not work because they want more money or are angry about something. นัดหยุดงาน on strike, refusing to work: There are no trains because the train-drivers are on strike. การนัดหยุดงาน v. (past part. struck stricken past tense struck) 1 hit someone or something: He struck me with a stick. ตี 2 hit a bell to tell the hour: At midday the clock strikes twelve. ตี(นาฬิกา) 3 stop working because you want more money or are angry about something: The workers at the factory are striking for more pay. นัดหยุดงาน 4 make someone think something. it strikes me, I think: It strikes me that he is worried about something. คิดว่า
    E. Games
    "The students in my English Class"
    The students in my English class are very interesting. Henry is Chinese. He's from Shanghai. Linda is Puerto Rican. She's from San Juan. Mr. and Mrs. Kim are Korean. They're from Seoul.
    George is Greek. He's from Athens. Carla is Italian. She's from Rome. Mr. and Mrs. Sato are Japanese. They're from Tokyo. My friend Maria and I are Mexican. We're from Mexico City.
    Yes, the students in my English class are very interesting. We're from many different countries... and we're friends.

    Article
    A. How to use!
    โดยทั่วไปแล้ว คำนาม ในภาษาอังกฤษจะต้องมีคำนำหน้า จะอยู่ลอยๆ แต่เพียงคำเดียวไม่ได้ ยกเว้นในบางกฎเกณฑ์ซึ่งจะกล่าวถึงต่อไป
    [list type=decimal][li]นามนับได้ ถ้าเป็นเอกพจน์ต้องมี a หรือ an นำหน้า
    This is a cat.
    This is an ant.[/li]
    [li]นามพหูพจน์ และนามที่นับไม่ได้ ไม่ต้องมีคำนำหน้าใดๆ
    Women like flowers.
    He wants to drink tea.[/li][/list]
    Article แบ่งเป็น 2 อย่าง
    [list type=decimal][li]Indefinite Article - a, an เมื่อนำหน้านามแล้ว หมายถึงนามที่มีเพียงสิ่งเดียวทั่วๆ ไป
    • [li]ใช้ a นำหน้านามที่เป็นเอกพจน์ ซึ่งนับได้ และขึ้นต้นด้วยเสียงพยัญชนะ
      a cat
      a book
      a table
      a boy[/li]
      [li]ใช้ a นำหน้านามที่เป็นเอกพจน์ ที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยสระ แต่ออกเสียงเป็นพยัญชนะหรือนามที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยสระแต่มีคำคุณศัพท์ ที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยพยัญชนะมาขยายอยู่ข้างหน้า
      a university
      a European
      a uniform
      a big orange[/li]
      [li]ใช้ an นำหน้านามที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยสระหรือนามที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยพยัญชนะแต่ออกเสียงเป็นสระ และนามนั้นเป็นเอกพจน์ซึ่งนับได้
      an orange
      an egg
      an hour[/li]
      [li]ใช้ an นำหน้านามเอกพจน์ ที่นับได้และขึ้นต้นด้วยพยัญชนะแต่มีคำคุณศัพท์ ที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยสระเข้ามาขยายข้างหน้าคำนามนั้น
      He is an important person.
      She is an attractive girl.[/li]
      [li]ใช้ a หรือ an นำหน้าคำนามที่เป็นชื่อของสัญชาติหรืออาชีพเสมอ
      My father is a teacher.
      I am a Thai.
      Roger is an American.[/li]
      [li]ใช้ a หรือ an นำหน้าคำนามที่แสดงความเจ็บไข้ได้ป่วย
      have a pain in the chest
      have a headache
      have a cough
      have a toothache
      have an earache[/li]
    [/li]
    [li]Definite Article - the เมื่อนำหน้านามแล้ว หมายถึงนามสิ่งนั้นหรือสิ่งนี้โดยเฉพาะเจาะจงลงไปเลย
    • [li]the เมื่อนำหน้าคำนามที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยพยัญชนะหรืออ่านออกเสียงเป็นพยัญชนะ ให้อ่านออกเสียง เดอะ
      the table
      the university[/li]
      [li]the เมื่อนำหน้าคำนามที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยเสียงสระอ่านออกเสียง ดิ
      the orange
      the ant[/li]
      [li]ใช้ the นำหน้านามเอกพจน์ที่นับได้ในกรณีที่นามนั้นถูกกล่าวถึงเป็นครั้งที่ 2 หรือครั้งต่อๆ ไปในเรื่องเดียวกันนั้น
      A white cat and a black cat lived in the same house. One week later, the white cat died. So, the black cat lived alone.[/li]
      [li]ใช้ the นำหน้านามที่ชี้เฉพาะลงไปโดยปริยายกล่าวคือ ทั้งผู้พูดและผู้ฟังต่างก็รู้กันอยู่แล้วว่า หมายถึงอะไร สิ่งไหน หรือ คนไหน
      Please shut the door.[/li]
      [li]ใช้ the นำหน้านามที่มีอยู่เพียงสิ่งเดียวในโลก และสิ่งนั้นเป็นที่ทราบกันอยู่ทั่วไป
      [table][tr][td]the sun[/td][td]the moon[/td][td]the world[/td][/tr]
      [tr][td]the earth[/td][td]the universe[/td][td]the equator[/td][/tr]
      [tr][td]the north[/td][td]the east[/td][td]the south[/td][/tr]
      [tr][td]the west[/td][td]the White House[/td][td]the sky[/td][/tr][/table][/li]
    [/li][/list]
    C. Try it!
    1. This morning I bought a newspaper and a magazine. The newspaper is in my bag but I don't know where I put the magazine.
    2. I saw an accident this morning. A car crashed into the tree. The driver of a car wasn't hurt but the car was badly damaged.
    3. There are two cars parked outside: the blue one and the grey one. The blue one belongs to my neighbors; I don't know who an owner of the grey one is.
    4. My friends live in an old house in a small village. There is a beautiful garden behind the house.
    5. a This house is very nice. Has it got a garden?
        b It's a beautiful day. Let's sit in the garden.
        c I like living in this house but it's a pity that the garden is so small.
    6. a Can you recommend a good restaurant?
        b We had dinner in a very nice restaurant.
        c We had dinner in the most expensive restaurant in town.
    7. a She has a French name but in fact she's English, not French.
        b What's the name of that man we met yesterday?
        c We stayed at a very nice hotel - I can't remember the name now.
    8. a There isn't airport near where I live. The nearest airport is 70 miles away.
        b Our plane was delayed. We had to wait at the airport for three hours.
        c Excuse me, please. Can you tell me how to get to the airport?
    9. a Are you going away next week? No, the week after next.
        b I'm going away for a week in September.
        c George has a part-time job. He works three mornings a week.
    D. Vocabulary!
    car-park n. place where you can put your car for a time. ที่จอดรถ
    crash n. (pl. crashes) 1 an accident; two things coming together hard: a train crash. การชนกัน 2 big noise when something falls, breaks, etc.: I heard a crash as the tree fell. เสียงที่เกิดจากการปะทะกัน v. 1 fall or hit something hard and noisily: A stone crashed through the window. กระแทก 2 make something hit another thing hard: He crashed his car into a wall. ชนกัน, ปะทะ
    damage v. break or hurt something: The fire has badly damaged the house. ทำให้เสียหาย n. ความเสียหาย
    hurt v. (past part. & past tense hurt) 1 break, damage, or give pain to someone or something: Ben hurt his leg when he fell. ทำร้าย 2 feel pain: My shoes are so tight that my feet hurt. เจ็บ
    neighbour (Br.); neighbor (Am.) n. someone who lives in the next house or near you; thing or country that is near another: Holland is one of Germany's neighbours. เพื่อนบ้าน neighbouring adj. that is near: We went to a cinema in the neighbouring town. ใกล้ๆ
    owner n. someone who has something: Who is the owner of that red car? เจ้าของ
    pity n. (no pl.) sadness for the troubles, pain, etc. of another person: I felt pity for the blind child. ความสงสาร take or have pity on, feel sorry for someone and help him: She took pity on the beggar, and gave him some food. สงสาร it's a pity, what a pity, it is sad: What a pity you can't come to the party. น่าเสียดาย v. feel sorry for someone: I pity people who cannot sleep at night. สงสาร
    recommend v. 1 tell someone helpfully what to do or how to do it: What can you recommend for taking this mark off my shirt? แนะนำ 2 say that you think that a certain thing or person is good: Can you recommend a hotel in this town? แนะนำว่าดี recommendation n. at or on someone's recommendation, because someone recommends it: I bought this book on Jo's recommendation. คำแนะนำว่าดี
    E. Games!
    She sells seashells on the seashore.
    The shells she sells are seashells, I'm sure.

    Helping or Auxiliary Verbs (1)
    A. How to use!
    กริยาช่วยมีด้วยกันทั้งหมด 24 ตัวดังนี้
    [table][tr][td]Helping Verbs[/td][td]Negative[/td][td]Short Form[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]is[/td][td]is not[/td][td]isn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]am[/td][td]am not[/td][td]-[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]are[/td][td]are not[/td][td]aren't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]was[/td][td]was not[/td][td]wasn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]were[/td][td]were not[/td][td]weren't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]do[/td][td]do not[/td][td]don't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]does[/td][td]does not[/td][td]doesn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]did[/td][td]did not[/td][td]didn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]has[/td][td]has not[/td][td]hasn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]have[/td][td]have not[/td][td]haven't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]had[/td][td]had not[/td][td]hadn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]can[/td][td]can not[/td][td]can't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]could[/td][td]could not[/td][td]couldn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]may[/td][td]may not[/td][td]mayn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]might[/td][td]might not[/td][td]mightn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]will[/td][td]will not[/td][td]won't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]would[/td][td]would not[/td][td]wouldn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]shall[/td][td]shall not[/td][td]shan't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]should[/td][td]should not[/td][td]shouldn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]must[/td][td]must not[/td][td]mustn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]need[/td][td]need not[/td][td]needn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]dare[/td][td]dare not[/td][td]daren't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]ought[/td][td]ought not[/td][td]oughtn't[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]used to[/td][td]used not to[/td][td]usedn't to[/td][/tr][/table]
    [list type=decimal][li]Verb to be
    ได้แก่คำว่า is, am, are, was, were แปลว่า "เป็น, อยู่, คือ"
    be เป็นรูปเดิมเมื่อกระจายรูปจะได้เป็น is, am, are เปลี่ยนเป็นช่องที่สองคือ was were และเปลี่ยนเป็นช่องที่สามคือ been ใช้กับ
    Present tense (ปัจจุบันกาล)
    is ใช้กับประธานเอกพจน์ (He, She, It)
    am ใช้กับประธานคำว่า (I)
    are ใช้กับประธานพหูพจน์ (You, We, They)
    Past tense (อดีตกาล)
    was ใช้กับประธานเอกพจน์ (He, She, It, I)
    were ใช้กับประธานพหูพจน์ (You, We, They)
    หน้าที่ของ verb to be
    [list type=decimal][li]ทำหน้าที่ช่วยกริยาตัวอื่นในประโยค continuous tense และประโยค Passive voice
    They are watching T.V.
    She was writing to her parents.
    A dog was killed by bad man.[/li]
    [li]ใช้กับประโยคที่มีคำนาม (noun) หรือคำคุณศัพท์ (adjective) ตามหลัง
    We are students.[/li]
    [li]ใช้กับประโยคขอร้องและคำสั่ง (ในรูปของ be) เช่น
    Be careful!
    Be gentle![/li][/list][/li]
    [li]Verb to do
    ได้แก่คำว่า do, does, did ใช้กับ
    Present tense (ปัจจุบันกาล)
    does ใช้กับประธานเอกพจน์ (He, She, It)
    do ใช้กับประธานพหูพจน์ (You, We, They, I)
    Past tense (อดีตกาล)
    did ใช้ได้ทั้งประธานเอกพจน์และประธานพหูพจน์ (He, She, It, I, You, We, They)
    Present Simple หรือ Past Simple เมื่อเราต้องการเปลี่ยนจากประโยคบอกเล่าเป็นประโยคคำถามและประโยคปฏิเสธ
    Present Simple
    She goes to school by bus.
    She doesn't go to school by bus.
    Does she go to school by bus?
    Past Simple
    David went to the post office yesterday.
    David didn't go to the post office yesterday.
    Did David go to the post office yesterday?
    Note: เมื่อเอา Verb to do เข้ามาช่วยกริยาจะต้องเป็น V1 เสมอ[/li]
    [li]Verb to have
    ได้แก่คำว่า has, have, had
    has ใช้กับประธานเอกพจน์ (He, She, It)
    have ใช้กับประธานพหูพจน์ (You, We, They, I)
    had ใช้ได้ทั้งประธานเอกพจน์และพหูพจน์ในรูปของ past (He, She, It, I, You, We, They)
    [list type=decimal][li]เราจะใช้กับ Present Perfect Tense และ Past Perfect tense เช่น
    Frank has seen the rainbow.
    Frank hasn't seen the rainbow.
    Has Frank seen the rainbow?
    They have watched the movie.
    They haven't watched the movie.
    Have they watched the movie?[/li]
    [li]Verb to have ที่เป็นกริยาแท้แปลว่า "มี" "รับประทาน" เช่น
    I have a new dress.
    I have lunch early every day.
    เมื่อต้องการทำเป็นประโยคปฏิเสธและคำถามให้เอา Verb to do มาช่วยเช่น
    We don't have a new home.
    Do we have a new home?[/li][/list][/li][/list]
    B. Conversation!
    Have you heard about Harry?
    [table][tr][td]Alex:[/td][td]Have you heard about Harry?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]John:[/td][td]No, I haven't. What happened?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Alex:[/td][td]He broke his leg last week.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]John:[/td][td]That's terrible! How did he do that?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Alex:[/td][td]He was roller-skating... and he had never roller-skated before.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]John:[/td][td]Poor Harry! I hope he feels better soon.[/td][/tr][/table]
    C. Try out!
    1. My mother is in the kitchen.
    2. The pupils are not at school today.
    3. Maria's grandmother is from Brazil.
    4. I am a football fan.
    5. It is Sunday today.
    6. They are in the car.
    7. His pencil case is at home.
    8. Are you from Sheffield?
    9. I am not your friend.
    10. Hey John! We are here.
    11. My mother likes chocolate, but she doesn't like biscuits.
    12. What do the children wear at your school?
    13. Lynn's father watches badminton on TV, but he doesn't watch judo.
    14. Where does the Masons buy their fruit?
    15. Does the cat like to sleep on the sofa?
    16. Dogs love bones, but they don't love cheese.
    17. Where do Sam and Ben hide their CDs?
    18. We eat pizza, but we don't eat hamburgers.
    19. Does Mrs. Miller read magazines?
    20. Do the boys play cricket outside?
    21. Uncle Steve has bought a new car.
    22. Stephanie has to swim on Friday.
    23. I have to finish my English homework.
    24. Jack and Sebastian have been engineers for three years now.
    25. Stephanie and Sonia have eaten already.
    26. My car has engine problems.
    27. You have to be careful when driving on the freeway near Ottumwa, Iowa.
    28. We have to be more responsible for our actions.
    29. The soccor team has advanced to the championship game.
    30. Jack has never really understood calculus.
    D. Vocabulary
    advance v. come or go forward: The soldiers advanced towards the enemy. ไปข้างหน้า n. in advance, before others; ahead of others: Neil went in advance to say that we were coming. ล่วงหน้า, ไปก่อนผู้อื่น
    calculus n. นิ่ว relate:{ก้อนนิ่ว} syn:(concretion)(stone), ระบบการคำนวณเกี่ยวกับจำนวนที่มีการเปลี่ยนแปลงอย่างต่อเนื่อง เช่น ความเร็วของหินที่ตกลงมา
    championship n. competition for first place in a sport, game, etc.: a swimming championship. การเป็นผู้ชนะเลิศ
    cricket n. brown, jumping insect. จิ้งหรีด (no pl.) ball game with two teams. คริกเก็ต (ชื่อกีฬา) cricketer n. someone who plays cricket.
    hear v. (past part. & past tense heard) 1 notice sounds with the ears: I can hear the neighbour's radio because it is so loud. ได้ยิน (เสียง) 2 receive information: Have you heard the news? ได้ยิน(ข่าว) hear from, get a letter, etc. from someone: Have you heard from your sister? ได้ข่าว hear of, know about someone or something: Who is he? I've never heard of him. รู้จัก will not hear of, will not agree to something: My boss won't hear of my leaving work early. ไม่ยอมรับ
    responsible adj. 1 with a duty to look after someone or something: The driver is responsible for the lives of the people on the train. รับผิดชอบ 2 whom you can trust to be good and wise: Leave the keys with Anne - she's very responsible. มีความรับผิดชอบ, ไว้ใจได้ be responsible for something, cause something; make something happen: Who's responsible for this broken window? รับผิดชอบ, ทำเสีย responsibly adv.
    terrible adj. 1 making you very afraid, very sad, or shocked: a terrible war. น่าเกลียด, น่ากลัว 2 very bad: They gave us terrible food at the hotel. แย่มาก

    Cambridge 1-7, Cambridge IELTS 8 - Book + Audio.rar, Check_your_Vocabulary_for_IELTS.pdf, general task1.docx, IELTS 150 Essays(Writing) From Past Papers With Answers [www.orhunt.com].pdf, IELTS General Writing task2.docx, IELTS Speaking.docx
    https://www.dropbox.com/sh/lir0fvtdon0lxx1/N9rMnYzVMY


    Helping or Auxiliary Verbs (2)
    A. How to use!
    [list type=decimal][li]can & could
    แปลว่า "สามารถ"
    [list type=decimal][li]ใช้กล่าวถึงความสามารถว่าสามารถทำสิ่งนี้สิ่งนั้นได้ เช่น
    I can play the piano.
    I can speak French.
    ในรูปประโยคปฏิเสธและคำถามสามารถใช้ can ได้เลยเช่น
    She can't drive.
    Can you drive?[/li]
    [li]เราจะไม่ใช้ can กับ infinitive หรือ participles แต่เมื่อจำเป็นเราจะใช้คำอื่นแทน เช่น
    Are you be able to go home late?
    She will be able to drive soon.[/li]
    [li]could เป็น past ของ can เราใช้ could สำหรับความสามารถทั่วไป หรือการอนุญาตเช่น
    She could speak three languages when she was five.
    He finished his home work. He could go out to play.[/li][/list]
    can และ could ใช้
    [list type=decimal][li]กับความสามารถ (ability)
    I can use a computer.[/li]
    [li]การขอหรือการให้อนุญาต
    Can I use your bicycle?
    You can leave early today.
    แต่ถ้าเป็นแบบสุภาพหรือเป็นทางการเราจะใช้ could เช่น
    Could you hand me that book, please?[/li]
    [li]การขอร้อง (requests)
    Can you ... ?
    Could you...? สุภาพกว่า
    Do you think you could...?
    Can you take this bag?
    Could you loan a hundred baht?
    Do you think you could help me move this box?[/li]
    [li]เสนอตัวเพื่อช่วยเหลือ (offers) เช่น
    Can I turn the air on for you?[/li]
    [li]พูดถึงความเป็นไปได้และคาดคะเนในสิ่งที่อาจจะเกิดขึ้น (possibility and probability)
    ใช้ can กับสถานการณ์หรือเหตุการณ์ที่เป็นไปได้ เช่น
    This road can be dangerous at night.[/li][/list][/li]
    [li]may & might
    [list type=decimal][li]ใช้กับการพูดถึงการมีโอกาสของบางสิ่งบางทีอาจเป็นจริงหรืออาจจะเกิดขึ้นเช่น
    We may take a day off next week.
    He might call me tonight.[/li]
    [li]might ไม่ได้เป็น past ของ may เราจะใช้ might เมื่อเรามีโอกาสที่น้อยกว่า may เช่น
    I may go to visit my parents in this weekend. (บางทีโอกาสจะเป็น 50%)
    Jane might go with me. (บางทีโอกาสจะเป็น 30%)[/li]
    [li]การใช้ may/might กับ have ใช้แสดงการคาดคะเนที่อาจจะเกิดขึ้นในอดีต
    may/might + have + V3
    She may have gone out when I phoned her.
    A: I can't find my book.
    B: You might have left it at school.[/li]
    [li]ใช้ may might ในการขออนุญาตเช่น
    May I sit here?
    I wonder if I might have another cup of coffee?[/li]
    [li]ใช้ may ในการอนุญาตและไม่อนุญาตเช่น
    Children may not play alone in the pool.
    A: May I turn the TV on?
    B: Yes, of course you may.[/li][/list][/li]
    [li]will & would
    will
    [list type=decimal][li]ใช้เมื่อเราพูดถึงอนาคต
    I will go to school early tomorrow.[/li]
    [li]ใช้ will แสดงการขอร้องอย่างสุภาพเช่น
    Will you open the door for me please?[/li][/list]
    would (Past Tense)
    [list type=decimal][li]ใช้ในประโยคขอร้องที่สุภาพกว่า will
    Would you turn the volume down please?[/li]
    [li]ใช้กับประโยค Would you mind if...
    Would you mind if I smoke?[/li]
    [li]ใช้ would กับคำ rather แปลว่า ควรจะ...ดีกว่า ตัวย่อ 'd rather
    ใช้ในการเลือกอย่างใดอย่างหนึ่ง
    I'd rather study harder this year than go to summer school.[/li]
    [li]ใช้ would กับ like to ในรูปคำถามเป็นการเชื้อเชิญเช่น
    Would you like to go dancing with me?[/li][/list][/li]
    [li]shall & should
    shall
    [list type=decimal][li]ใช้ในประโยคอนาคตกาล (Future tense) ตามปกติแล้ว shall ใช้กับ ประธาน I และ We[/li]
    [li]ใช้ในการเสนอหรือให้คำแนะนำ และใช้เมื่อขอคำแนะนำเราจะใช้
    Shall I...?
    Shall we ...?
    Shall I carry your books?
    Shall we go shopping?[/li][/list]
    should
    [list type=decimal][li]ใช้เมื่อพูดเกี่ยวกับภาระหน้าที่และความคิดเห็นที่ใกล้เคียงกันเช่น
    People should be careful about food.
    She shouldn't act like that in public.[/li]
    [li]ใช้ Should I...? สำหรับการขอคำแนะนำ การยื่นมือช่วยเหลือ เช่น
    Should I go out with him?
    Should I help you clean up this area?[/li]
    [li]ใช้เมื่อกล่าวถึงสิ่งที่ควรจะทำแปลว่า "ควรจะ" เช่น
    You work all day. You should take a rest.[/li]
    [li]ใช้ should have + V3 ใช้พูดเกี่ยวกับอดีตโครงสร้างนี้ใช้กับสิ่งที่ไม่ได้เกิดขึ้นหรืออาจจะเกิดขึ้นเช่น
    They should have arrived here by now.
    I should have written a note for him.[/li]
    [li]ใช้กับประโยค if clause เช่น
    If I had a lot of money, I would be happy.[/li][/list][/li]
    [li]must
    แปลว่า "ต้อง" ตามด้วยกริยาช่องที่ 1 มีหลักการใช้ดังนี้
    [list type=decimal][li]ใช้แสดงความจำเป็นที่ต้องกระทำ
    You must hand your homework in tomorrow.[/li]
    [li]ใช้ในการให้คำแนะนำหรือการสั่งกับตัวเราเองหรือกับบุคคลอื่นเช่น
    He really must stop drinking.
    You must sit there for two hours.
    You mustn't talk in the classroom.[/li]
    [li]เราใช้ have to แทน must ได้
    ความแตกต่างระหว่างการใช้ must และ have to
    must เป็นการสั่งความจำเป็นมาจากบุคคลที่กำลังพูดหรือกำลังฟัง
    have to พูดถึงความจำเป็นที่มาจากภายนอกบางทีอาจจะเพราะว่ากฎหมาย กฎระเบียบหรือเป็นข้อตกลงเช่น
    I must go home now. It's going to rain soon.
    You must stop smoking.
    I have to stop smoking because I'm sick.
    mustn't ใช้บอกบุคคลไม่ให้ทำสิ่งนั้นสิ่งนี้
    haven't got to, don't have to ใช้พูดในบางสิ่งที่ไม่สำคัญเช่น
    You mustn't tell Tom. มีความหมายว่า Don't tell Tom.
    You don't have to tell your wife. หมายความว่า
    You can if you like, but it is not necessary.[/li]
    [li]ใช้ must เมื่อพูดถึงสิ่งที่เราแน่ใจเช่น
    The boy keeps crying. He must be really sick.[/li][/list][/li]
    [li]used to
    แปลว่า "เคย" ปัจจุบันเราไม่นิยมใช้ used to ในรูปแบบของกริยาช่วยแล้ว เราใช้เฉพาะเป็นกริยาแท้พูดถึงสิ่งที่ทำเป็นนิสัยในอดีตซึ่งปัจจุบันได้หยุดไปแล้วเช่น
    I used to eat a lot.
    She used to be shy.
    เมื่อเป็นประโยคคำถามและประโยคปฏิเสธเราจะเอา Verb to do เข้ามาช่วย เมื่อเอา Verb to do จะต้องเปลี่ยน use ให้เป็นกริยาช่องที่ 1
    Did you use to have a dog?
    I didn't use to watch the news. (เป็นประโยคปฏิเสธเรานิยมใช้ never used to)
    I never used to watch the news.
    (be) used to + noun / ing แปลว่า "เคยชิน"
    I am used to driving at night.
    She is used to the cold weather.[/li][/list]
    B. Conversation!
    [table][tr][td]A:[/td][td]May I help you?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]B:[/td][td]Yes, please. I'm looking for a shirt.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]A:[/td][td]What size do you wear?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]B:[/td][td](Size Small/Medium/Large/Extra Large)[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]A:[/td][td]Here. How do you like it?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]B:[/td][td]Hmm. I think it's a little big. Do you have a smaller one?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]A:[/td][td]Yes. We have a wide selection. Why don't you look through all of our shirts and pick out the one you like?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]B:[/td][td]Can I try it on?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]A:[/td][td]Of course. You can try it on in the dressing room over there.[/td][/tr][/table]
    D. Vocabulary!
    admit v. (pres. part. admitting, past part. & past tense admitted) 1 say something that you did not want to say: I admit that I was rude and I am sorry. ยอมรับ 2 let someone or something in: We do not admit children to this film. รับ, อนุญาตให้เข้า
    agree v. 1 say 'yes' when someone has asked you to do something: Tom agreed to lend me the money that I wanted. ตกลง 2 decide together on an idea; have the same ideas: They all agreed on the plan. 3 say that something is true: 'It's hot.' 'I agree!' เห็นด้วย
    อานักซาโกรัส (Anaxagoras)
    http://www.baanjomyut.com/library_3/extension-1/western_philosophy/12.html

    believe v. think that something is true or right: Long ago people believed that the world was flat. เชื่อว่า
    breathe v. take air into and send it out from you nose and mouth. หายใจเข้าหรือออก
    carry v. 1 take someone or something from one place to another: The waiter carried the meal to the table. แบก, ถือ 2 hold or keep something up; bear the weight of something: The walls of the house carry the roof. แบกรับน้ำหนัก 3 contain; be able to have inside it: The car will carry five people. บรรจุ carry on, go on doing something: Carry on with your sewing while I read you a story. ทำต่อไป carry out, do or finish what you have planned: When can you carry out the repairs on my car? ทำตามแผน
    consider v. 1 think carefully about something or about what to do, etc.: Matthew is considering my idea. พิจารณา 2 believe something; think that something is true: I consider that your bicycle is dangerous. เห็นว่า 3 be thoughtful about the feelings of other people: A good hotel manager considers his guests. เข้าใจ, เห็นใจ
    contain v. hold something; have something inside it: Does this box contain biscuits? บรรจุ
    crowd n. many people together: There was a large crowd at the football match. ฝูงชน v. all come together: They crowded into the hall. ชุมนุมกัน crowded adj. full of people etc. แน่นขนัด
    discover v. find out something for the first time: Fleming discovered penicillin. ค้นพบ discovery n.: the discovery of America.
    element n. จำนวนเล็กน้อย relate:{สิ่งเล็กน้อย} ธาตุ, สภาพแวดล้อมตามธรรมชาติ relate:{สภาพที่เป็นธรรมชาติ}{ธรรมชาติ} องค์ประกอบ relate:{ส่วนประกอบ}{ปัจจัย}{ปัจจัยสำคัญ}{ส่วนสำคัญ} syn:(component)(constituent)(portion)
    fact n. something that is true or real: A judge listens to the facts of a crime before he decides how to punish the criminal. in fact, really: I thought Betty was in the garden, but in fact she was in her room. as a matter of fact, words that you say after more important: As a matter of fact, we have just bought a new house. ความจริง, อันที่จริง
    goatskin n. หนังแกะ
    ground n. 1 (no pl.) earth; soil: After frost the ground is too hard to dig. พื้นดิน 2 (no pl.) top part of the earth: An apple fell to the ground. พื้นดิน 3 (pl. grounds) piece of land for a special use: a football ground. สนาม break new or fresh ground, do or find something new: Dr.Jenner broke new ground in medicine. เริ่มเป็นคนแรก suit someone down to the ground, please someone in every way: This house will suit us down to the ground. ถูกใจทุกประการ adj. ground floor n. all the rooms in a building at the height as the street. ชั้นล่าง v. make an aeroplane stay on the ground: The fog has grounded many planes at Gatwick. ทำให้เครื่องบินจอดบนพื้นดิน
    grind v. (past part. & past tense ground) 1 crush something into very small bits or powder: Will you grind the coffee for me? บด 2 sharpen a knife, tool, etc. on a hard stone, etc. ลับ (ทำให้คม)
    hurt v. (past part. & past tense hurt) 1 break, damage, or give pain to someone or something: Ben hurt his leg when he fell. ทำร้าย 2 feel pain: My shoes are so tight that my feet hurt. เจ็บ
    nitrogen n. ไนโตรเจน relate:{ก๊าซไนโตรเจน}
    outer adj. of or for the outside; farther from the centre: the outer parts of the city. เขตนอก, ด้านนอก
    oxygen n. (no pl.) gas in the air that we must breath to go on living. ออกซิเจน
    probe (โพรบ) n. เครื่องมือสำรวจ, การสำรวจหรือการค้นหาด้วยเครื่องมือดังกล่าว, การสอบสวน, ยานสำรวจอวกาศ -vt., vi. probed, probing สำรวจ, ขุดค้นหรือสืบหา
    real adj. true; natural; not just in the mind: This is real gold, not cheap yellow metal. จริง, ของแท้
    reveal v. 1 show something that was hidden before: The clouds lifted and revealed the mountains. แสดง 2 tell something that was a secret: Please don't reveal the secret. เปิดเผย
    space n. 1 (no pl.) the sky and all that is beyond, where all the stars are: The men who landed on the moon travelled through space. อวกาศ spacecraft, spaceship n. machine for travelling through space. ยานอวกาศ spaceman n. man who travels in a spaceship. นักบินอวกาศ spacesuit n. special clothing for a traveller in space. ชุดอวกาศ 2 (no pl.) enough room for someone or something: Is there space for another bed in the room? ที่ว่าง 3 (pl. spaces) place: parking space. ที่, สถานที่ 4 (pl. spaces) empty part between two or more things: Leave a space after each word when you write. ช่องว่าง
    stumble v. 1 hit your foot against something and almost fall: He stumbled over the doorstep. สะดุด stumble upon, find something that you did not expect: He was digging in the garden and stumbled upon a gold coin. สะดุดเข้า 2 walk like an ill or drunk person: The old woman stumbled along the road. เดินกะโผลกกะเผลก

    Adjective
    A. How to use!
    Adjective คือ คำที่ใช้บรรยายคุณภาพของนาม เพื่อให้รู้ว่านามนั้นมีลักษณะดีหรือชั่ว สูงหรือต่ำ ดำหรือขาว เป็นต้น เรียกว่า Adjective หรือคุณศัพท์ ได้แก่คำว่า
    [table][tr][td]good = ดี[/td][td]bad = ชั่ว[/td][td]tall = สูง[/td][td]short = ต่ำ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]beautiful = สวย[/td][td]clever = ฉลาด[/td][td]fat = อ้วน[/td][td]thin = ผอม[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]dirty = สกปรก[/td][td]white = ขาว[/td][td]เป็นต้น[/td][td][/td][/tr][/table]
    Adjective เวลานำไปพูดหรือเขียน มีวิธีใช้ 2 อย่าง คือ
    [list type=decimal][li]เรียงไว้หน้านามที่คุณศัพท์นั้นไปขยายโดยตรงก็ได้ เช่น
    The fat man can't run quickly.
    คนอ้วนไม่สามารถวิ่งเร็วได้ (fat เรียงไว้หน้านาม man โดยตรง)
    A clever boy can answer a difficult problem.
    เด็กฉลาดสามารถตอบปัญหาที่ยากได้ (คุณศัพท์ทั้งสองเรียงไว้หน้านามโดยตรง)[/li]
    [li]เรียงไว้หลัง Verb to be ก็ได้ เช่น
    Somsri is beautiful. Manu is tall.
    สมศรีเป็นคนสวย มนูเป็นคนสูง
    My father is short. My dog is black.
    บิดาของฉันเตี้ย สุนัขของฉันสีดำ เป็นต้น[/li][/list]
    ข้อยกเว้น การใช้ Adjective มาขยายตามแนวแบบข้อ 1 หรือข้อ 2 หมายถึง Adjective ทั่วๆ ไปเท่านั้น แต่ถ้าเป็น Adjective ที่จะกล่าวต่อไปนี้แล้ว มีวิธีขยายนามได้เพียงข้อใดข้อหนึ่งเท่านั้น จะใช้ทั้ง 2 แบบตามใจไม่ได้ นั่นคือ
    [list type=decimal][li]Adjective ต่อไปนี้ เมื่อขยายนาม ให้ใช้แบบเรียงไว้หลังกริยาเท่านั้นห้ามใช้แบบเรียงไว้หน้านามโดยเด็ดขาด ได้แก่ :-
    [table][tr][td]sorry = เสียใจ[/td][td]afraid = กลัว[/td][td]well = สบายดี[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td][/td][/tr][/table]alive = มีชีวิตอยู่[table][tr][td]ashamed = ละอายใจ[/td][td]worth = มีค่า[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]awake = ตื่นอยู่[/td][td]ill = ไม่สบาย[/td][td]alike = เหมือนกัน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]asleep = หลับ[/td][td]aware = ระวัง[/td][td]alone = โดยลำพัง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]content = พอใจ[/td][td]unable = ไม่สามารถ[/td][td]เช่น[/td][/tr][/table]
    [table][tr][td]ถูก:[/td][td]This boy is sorry.[/td][td]ผิด:[/td][td]This is a sorry boy.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td][/td][td]เด็กคนนี้เสียใจ[/td][td][/td][td]นี่คือเด็กที่เสียใจ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]ถูก:[/td][td]That girl is afraid.[/td][td]ผิด:[/td][td]That is an afraid girl.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td][/td][td]เด็กหญิงคนนั้นกลัว[/td][td][/td][td]นั่นคือเด็กหญิงที่กลัว[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]ถูก:[/td][td]I am well.[/td][td]ผิด:[/td][td]I am a well man.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td][/td][td]ผมสบายดี[/td][td][/td][td]ผมเป็นคนสบายดี[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]ถูก:[/td][td]Wilai is ill.[/td][td]ผิด:[/td][td]Wilai is an ill girl.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td][/td][td]วิไลไม่สบาย[/td][td][/td][td]วิไลเป็นเด็กหญิงไม่สบาย[/td][/tr][/table][/li]
    [li]Adjective ต่อไปนี้เมื่อใช้ขยายนาม ให้เรียงไว้หน้านามโดยตรง ห้ามใช้แบบเรียงตามหลังกริยา Verb to be ได้แก่ :-
    [table][tr][td]former = ก่อน[/td][td]later = หลัง[/td][td]inner = ภายใน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]outer = ภายนอก[/td][td]upper = ข้างบน[/td][td]elder = แก่กว่า[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]drunken = ขี้เมา[/td][td]middle = กลาง[/td][td]entire = ทั้งหมด[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]letter = ถัดมา[/td][td]wooden = ทำด้วยไม้[/td][td]golden = ทำด้วยทอง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]neighboring = เพื่อนบ้าน[/td][td]especial = เฉพาะ[/td][td]เป็นต้น[/td][/tr][/table]
    [table][tr][td]ถูก:[/td][td]Burma is a neighboring country.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]ผิด:[/td][td]Burma is neighboring.
    พม่าเป็นประเทศเพื่อนบ้าน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]ถูก:[/td][td]She met a drunken teather.
    หล่อนได้พบครูขี้เมาคนหนึ่ง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]ผิด:[/td][td]The teacher was drunken.
    ครูคนนั้นเป็นคนขี้เมา เป็นต้น[/td][/tr][/table][/li]
    [li]Adjective ที่ไปขยายหรือประกอบสรรพนามผสม (Compound Pronoun) ต่อไปนี้ ให้เรียงไว้ข้างหลังเสมอ ได้แก่ :-
    [table][tr][td]someone[/td][td]everybody[/td][td]no one[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]something[/td][td]everywhere[/td][td]nothing[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]somebody[/td][td]anyone[/td][td]nobody[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]somewhere[/td][td]anybody[/td][td]nowhere[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]everyone[/td][td]anything[/td][td]เช่น :-[/td][/tr][/table]
    I'll tell you something important. ฉันจะบอกคุณถึงบางสิ่งบางอย่างที่สำคัญ
    (อย่าใช้ : I'll tell you important something.)
    There's nothing new for us to do. ไม่มีอะไรใหม่สำหรับเราที่จะทำ
    (อย่าใช้ : There's new nothing for us to do.)[/li]
    [li]Adjective ที่ไปแสดงการวัด (ขนาดต่างๆ ของนาม) ต้องวางไว้หลังนามเสมอ
    This river is two hundred miles long.
    แม่น้ำสายนี้ยาว 200 ไมล์
    (อย่าใช้ : This river is long two hundred miles.)
    This mountain is five hundred feet high.
    ภูเขานี้สูง 500 ฟุต
    (อย่าใช้ : This mountain is high five hundred feet.) เป็นต้น[/li]
    [li]Adjective ที่มีจำนวนตั้งแต่ 2 ตัวขึ้นไป แล้วมาขยายนามตัวเดียวกัน จะวางไว้หน้านามนั้นโดยตรงก็ได้ หรือจะวางไว้หลังนามนั้นก็ได้ แต่อย่าลืมว่าหน้า Adjective ตัวสุดท้ายนั้นต้องมี and มาเชื่อมไว้เสมอ เช่น :-
    He is a witty and wise teacher.
    หรือ He is a teacher, witty and wise.
    เขาเป็นครูที่มีไหวพริบและฉลาด
    Somsak bought a new, powerful, and expensive car.
    หรือ Somsak bought a car, new, powerful, and expensive.
    สมศักดิ์ได้ซื้อรถยนต์คันใหม่มีสมรรถภาพดีและราคาแพงมาหนึ่งคัน เป็นต้น[/li]
    [li]Adjective ที่เป็นสมญานาม ไปทำหน้าที่ขยายนามที่เป็นชื่อเฉพาะ ให้วางไว้หลังนามนั้นเสมอ และ Adjective ที่นำมาใช้เป็นสมญานามนี้ต้องมี the นำหน้าทุกครั้ง เช่น :-
    King Naresuan, the great.
    สมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช
    Ivan, the terrible.
    วีแวนตัวดุร้าย
    Kukrit, the wise of Siam.
    คึกฤทธิ์, เจ้าปัญญาแห่งเมืองสยาม เป็นต้น[/li][/list]
    หลักการเรียงลำดับ Adjectives
    [table][tr][td]1[/td][td]| 2[/td][td]| 3[/td][td]| 4[/td][td]| 5[/td][td]| 6[/td][td]| 7[/td][td]| 8[/td][td]| 9[/td][td]| 10[/td][td]| 11[/td][td]| 12[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Article demonstrative possessive[/td][td]| Ordinal (ลำดับที่)[/td][td]| Cardinal (จำนวน)[/td][td]| Quality (คุณภาพ)[/td][td]| Size (ขนาด)[/td][td]| Age (อายุ)[/td][td]| Shape (รูปร่าง)[/td][td]| Color (สี)[/td][td]| Participle (v.3/v.ing)[/td][td]| Origin (แหล่งที่มา)[/td][td]| Material (วัสดุ)[/td][td]| Noun[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]the[/td][td]| first[/td][td]| two[/td][td]| cute[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| young[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| ladies[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]-[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| many[/td][td]| delicious[/td][td]| big[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| green[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| Chinese[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| apples[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| small[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| blue[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| plastic[/td][td]| chair[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]those[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| four[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| big[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| black[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| rocks[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]the[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| old[/td][td]| square[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| broken[/td][td]| French[/td][td]| wooden[/td][td]| table[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]his[/td][td]| third[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| boring[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| -[/td][td]| job[/td][/tr][/table]
    B. Conversation!
    [table][tr][td]Richard:[/td][td]Hey, Stephanie. I hear you have a new job.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Stephanie:[/td][td]Yes. I'm teaching math at Lincoln High School.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Richard:[/td][td]How do you like it?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Stephanie:[/td][td]It's great. The students are terrific. How are things with you?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Richard:[/td][td]Not bad. I'm a firefighter now, you know.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Stephanie:[/td][td]That's exciting![/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Richard:[/td][td]Yes, but it's a very stressful job. And sometimes it's dangerous.[/td][/tr][/table]
    C. Try out!
    1. The cup is small/big.
    2. My coffee is sweet.
    3. Please put the perfect poster up for me.
    4. The medium wallpaper is peeling off the wall.
    5. The sandwich is salty.
    6. The big ball rolled down the high hill.
    7. The old man walks with a big stick.
    8. The dangerous lift is on the third floor.
    9. The new shops are open late on Friday.
    10. I have put the beautiful curtains up in the lounge.
    11. My socks are long.
    12. The rooms in the house are clean.
    13. My small legs are hurting.
    14. The female cows need to be milked.
    15. The old farmer is late home.
    16. Popeye is ..., he is not weak.
    [table][tr][td]A. big[/td][td]B. strong[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. slow[/td][td][/td][/tr][/table]D. slim
    17. Tonight is not hot, it is ... .
    [table][tr][td]A. un-hot[/td][td]B. hotter[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. cold[/td][td]D. colder[/td][/tr][/table]
    18. If Marry is not beautiful, then she is a ... girl.
    [table][tr][td]A. ugly[/td][td]B. handsome[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. bad[/td][td]D. non-beautiful[/td][/tr][/table]
    19. If you are not right, you are ... .
    [table][tr][td]A. wrong[/td][td]B. silly[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. lovely[/td][td]D. correct[/td][/tr][/table]
    20. If you know the answer, you are ... .
    [table][tr][td]A. pretty[/td][td]B. lazy[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. clever[/td][td]D. powerful[/td][/tr][/table]
    21. Dolphins are ..., sharks are scary.
    [table][tr][td]A. small[/td][td]B. strong[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. tall[/td][td]D. lovely[/td][/tr][/table]
    22. Linda is dancing around, she turns left and turns ... .
    [table][tr][td]A. down[/td][td]B. over[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. right[/td][td]D. back[/td][/tr][/table]
    23. A red car is in front of the other, it is the ... .
    [table][tr][td]A. slowest[/td][td]B. fastest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. most expensive[/td][td]D. faster[/td][/tr][/table]
    24. She get up ... so she misses the bus.
    [table][tr][td]A. slow[/td][td]B. slower[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. later[/td][td]D. late[/td][/tr][/table]
    25. Christmas is ... for the children.
    [table][tr][td]A. long[/td][td]B. fun[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]C. lonely[/td][td]D. alone[/td][/tr][/table]
    D. Vocaburaly
    curtain n. piece of cloth that hangs in front of a window. ม่าน draw the curtains, pull the curtains open or closed. ชักม่านปิด/เปิด
    lounge n. room in a house or hotel, where you can sit comfortably. ห้องรับแขก
    peel n. (no pl.) skin of some fruit or vegetables: orange peel. เปลือก v. 1 take the skin off fruit, etc.: I peeled the potatoes before boiling them. ปอก (เปลือก) 2 come off in thin pieces: Your skin will peel if you lie in the sun too much. ลอกออก
    stick n. 1 thin piece of wood: Let's find some sticks to make a fire. กิ่งไม้ 2 piece of wood that helps you to walk: The old man walks with a stick. ไม้ตะพด, ไม้เท้า 3 thin piece of something: a stick of chalk. แท่ง v. (past part. & past tense stuck) 1 go into something; push a pointed thing into something: Don't stick that needle into your finger! ทิ่ม 2 fix or fasten one thing to another thing with glue, past, etc.: She stuck a stamp on to the envelope. ติด 3 become fixed or fastened; not be able to move: The car stuck in the mud. ติดแน่น stick at, keep on doing something: If you stick at that job, you'll soon finish it. ทำต่อไป stick something out, push or hold something out: It's rude to stick out your tongue! ยื่น stick to something, go on doing something: Stick to your work., Joe! ทำต่อไป stick together, stay together: Let's stick together in the crowd. อยู่ด้วยกัน stick up for, say that someone is right; support someone: The other children laughed at Godfrey, but Oliver stuck up for him. สนับสนุน
    weak adj. 1 not strong in the body; not able to move heavy things: a weak old man. อ่อนแอ 2 that will break easily: a weak chair. ไม่แข็งแรง 3 that you cannot see or hear clearly or taste easily: weak tea. อ่อน, เบา, ค่อย 4 not able to make people do what you want: a weak ruler. อ่อนแอ weakly adv.
    F. Games
    1. Lily's robot can help her with her Math homework. It is very helpful.
    2. Peter always helps his mother to wash the dishes and set the table. I think he is very hardworking.
    3. Jim does not do what his teacher tells him. He is a very clever boy.
    4. My mother likes singing and dancing. She is a very cheerful person.
    5. My robot cleans the house and makes the bed everyday. My robot is very hardworking.
    6. My mother works everyday from 7:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M. She is so busy.
    7. Tom does not help at home. He is a lazy boy.
    [center]Cr: I-Genius[/center] 8)
  • Opposite Adjective
    [table][tr][td]sad = เศร้า[/td][td]happy = สุข[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]fast = เร็ว[/td][td]slow = ช้า[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]dry = แห้ง[/td][td]wet = เปียก[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]rich = รวย[/td][td]poor = จน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]left = ซ้าย[/td][td]right = ขวา[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]first = แรก[/td][td]last = สุดท้าย[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]low = ต่ำ[/td][td]high = สูง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]noisy = หนวกหู[/td][td]quiet = เงียบ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]late = สาย[/td][td]early = ก่อน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]fat = อ้วน[/td][td]thin = ผอม[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]far = ไกล[/td][td]near = ใกล้[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]white = ขาว[/td][td]black = ดำ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]hot = ร้อน[/td][td]cold = หนาว[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]clean = สะอาด[/td][td]dirty = สกปรก[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]old = แก่[/td][td]young = อ่อน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]easy = ง่าย[/td][td]difficult = ยาก[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]empty = ว่างเปล่า[/td][td]full = เต็ม[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]short = สั้น[/td][td]long = ยาว[/td][/tr][/table]

    Comparison of Adjectives
    A. How to use!
    Comparison of Adjectives คือ การเปรียบเทียบคำคุณศัพท์ที่ไปขยายหรือกริยา เพื่อจะบอกให้รู้ว่านามและกริยานั้นมีลักษณะดีเด่น เท่าเทียม หรือไม่เท่าเทียมกันอย่างไร การเปรียบเทียบคำคุณศัพท์แบ่งออกเป็น 3 ขั้นคือ
    [list type=decimal][li]การเปรียบเทียบขั้นปกติ (Positive Degree) เพื่อแสดงความเท่าเทียมกัน ไม่เท่าเทียมกัน หรือน้อยกว่ากัน และจะใช้รูปเดิมเสมอ เช่น long, thin, clever etc.[/li]
    [li]การเปรียบเทียบขั้นกว่า (Comparative Degree) ใช้ระหว่างคนสองคน หรือสิ่งของสองสิ่ง เช่น longer, thinner, cleverer etc. (more)[/li]
    [li]การเปรียบเทียบขั้นสูงสุดหรือที่สุด (Superlative Degree) เพื่อใช้สำหรับการเปรียบเทียบตั้งแต่ 3 คน หรือ 3 สิ่งขึ้นไป หรืออาจเป็นที่สุดในหมู่ เหล่า คณะ พวก เช่น longest, thinnest, cleverest etc. (most)[/li][/list]

    http://www.english-test.net/esl/learn/english/grammar/ei001/esl-test.php

    1. Can you hear what he is ...?
    A. saying -> What do you say about his new girlfriend? (What do you think about her?)
    B. speaking -> Do you speak Japanese?
    C. telling -> Please, tell me a story.
    D. talking -> I'd like to talk to Mr Mizumo, please.

    As I was saying (using words to describe something) before you came in the room, I was telling the others (informing them/this verb usually has an object) about John who is speaking (giving a speech) tonight at the club and we were talking (having a conversation) about the possibility of going to listen to him.

    เรามักจะใช้ say เมื่อเราเอาคำพูดของผู้อื่นมาบอกเล่าต่อ
    Ex.: Praew said "Shinee's concert last night was amazing!"
    แพรวบอกว่า คอนเสิร์ต Shinee เมื่อคืนนี้ สุดยอดเลย
    นอกจากนั้นเรายังใช้ say เมื่อต้องการจะถามคำถามเกี่ยวกับภาษาต่างๆ
    Ex.: How do you say "ฉันเบื่อการจราจรที่กรุงเทพฯ มาก" in English?
    คุณจะพูดว่า "ฉันเบื่อการจราจรที่กรุงเทพฯ มาก" ในภาษาอังกฤษอย่างไร?
    ความแตกต่างระหว่าง tell และ say ที่สังเกตได้คือ tell มักจะตามด้วยบุคคล ในขณะที่ say มักจะไม่มีบุคคลตามมาข้างท้าย (You say something or you tell someone something.)
    Ex.: Did John tell you about the party last night?
    จอห์นได้เล่าเรื่องงานเลี้ยงเมื่อคืนให้คุณฟังไหม?
    Tell me when you are ready to go out.
    เมื่อไรที่คุณพร้อมจะไปข้างนอก ก็บอกฉันนะ
    ตัวอย่างการเปรียบเทียบการใช้ tell และ say
    - John said to me that he was so tired.
    - John told me that he was so tired.
    จอห์นบอกฉันว่าเขาเพลียมากๆ
    speak และ talk มีโครงสร้างการใช้คล้ายคลึงกัน และ จะมี preposition to หรือ with มาคั่นระหว่าง speak และ talk กับบุคคลที่ตามมา
    Ex.: John is in the middle of speaking to Peter.
    John is in the middle of talking to Peter.
    จอห์นกำลังคุยกับปีเตอร์
    Let's speak to James.
    Let's talk to James.
    ไปคุยกับเจมส์กัน
    แต่ในบางประโยค การใช้ speak และ talk ก็แตกต่างกัน
    Ex.: Do you speak English? Not do you talk English
    I like talking with you.
    (มีความหมายเช่นเดียวกับ I like having a conversation with you)

    2. She hasn't come home ... .
    A. still
    B. already
    C. yet
    D. till

    Yet is so far/up till now negative and interrogative.
    He's not home yet.
    Is she home yet?
    Still is continuing even now in all forms.
    Is she still working?
    Yes, she's still working because she's still not finished.

    Already แปลว่า อยู่แล้ว, เรียบร้อยแล้ว เราใช้ already เพื่อบ่งบอกให้รู้ว่า บางอย่างเกิดขึ้นเร็วกว่าที่คาดหวัง... และขอให้สังเกตุการวาง already ในประโยคด้วย
    Ex. A: What time is Suda leaving? เวลาเท่าไหร่ที่สุดากำลังจะออกไป?
    B: She has already left. หล่อนออกไป (เรียบร้อย) แล้ว
      Shall I tell Tao what happened or does he already know?
      จะให้ฉันบอกเต๋าไหม ว่าอะไรเกิดขึ้น หรือว่าเขารู้อยู่แล้ว?
    A: Shall I introduce you to Sunee? ฉันจะแนะนำคุณ ให้รู้จักกับสุนีนะ?
    B: There is no need. We have already met. ไม่จำเป็นหรอก พวกเรารู้จักกันแล้ว
    Yet แปลว่า ยังคง, แม้กระนั้น เราใช้ yet ในประโยคปฏิเสธ และคำถาม เพื่อแสดงให้เห็นว่า ผู้พูด คาดการณ์ หรือคาดหวัง การเกิดขึ้นของบางสิ่ง บางอย่าง
    Ex. Have you met your new neighbours yet?
    คุณได้พบเพื่อนบ้านใหม่หรือยัง?
    A: Where are you going for your holiday?
      คุณกำลังจะไปที่ไหนในวันหยุดพักผ่อนของคุณ?
    B: I don't know yet. ฉันยังไม่รู้เลย
    Still 1 แปลว่า ยังคง, สงบ, นิ่ง ถูกนำมาใช้เพื่อบ่งบอกว่าเหตุการณ์นั้นๆ ยังคงดำเนินอยู่
    Ex. I wrote to them last month and I am still waiting for a reply.
    เดือนที่แล้ว ฉันได้เขียนจดหมายถึงพวกเขา และฉันยังคงกำลังรอการตอบกลับจากพวกเขา
    Mum, I am still hungry!
    แม่, ผมยังไม่อิ่มเลย (ยังรู้สึกหิว)
    Still 2 ถูกนำมาใช้เพื่อบ่งบอกว่า เหตุการณ์นั้น ไม่มีการเปลี่ยนแปลง
    Ex. It is ten o'clock and Tao is still in bed.
    10 โมงแล้ว เต๋า ยังคงนอนอยู่บนเตียงอยู่เลย
    When I went to bed, Tao was still working.
    เมื่อฉันเข้านอน, เต๋ายังคงกำลังทำงานอยู่
    จากข้อสังเหตุ: เราจะว่าง still ไว้ในส่วนกลางของประโยคคู่กับคำกริยา
    *Still ก็ถูกนำมาใช้ในประโยคปฏิเสธได้เช่นกัน แต่จะแสดงถึงอารมณ์ หรือความรู้สึก ของผู้พูดที่แรงกว่าการใช้ yet
    Ex. I wrote to him last week. He hasn't replied yet.
    อาทิตย์ที่แล้ว ฉันเขียนจดหมายถึงเขา เขายังไม่ตอบกลับเลย
    (ประโยคนี้แสดงให้เห็นว่า: ฉันคาดหวังว่าเขาจะตอบกลับมาในเร็วๆ นี้)
    I wrote to him months ago and he still hasn't replied.
    หลายเดือนผ่านมาแล้ว ที่ฉันได้เขียนจดหมายถึงเขา และเขายังคงไม่ส่งข่าวคราวใดๆ กลับมาเลย
    (ประโยคนี้แสดงให้เห็นว่า: เขาควรที่จะตอบกลับมาหาฉันตั้งนานแล้ว)
    การเปรียบเทียบการใช้ yet และ still ในรูปแบบทั่วๆ ไป
    Ex. Tao lost his job six months ago and is still unemployed.
    เต๋าได้ออกจากงานเมื่อหกเดือนที่แล้ว และตอนนี้ก็ยังไม่ได้งานทำ
    Tao lost his job six months ago and hasn't found another job yet.
    เต๋าได้ออกจากงานเมื่อหกเดือนที่แล้ว และก็ยังหางานไม่ได้เลย
    Is it still raining? ฝนยังคงกำลังตกอยู่หรือ?
    Has it stopped raining yet? ฝนยังไม่หยุดตกอีกหรือ?

    3. I ... TV yesterday evening.
    A. saw
    B. looked
    C. viewed
    D. watched

    'Saw' is the past of 'see' and simply refers to using your eyes as in: I saw that man cross the street.
    'Looked' as the past tense of 'look' is often used with the preposition 'at' when it takes an object and suggests that you are directing your eyes at a particular object as in: I looked at the pictures you showed me of your holiday.
    'Viewed' as the past tense of 'view' gives the idea of looking at something closely perhaps through a telescope as in: We viewed the bird through our binoculars.
    'Watched' as the past of 'watch' suggestes looking at something in action as in: We watched the football match from one of the best seats.

    ถ้าเรามองเห็นอะไรสักอย่าง แต่ไม่ได้ตั้งใจจะดูตั้งแต่แรก เราจะใช้คำว่า see
    Ex.: I open the windows and see a bird outside. ฉันเปิดหน้าต่างและเห็นนกตัวหนึ่งอยู่ข้างนอก
    ในประโยคนี้ เราใช้ see เพราะว่าเราไม่ได้ตั้งใจจะมองนกตัวนั้น แต่บังเอิญตาเรามันดันไปเห็นเอง เราจึงใช้ see
    ถ้าเราตั้งใจจะดูอะไรสักอย่างและสิ่งที่เราดูนั้นมันมีการเคลื่อนไหว...เราจะใช้ watch
    Ex.: I want to watch The Godfather. ฉันอยากจะดู The Godfather (The Godfather เป็นชื่อของหนังเรื่องหนึ่ง)
    สังเกตได้ว่า เราตั้งใจจะดูหนังและหนังมันมีการเคลื่อนไหว เราจึงใช้ watch
    เราจะใช้ look ถ้าเราตั้งใจจะดูอะไรสักอย่างแต่สิ่งที่เราดูนั้นมันไม่ได้มีการเคลื่อนไหว
    Ex.: I'm looking at Picasso's paintings. ฉันกำลังดูภาพวาดของปิกัสโซ่
    สังเกตว่า เราตั้งใจที่จะดูภาพวาดแต่ภาพวาดมันไม่ได้มีการเคลื่อนไหวใดๆ เราจึงใช้ look

    4. We live ... the city centre.
    A. near
    B. next
    C. by -> is nearer than 'near'.
    D. nearby

    The word 'near' can be used as an adjective and as a preposition but 'nearby' can be used as an adjective but not as a preposition.
    The post office is near the bus station. (preposition)
    The post office is quite near. (predicative adjective)
    We went to the nearby post office. (attributive adjective)

    near เป็น preposition ที่สามารถ
    1. อยู่โดดๆ เดี่ยวๆ ได้
    The train station is quite near. My husband and my son walk there almost every evening.
    2. ตามหลังด้วยสถานที่ได้
    The hotel where we're staying is near the beach.
    ทั้งสองกรณี ไม่ใช้กับ to
    nearby (เนียร์บาย) เป็นคำ adverb
    Sarah never feels lonely because her family live nearby.
    หรือจะใช้เป็น adjective หน้าคำนามก็ได้ เช่น
    I usually stop at a nearby shop to buy something for breakfast.
    ถ้าอยากขยายว่าใกล้มาก ด้วยคำว่า quite, very หรือ really ขยายได้เฉพาะคำว่า near เอาไปไว้หน้า nearby ไม่ได้

    5. She looks ... a famous film star.
    A. as
    B. like
    C. similar
    D. same

    as
    used for comparisons - As good as gold not as easy as you thought.
    used to mean 'while' 'because' - As he walked by the church, he heard the singing. As it was raining, I took an umbrella.
    used with the idea of 'in the job/role of' prepositionally - As experts they knew how to repair the computer.
    used adverbially in a sense of restriction - This law will apply as from 2012.
    like
    preposition - The house was built like a fortress.
    conjunction - The crowd at the football match were behaving like wild animals/like wild animals do.
    He looks like a Palestinian. -> This is not meant that he is a Palestinian.
    He is as a Palestinian. -> He is 100% a Palestinian.
    similar + to - can be appearance or other ways (manners, beliefs, ethics, etc.)
    She is similar to her mother.

    Like เป็นทั้ง Proposition และ Conjunction ในเวลาเดียวกัน มีความหมายว่า เหมือน หรือ คล้าย จะใช้ในกรณีที่ต้องการสื่อความเหมือนหรือคล้ายคลึงกัน ของบุคคล, สิ่งของ, คำพูด กับสิ่งต่างๆ
    He looks like his brother.
    She's very much like her mother.
    Is Japanese food like Chinese?
    I've got a sweater just like that.
    Her hair was so soft it was like silk.
    You're acting like a complete idiot!
    Like I said; I don't wear perfume.
    As ทำหน้าที่เป็น Preposition
    She works as a waitress.
    ทำหน้าที่เป็น Conjunction เพื่อเชื่อมประโยค หรือเพื่อการเปรียบเทียบสถานการณ์
    You can go first as you're the oldest.
    It gets very hot in Africa in the summer, as it does in Asia.
    As it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel.
    หรือเวลาที่ต้องการใช้เพื่อเปรียบเทียบ as + adj. + as ก็สามารถทำได้ เช่น
    Are you o.k? Your face is as pale as snow.
    What's wrong? Your hands are as cold as ice.

    6. This television gives you the ... news.
    A. last -> final news (possibly of that day); the TV not gives news again today.
    B. latest -> most recent news available.
    C. least
    D. later

    7. I only ... one mistake in last night's test.
    A. made
    B. done
    C. did
    D. make

    We use 'do' for activities of a more general nature:
    What are you doing there?
    Do you want me to do the housework? - No, thanks. I'll do it.
    My job's boring. I have to do the same tasks every day.
    We use 'make' if we produce or manufacture things:
    Everybody makes mistakes.
    IBM make computers.
    I make coffee in the morning, and Sue sometimes makes cakes.

    do
    ใช้เวลาทำ activity
    do the laundry (ซักเสื้อผ้า), do a crossword (เล่นปริศนาอักษรไขว้)
    ใช้เวลาทำ 'งาน'
    do homework (ทำการบ้าน), do your job (ทำงานของคุณ)
    ใช้เวลาอธิบายการกระทำโดยทั่วไป โดยที่ไม่ได้บอกอย่างเฉพาะเจาะจงว่าการกระทำดังกล่าวคืออะไร (มักใช้ร่วมกับ something, anything, nothing, etc.)
    I haven't done anything today. (วันนี้ ฉันยังไม่ได้ทำอะไรเลย)
    He does everything for his family. (เขาทำทุกอย่างเพื่อครอบครัวของเขา)
    ใช้ในสำนวนภาษาอังกฤษบางส่วน
    do your best (สู้ให้เต็มที่นะ)
    do the dishes (ล้างจาน)
    do business (ทำธุรกิจการค้า)
    do good (ทำได้ดี)
    do harm (อันตราย)
    do a favor (ทำให้นิยมชมชอบ)
    do a good turn (ทำได้ดี)
    do my part (รับผิดชอบในส่วนของตัวเอง)
    do my best (พยายามให้ดีที่สุด)
    do a good deed (ทำดี)
    do a lot of damage (ทำให้เสียหายมาก)
    make
    ใช้เวลาต้องการ 'สร้าง' อะไรสักอย่างขึ้นมา
    make a cup of coffee (ชงกาแฟถ้วยนึง)
    make a dress (ถักกระโปรง)
    ใช้เวลากำลังพูดถึงการเตรียมอาหาร
    make breakfast (ทำอาหารเช้า)
    make lunch (ทำอาหารกลางวัน)
    ใช้ในสำนวนภาษาอังกฤษบางส่วน
    make believe (เสแสร้ง)
    make a fool of someone (ทำให้ใครสักคนดูโง่)
    make a profit (ทำกำไร)
    make an appointment (นัดหมาย)
    make an offer (ให้ข้อเสนอ)
    make an arrangement (จัดลำดับ)
    make a suggestion (ให้ข้อแนะนำ)
    make a decision (ตัดสินใจ)
    make a mistake (ทำผิดพลาด)
    make a wish (ตั้งใจปรารถนา)
    make a joke (ทำตลก)
    make a plan (วางแผน)
    make an excuse (ขออภัย)
    make a noise (ทำเสียงดัง)
    make a bed (จัดที่นอน)
    make a rule (สร้างกฎระเบียบ)
    make a deal with (ทำข้อตกลงกับ)
    make an attempt (พยายาม)
    make an exception (สร้างข้อยกเว้น)
    make love (ร่วมรัก)
    make war/peace (ทำสงคราม/สร้างสันติภาพ)
    make money (หาเงิน)
    make fun (สร้างความสนุกสนาน)

    8. I want you to tell me the ... truth.
    A. all
    B. exact
    C. real
    D. whole

    ...the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth..., etc. = สำนวน ใช้ในกรณีที่ต้องกล่าวคำสาบานต่อหน้าศาล ว่า คำให้การดังต่อไปนี้นั้นเป็นความสัจจริง

    9. He is looking ... a present to buy his girlfriend.
    A. for -> try to find someone or something. กำลังหา มองหาอะไรซักอย่าง
    B. at -> watch someone or something. มอง มองไปที่อะไรบางอย่าง มองไปที่ของชิ้นหนึ่ง คนคนหนึ่ง หรือจุดๆ หนึ่ง
    C. in -> การมองเร็วๆ
    D. on -> or upon, think of someone or something. คิดถึง

    10. That's what I would like ... Christmas.
    A. for
    B. at
    C. in
    D. on

    'at Christmas' is perfectly acceptable as an expression referring to the idea of 'at the time of Christmas' but in this sentence it is understood that the speaker is referring to a present to be given for a Christmas present.
    What will you do at Christmas this year. -> The time around Christmas/Christmas time.
    What will you do on Christmas day. -> 25 December.
    I hope there will be snow for Christmas.

    การทำคุณศัพท์ขั้นปกติให้เป็นขั้นกว่าและขั้นที่สุด ทำได้ด้วยการเติมปัจจัยที่ท้ายคุณศัพท์ขั้นปกติตัวนั้นๆ ดังนี้
    • [li]เติม er ที่ท้ายคุณศัพท์ขั้นปกติเพื่อให้เป็นขั้นกว่า[/li]
      [li]เติม est ที่ท้ายคุณศัพท์ขั้นปกติเพื่อเป็นขั้นสูงสุด[/li]

    ซึ่งมีรายละเอียดในการเติมดังนี้
    [list type=decimal][li]คุณศัพท์พยางค์เดียว ถ้าลงท้ายด้วยตัวสะกด 2 ตัว ให้เติม er ในขั้นกว่า และเติม est ในขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]tall[/td][td]taller[/td][td]tallest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]short[/td][td]shorter[/td][td]shortest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]small[/td][td]smaller[/td][td]smallest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]long[/td][td]longer[/td][td]longest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]young[/td][td]younger[/td][td]youngest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]old[/td][td]older[/td][td]oldest[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. She is taller than you.
    My friend is older than me.
    The Chao Praya is the longest of all rivers in Thailand.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์พยางค์เดียว ถ้ามีสระตัวเดียวและตัวสะกดตัวเดียวให้ซ้อนพยัญชนะที่เป็นตัวสะกดเสียก่อน แล้วจึงเติม er ในขั้นกว่า และเติม est ในขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]fat[/td][td]fatter[/td][td]fattest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]thin[/td][td]thinner[/td][td]thinnest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]hot[/td][td]hotter[/td][td]hottest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]big[/td][td]bigger[/td][td]biggest[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. David is the biggest boy in his classroom.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์พยางค์เดียวหากลงท้ายด้วย e อยู่แล้ว ให้เติมเฉพาะ r ในขั้นกว่า และเติม st ในขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]brave[/td][td]braver[/td][td]bravest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]large[/td][td]larger[/td][td]largest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]wise[/td][td]wiser[/td][td]wisest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]fine[/td][td]finer[/td][td]finest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]true[/td][td]truer[/td][td]truest[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. This is the largest size.
    Charles is wiser than his brother.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ที่ลงท้ายด้วย y และหน้า y เป็นพยัญชนะ ให้เปลี่ยน y เป็น i เสียก่อนและจึงเติม er ในขั้นกว่า และเติม est ในขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]happy[/td][td]happier[/td][td]happiest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]dry[/td][td]drier[/td][td]driest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]*shy[/td][td]shyer[/td][td]shyest[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. You look happier than yesterday.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ที่ลงท้ายด้วย y แต่ถ้าหน้า y เป็นสระ ไม่ต้องเปลี่ยน y เป็น i ให้เติม er ในขั้นกว่า และเติม est ในขั้นที่สุดได้เลย เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]gay[/td][td]gayer[/td][td]gayest[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. This pair of shoes is gayer than that one.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ 2 พยางค์ ซึ่งลงท้ายด้วย er, re, le, และ ow ให้เติม er ในขั้นกว่า และเติม est ในขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]clever[/td][td]cleverer[/td][td]cleverest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]bitter[/td][td]betterer[/td][td]betterest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]simple[/td][td]simpler[/td][td]simplest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]sincere[/td][td]sincerer[/td][td]sincerest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]narrow[/td][td]narrower[/td][td]narrowest[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. He is the sincerest man who I have seen.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ 2 พยางค์ ที่มีเสียงยาว ให้เติม more ข้างหน้า เพื่อให้เป็นขั้นกว่า และเติม most เพื่อให้เป็นขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]honest[/td][td]more honest[/td][td]most honest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]selfish[/td][td]more selfish[/td][td]most selfish[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]fluent[/td][td]more fluent[/td][td]most fluent[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]useful[/td][td]more useful[/td][td]most useful[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. She speaks English more fluent than her friends.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ต่อไปนี้จะเติม er ในขั้นกว่า เติม est ในขั้นที่สุด หรือจะใช้ more เติมข้างหน้าเพื่อให้เป็นขั้นกว่า ใช้ most เติมข้างหน้าเพื่อให้เป็นขั้นที่สุดก็ได้ ได้แก่
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]quiet[/td][td]quieter[/td][td]quietest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td][/td][td]more quiet[/td][td]most quiet[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]common[/td][td]commoner[/td][td]commonest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td][/td][td]more common[/td][td]most common[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. This classroom is quieter than the others.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ตั้งแต่ 3 พยางค์ขึ้นไป ให้เติม more ข้างหน้าในขั้นกว่า เติม most ข้างหน้าในขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]difficult[/td][td]more difficult[/td][td]most difficult[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]diligent[/td][td]more diligent[/td][td]most diligent[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]beautiful[/td][td]more beautiful[/td][td]most beautiful[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]dangerous[/td][td]more dangerous[/td][td]most dangerous[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]important[/td][td]more important[/td][td]most important[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. This is the most important topic to discuss.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ที่มีรูปมาจากกริยา จะกี่พยางค์ก็แล้วแต่ ให้ใช้ more เติมข้างหน้าเมื่อต้องการให้เป็นขั้นกว่า ใช้ most เติมเมื่อต้องการให้เป็นขั้นที่สุด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]bored[/td][td]more bored[/td][td]most bored[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]tiring[/td][td]more tiring[/td][td]most tiring[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]tired[/td][td]more tired[/td][td]most tired[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]interesting[/td][td]more interesting[/td][td]most interesting[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. Yesterday was the most tiring day.[/li]
    [li]คุณศัพท์ต่อไปนี้มีรูปเป็น Positive, Comparative, และ Superlative มาโดยกำเนิด จะเติม er, est หรือจะเติม more, most ไม่ได้ทั้งนั้น (ต้องจำ) ได้แก่
    [table][tr][td]Positive[/td][td]Comparative[/td][td]Superlative[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]good[/td][td]better[/td][td]best[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]bad[/td][td]worse[/td][td]worst[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]much, many[/td][td]more[/td][td]most[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]few[/td][td]fewer[/td][td]fewest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]little[/td][td]less[/td][td]least[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]far[/td][td]farther, further[/td][td]furthest[/td][/tr][/table]
    Ex. The economy is getting worse.
    My mom is the best person.[/li][/list]
    B. Conversation!
    [table][tr][td]Brian:[/td][td]Hey, Kenichi. How are you?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Kenichi:[/td][td]Oh, I'm not so good, actually.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Brian:[/td][td]Why? What's the matter?[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Kenichi:[/td][td]Well, I have a headache and a backache.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Brian:[/td][td]Maybe you have the flu.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Kenichi:[/td][td]No, I think I just feel a little homesick for Japan.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Brian:[/td][td]That's too bad... But maybe I can help. Let's have lunch at that new Japanese restaurant.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Kenichi:[/td][td]That's a great idea. Thanks, Brian. I feel better already![/td][/tr][/table]
    C. Try out!
    1. My house is bigger than yours.
    2. This flower is more beautiful than that one.
    3. This is the most interesting book I have ever read.
    4. Non-smokers usually live longer than smokers.
    5. Which is the most dangerous animal in the world?
    6. A holiday by the sea is better than a holiday in the mountains.
    7. It is strange but often a coke is more expensive than a beer.
    8. Who is the richest woman on earth?
    9. The weather this summer is even worse than last summer.
    10. He was the cleverest thief of all.
    [table][tr][td]11. long[/td][td]longer[/td][td]longest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]12. bad[/td][td]worse[/td][td]worst[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]13. modern[/td][td]more modern[/td][td]most modern[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]14. nice[/td][td]nicer[/td][td]nicest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]15. near[/td][td]nearer[/td][td]nearest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]16. flat[/td][td]flatter[/td][td]flattest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]17. popular[/td][td]more popular[/td][td]most popular[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]18. happy[/td][td]happier[/td][td]happiest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]19. many[/td][td]more[/td][td]most[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]20. clever[/td][td]cleverer[/td][td]cleverest[/td][/tr][/table]
    D. Vocabulary!
    actual adj. real; true. actually adv. really: He said he was going to work but actually he went to the cinema. จริง, อันที่จริง, แท้จริง
    flat adj. smooth; not going up and down: A table has a flat top. แบน a flat tyre, a tyre with no air inside. ยางแบน n. group of rooms in a building, where you can live. ห้องชุด block of flats, big building with many flats, one on top of another. อาคารชุด
    flu n. ไข้หวัดใหญ่ relate:{ไข้หวัด} syn:(influenza)
    gay adj. 1 happy; full of fun; making you happy, etc.: We can hear gay music and laughter from the party. รื่นเริง 2 with a lot of colour: gay flowers. หลากสี
    homesick adj. sad because you are away from home. ป่วยเป็นโรคคิดถึงบ้าน

    Prepositions
    A. How to use!
    [list type=decimal][li]การใช้ in on at กับเวลา
    at ใช้ระบุเวลา ณ จุดใดจุดหนึ่ง เช่น
    [table][tr][td]at noon[/td][td]เวลาเที่ยงวัน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at night[/td][td]เวลากลางคืน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at midday[/td][td]เวลาเที่ยงวัน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at six o'clock[/td][td]เวลาหกโมงเช้า[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at Christmas[/td][td]ในวันคริสต์มาส[/td][/tr][/table]
    at ใช้กับสำนวนที่เกี่ยวกับเวลา เช่น
    [table][tr][td]at first[/td][td]ในตอนแรก[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at once[/td][td]ในทันที[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at last[/td][td]ในท้ายสุด[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at lunch time[/td][td]ในเวลาอาหารกลางวัน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at present[/td][td]ขณะนี้[/td][/tr][/table]
    on ใช้กับวันของสัปดาห์ทั้งหมด เช่น
    [table][tr][td]on Sunday[/td][td]วันอาทิตย์[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Monday[/td][td]วันจันทร์[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Tuesday[/td][td]วันอังคาร[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Wednesday[/td][td]วันพุธ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Thursday[/td][td]วันพฤหัสบดี[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Friday[/td][td]วันศุกร์[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Saturday[/td][td]วันเสาร์[/td][/tr][/table]
    on ใช้กับวันที่ วันสำคัญทางศาสนาหรือทางราชการ และวันหยุดต่างๆ
    [table][tr][td]on May 1st[/td][td]ในวันที่ 1 พฤษภาคม[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Christmas Day[/td][td]ในวันคริสต์มาส[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on New Year's day[/td][td]ในวันขึ้นปีใหม่[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on holiday[/td][td]ในวันหยุด[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on vacation[/td][td]ในวันหยุด[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on time[/td][td]ตรงเวลา[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on Songkran day[/td][td]ในวันสงกรานต์[/td][/tr][/table]
    in ใช้กับส่วนของวัน เช่น
    [table][tr][td]in the morning[/td][td]ในตอนเช้า[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the afternoon[/td][td]ในตอนบ่าย[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the evening[/td][td]ในตอนเย็น[/td][/tr][/table]
    in ใช้กับเวลาหรือระยะเวลาที่ยาวขึ้น เช่น เดือน ปี และฤดู
    [table][tr][td]in 2000[/td][td]ในปี 2000[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in summer[/td][td]ในฤดูร้อน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in June 1999[/td][td]ในเดือนมิถุนายน ปี ค.ศ. 1999[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the 21th century[/td][td]ในศตวรรษที่ 21[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the past[/td][td]ในอดีต[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in time[/td][td]ทันเวลา[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the future[/td][td]ในอนาคต[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in a few months[/td][td]ในอีก 2-3 เดือน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in two hours[/td][td]ภายในสองชั่วโมง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in a week's time[/td][td]ในหนึ่งสัปดาห์[/td][/tr][/table][/li]
    [li]การใช้ in on at กับสถานที่
    at ใช้กับบ้านเลขที่ เช่น
    at 224 Mango Street, at 987 Big Elm Road, at 67 Sukhumvit Road
    at ใช้กับสถานที่ซึ่งเป็นจุดเล็กๆ เช่น ในระดับเมืองหรือใช้กับสถานที่เล็กๆ หรือระบุตำแหน่งที่แน่นอน เช่น
    [table][tr][td]at home[/td][td]ที่บ้าน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the hospital[/td][td]ที่โรงพยาบาล[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the airport[/td][td]ที่สนามบิน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the bus station[/td][td]ที่สถานีขนส่ง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the meeting[/td][td]ที่ประชุม[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the window[/td][td]ที่หน้าต่าง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the river[/td][td]ที่แม่น้ำ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the concert[/td][td]ที่คอนเสิร์ต[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the door[/td][td]ที่ประตู[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at the party[/td][td]ที่งานเลี้ยง[/td][/tr][/table]
    at ที่ใช้กับสำนวนอื่นๆ เช่น
    [table][tr][td]at work[/td][td]ขณะทำงาน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at best[/td][td]อย่างดีที่สุด[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at will[/td][td]ตามความต้องการ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at least[/td][td]อย่างน้อยที่สุด[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at loss[/td][td]ขาดทุน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at worst[/td][td]อย่างแย่ที่สุด[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]at large[/td][td]มีอิสระ[/td][/tr][/table]
    on ใช้เชื่อมต่อระหว่างสองที่ เช่น
    [table][tr][td]on Silom Road[/td][td]บนถนนสีลม[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the way home[/td][td]ในระหว่างทางกลับบ้าน[/td][/tr][/table]
    on ใช้กับตำแหน่งบนพื้นผิว เช่น
    [table][tr][td]on the table[/td][td]บนโต๊ะ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the ceiling[/td][td]บนเพดาน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the sidewalk[/td][td]บนทางข้างถนน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the floor[/td][td]บนพื้น[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the train[/td][td]บนรถไฟ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on a bicycle[/td][td]บนรถจักรยาน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the wall[/td][td]บนผนัง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the coast[/td][td]บนชายฝั่ง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on paper[/td][td]บนกระดาษ[/td][/tr][/table]
    on ใช้กับสำนวนต่อไปนี้
    [table][tr][td]on business[/td][td]ว่าด้วยเรื่องธุรกิจ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on tour[/td][td]ในขณะท่องเที่ยว[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the radio[/td][td]ในวิทยุ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on air[/td][td]ขณะออกอากาศ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on television[/td][td]ในโทรทัศน์[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the phone[/td][td]ทางโทรศัพท์[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on purpose[/td][td]โดยตั้งใจ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on fire[/td][td]ในขณะไฟไหม้[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on the list[/td][td]ในรายชื่อ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on pleasure[/td][td]เพื่อความสนุกสนาน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on duty[/td][td]ในขณะปฏิบัติหน้าที่[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]on guard[/td][td]เตรียมพร้อม[/td][/tr][/table]
    in ใช้กับสถานที่ที่ค่อนข้างใหญ่ เช่น เมือง จังหวัด ประเทศหรือทวีป เช่น
    [table][tr][td]in Chiang Mai[/td][td]ในจังหวัดเชียงใหม่[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in Asia[/td][td]ในทวีปเอเชีย[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the world[/td][td]ในโลก[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the army[/td][td]ในกองทัพ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the sky[/td][td]ในท้องฟ้า[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the river[/td][td]ในแม่น้ำ[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the sea[/td][td]ในทะเล[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in the parking lot[/td][td]ในลานจอดรถ[/td][/tr][/table]
    [table][tr][td]during[/td][td]ระหว่าง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]till, until[/td][td]จนกระทั่ง จนถึง ใช้เกี่ยวกับเวลา[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]before[/td][td]ก่อน ใช้เกี่ยวกับเวลา[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]after[/td][td]หลัง ใช้เกี่ยวกับเวลา[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]from[/td][td]นับตั้งแต่ ใช้กับเวลาหรือสถานที่[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]from...to[/td][td]จาก...ถึง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]from...till[/td][td]ตั้งแต่...ถึง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]between...and[/td][td]ระหว่าง...ถึง[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]by[/td][td]ด้วย (ใช้กับการเดินทางด้วยยานพาหนะ) ข้าง ใกล้[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]in front of[/td][td]ข้างหน้า[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]outside[/td][td]ข้างนอก ภายนอก[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]inside[/td][td]ข้างใน ภายใน[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]behind[/td][td]ข้างหลัง[/td][/tr][/table][/li][/list]

    Grammar
    Quantifiers

    [table][tr][td]a few and few[/td][td]| a little and little[/td][/tr][/table]
    These expressions show the speaker's attitude towards the quantity he/she is referring to.
    A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way:
    • [li]I've got a few friends. (= maybe not many, but enough)[/li]
      [li]"I've got a little money." (= I've got enough to live on)[/li]

    Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way:
    • [li]Few people visited him in hospital. (= he had almost no visitors)[/li]
      [li]He had little money. (= almost no money)[/li]

    1. Few people came to see the play. It was rather sad.
    2. Come on! We've still got a little time left to finish this.
    3. Jordi gave very few reasons for closing down the bar.
    4. With time and a little patience, you'll forget her and be happy again.
    5. He's not a good teacher. He's unimaginative and has very little patience with children.
    6. A few of that group's songs are excellent but I don't really like most of their music.
    7. I've been to that Australian restaurant a few time. It's good.
    8. Few people ever learn how to dance properly. It's such a shame.
    9. Very few people went to see that film. I don't know why. It's excellent.
    10. I have little time for people who talk about themselves all the time and never listen to anyone else.
    11. I normally have a little red wine with my lunch. It's good for you.
    12. Dress the salad with salt, pepper and a little olive oil.
    13. I've got 20 Euros and a few coins. That should be enough for tonight.
    14. His computer needs cleaning. He takes very little care of it.
    They function like comparatives and hold a relative position on a scale of increase or decrease.
    [table][tr][td]Increase From 0% to 100%[/td][td][/td][td][/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]With plural countable nouns:[/td][td][/td][td][/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Many[/td][td]More[/td][td]Most[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]With uncountable nouns:[/td][td][/td][td][/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Much[/td][td]More[/td][td]Most[/td][/tr][/table]
    [table][tr][td]Decrease From 100% to 0%[/td][td][/td][td][/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]With plural countable nouns:[/td][td][/td][td][/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Few[/td][td]Fewer[/td][td]Fewest[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]With uncountable nouns:[/td][td][/td][td][/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Little[/td][td]Less[/td][td]Least[/td][/tr][/table]
    Example:
    • [li]There are many people in England, more in India, but the most people live in China.[/li]
      [li]Much time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on national defence.[/li]
      [li]Few rivers in Europe are not polluted.[/li]
      [li]Fewer people die young now than in the seventeenth century.[/li]
      [li]The country with the fewest people per square kilometer must be Australia.[/li]
      [li]Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before the year 2,000.[/li]
      [li]She had less time to study than Paul but had better results.[/li]
      [li]Give that dog the least opportunity and it will bite you.[/li]

    1. There is not much land available for a new football field.
    2. How much clothing are you going to pack for your trip?
    3. Are there many deaf teachers at Gallaudet University?
    4. Did our teacher provide many handouts for us?
    5. Do you know if there are still many textbooks available in the bookstore?
    6. Have you heard much news from home?
    7. I think there is too much violence on television.
    8. Was there much traffic on the beltway this morning?
    9. Have you done much research for your project?
    10. Do you have to write many essays for your class?
    11. I have too much time on my hands. I am bored.
    12. I had to ask her many times before she agreed to go with me.
    Some and Any
    Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe and indefinite or incomplete quantity.
    Some is used in positive statements:
    • [li]I had some rice for lunch.[/li]
      [li]He's got some books from the library.[/li]

    It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer:
    • [li]Did he give you some tea? (= I'm sure he did.)[/li]
      [li]Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? (= I think there is.)[/li]

    Some is used in situations where the question is not a request for information, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving an invitation:
    • [li]Could I have some books, please?[/li]
      [li]Why don't you take some books home with you?[/li]
      [li]Would you like some books?[/li]

    Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements:
    • [li]Have you got any tea?[/li]
      [li]He didn't give me any tea.[/li]
      [li]I don't think we've got any coffee left.[/li]

    More examples:
    SOME in positive sentences
    a. I will have some news next week.
    b. She has some valuable books in her house.
    c. Philip wants some help with his exams.
    d. There is some butter in the fridge.
    e. We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue.
    SOME in questions
    a. Would you live some help?
    b. Will you have some more roast beef?
    ANY in negative sentences
    a. She doesn't want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.
    b. They don't want any help moving to their new house.
    c. No, thank you. I don't want any more cake.
    d. There isn't any reason to complain.
    ANY in interrogative sentences
    a. Do you have any friends in London?
    b. Have they got any children?
    c. Do you want any groceries from the shop?
    d. Are there any problems with your work?
    1. Ann has some candies.
    2. Bill doesn't have any money.
    3. Sue will give us some information.
    4. There is some milk in the fridge.
    5. There isn't any beer.
    6. There aren't any boys in my family.
    7. Bill won't give me any help.
    8. Ann shouldn't smoke any cigarettes.
    9. Sue must do some homework tonight.
    10. My brother can't speak any Chinese.
    11. My sister can speak some Spanish.
    12. I can't speak any Chinese or Spanish.
    13. I must study some second languages.
    14. Bill isn't any smarter than Jane.
    15. Ann should eat some fresh fruit.
    Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO
    [table][tr][td]Some +
    Any +
    No +[/td][td]
    | - thing[/td][td]
    | - body[/td][td]
    | - one[/td][td]
    | - where[/td][/tr][/table]
    Compound nouns with some- and any- are used in the same way as some and any.
    Positive statements:
    • [li]Someone is sleeping in my bed.[/li]
      [li]He saw something in the garden.[/li]
      [li]I left my glasses somewhere in the house.[/li]

    Questions:
    • [li]Are you looking for someone? (= I'm sure you are.)[/li]
      [li]Have you lost something? (= I'm sure you have.)[/li]
      [li]Is there anything to eat? (real question)[/li]
      [li]Did you go anywhere last night?[/li]

    Negative statements:
    • [li]She didn't go anywhere last night.[/li]
      [li]He doesn't know anybody here.[/li]

    NOTICE that there is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc. and not...anything, not...anybody:
    • [li]I don't know anything about it. (=neutral, no emphasis)[/li]
      [li]I know nothing about it. (=more emphatic, maybe defensive)[/li]

    SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE
    a. I have something to tell you.
    b. There is something to drink in the fridge.
    c. He knows somebody in New York.
    d. Susie has somebody staying with her.
    e. They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays.
    f. Keith is looking for somewhere to live.
    ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHERE
    a. Is there anybody who speaks English here?
    b. Does anybody have the time?
    c. Is there anything to eat?
    d. Have you anything to say?
    e. He doesn't have anywhere to stay tonight.
    f. I wouldn't eat anywhere except at Maxim's.
    NOBODY, NOTHING, NOWHERE
    a. There is nobody in the house at the moment.
    b. When I arrived there was nobody to meet me.
    c. I have learnt nothing since I began the course.
    d. There is nothing to eat.
    e. There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris in the Spring.
    f. Homeless people have nowhere to go at night.
    ANY can also be used in positive statements to mean "no matter which", "no matter who", "no matter what"
    a. You can borrow any of my books.
    b. They can choose anything from the menu.
    c. You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind.
    1. I know something about this issue that you may find interesting. but if I tell you, you must promise to keep it (a) secret.
    2. Nobody/Nothing live here. There is no water.
    3. I spent the night somewhere near the beach.
    4. Anyone/Anybody could have jumped over this wall, and stole your rake. It's very low.
    5. Nobody/Nothing scares him. He's very brave.
    6. There is nowhere to park here. Let's go somewhere else to park.
    7. Would you like something to wash your hands?
    8. May I have something for dessert, please?
    9. They took him somewhere in London, and he never returned.
    10. Please don't leave anything behind at home. We'll be away for a fortnight.
    11. She needs someone/somebody to love. She's very lonely.
    12. They will not sing anywhere in this city. They said that they would never come back.
    13. There isn't anything you can do to help them. Nobody/No one can help them.
    14. We do not need anybody else to run this department. We can do it ourselves.
    15. Someone/Somebody is ringing' the bell. Go and see who it is.
    16. Someone/Somebody phoned while we were out, but they did not leave a message.
    17. Something tells me that there is something fishy going on.
    18. They are looking for somewhere to settle down and have children. They want to find a quiet Place to lead a quiet life.
    19. "Where would you like to stay?"
    "Anywhere will do provided it is a clean place."
    20. "Is there anybody/anyone at home?"
    "I don't think there is anybody/anyone. Mum and dad must have gone out."

    Conditional Sentences
    Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are four types of Conditional Sentences.

    Conditional Sentence Type 0
    Form: if + Simple Present, Simple Present (S + V1, S + V1)

    Example: If it rains, the ground becomes wet.
    [table][tr][td]If-Clause[/td][td]Result Clause[/td][td]Explanation[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Simple present verb[/td][td]Simple present verb[/td][td]If-clause uses simple present
    result clause uses simple[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]If it rains,
    If it gets cold enough,
    If I don't do my home work,[/td][td]my car window leaks.
    water becomes ice.
    I learn nothing.[/td][td]<- expresses an established or predictable fact or it expresses a general truth.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]If Marie doesn't eat dinner,
    If I exercise,[/td][td]she gets hungry at midnight.
    I look great![/td][td]<- expresses a habitual situation or a habitual activity.[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]If someone calls,[/td][td]take a message please.[/td][td]<- give a command[/td][/tr][/table]
    1. If you don't clean your teeth everyday, plaque builds up on them, and they feel horrible.
    2. If you drop a glass onto concrete from a height of five meters, it shatters into thousands of tiny pieces.
    3. If you keep a fish out of water for thirty minutes, it gives up the ghost and dies.
    4. If you feel embarrassed, you normally blush.
    5. If you touch a live wire, you get an electric shock.
    6. If you put a lit cigarette on your skin, you burn yourself and you probably yell, "OW!"
    7. If you feel extremely tired, you yawn, rub your eyes, and try not to fall asleep.
    8. If you run for two hours, your skin goes red and you start to sweat like mad!
    9. If you slide your finger quickly along the edge of a piece of paper, you usually cut it Ouch!

    Conditional Sentence Type 1 (Present Unreal)
    -> It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.
    Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future (S + V1, S + will/modal + V1)
    Example: If I find her address, I'll send her an invitation.
    If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.
    [table][tr][td]If-Clause[/td][td]Result Clause[/td][td]Explanation[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]Simple present verb[/td][td]Will/Modal + simple present verb[/td][td]If-clause uses simple present
    result clause uses will/modal + verb[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]If it rains,[/td][td]my window might leak.[/td][td]<- expresses a fact[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]If the phone rings,[/td][td]I will answer it.[/td][td]<- expresses a future situation[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]If the weather is sunny,[/td][td]we can go to the beach Sunday.[/td][td]<- expresses a future activity[/td][/tr][/table]
    1. If you send this letter now, she will receive it tomorrow.
    2. If I do this test, I will improve my English.
    3. If I find your ring, I will give it back to you.
    4. Peggy will go shopping if she has time in the afternoon.
    5. Simon will go to London next week if he gets a cheap flight.
    6. If her boyfriend doesn't phone today, she will leave him.
    7. If they don't study harder, they won't pass the exam.
    8. If it rains tomorrow, I won't have to water the plants.
    9. You won't be able to sleep if you watch this scary film.
    10. Susan can't move into the new house if it isn't ready on time.

    Conditional Sentence Type 2 (Future Impossibility)
    -> It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
    Form: if + Simple Past,Conditional I (S + V2, S + would/could + Infinitive (V1 not s/es))
    Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
    Were instead of Was
    In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use, were - even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it.
    Example: If I were you, would not do this.
    1. If we had a yacht, we would sail the seven seas.
    2. If he had more time, he would learn karate.
    3. If they told their father, he would be very angry.
    4. She would spend a year in the USA if it were easier to get a green card.
    5. If I lived on a lonely island, I would run around naked all day.
    6. We would help you if we knew how.
    7. My brother would buy a sport car if he had the money.
    8. If I felt better, I would go to the cinema with you.
    9. If you went by bike more often, you wouldn't be so flabby.
    10. She wouldn't talk to you if she were mad at you.
    [center]Cr: I-Genius[/center] 8)
  • Compound Nouns
    [table][tr][td]What type / what purpose[/td][td]| What or who[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]police[/td][td]| man[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]boy[/td][td]| friend[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]water[/td][td]| tank[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]dining[/td][td]| table[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]bed[/td][td]| room[/td][/tr][/table]
    The two parts may be written in a number of ways :
    [list type=decimal][li]as one word. : policeman, boyfriend[/li]
    [li]as two words joined with a hyphen. : dining-table[/li]
    [li]as two separate words. : fish tank[/li][/list]
    There are no clear rules about this - so write the common compounds that you know well as one word, and the others as two words.
    [table][tr][td]The two parts may be:[/td][td]| Examples:[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]noun + noun[/td][td]| bedroom
    | water tank
    | motorcycle
    | printer cartridge[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]noun + verb[/td][td]| rainfall
    | haircut
    | train-spotting[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]noun + adverb*[/td][td]| hanger-on
    | passer-by[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]verb + noun[/td][td]| washing machine
    | driving license
    | swimming pool[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]verb + adverb[/td][td]| lookout
    | take-off
    | drawback[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]adjective + noun[/td][td]| greenhouse
    | software
    | redhead[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]adjective + verb[/td][td]| dry-cleaning
    | public speaking[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]adverb + noun[/td][td]| onlooker
    | bystander[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]adverb + verb[/td][td]| output
    | overthrow
    | upturn
    | input[/td][/tr][/table]
    Compound nouns often have a meaning that is different from the two separate words.
    Stress is important in pronunciation, as it distinguishes between a compound noun (e.g. greenhouse) and an adjective with a noun (e.g. green house).
    Incompound nouns, the stress usually falls on the first syllable:
    a' greenhouse = place where we grow plants (compound noun)
    a green 'house = house painted green (adjective and noun)
    a 'bluebird = type of bird (compound noun)
    a blue 'bird = any bird with blue feathers (adjective and noun)
    *Many common compound nouns are formed phrasal verbs (verb + adverb or adverb + verb).
    Example: breakdown, outbreak, outcome, cutback, drive-in, drop-out, feedback, flyover, hold-up, hangover, outlay, outlet, inlet, makeup, output, set-back, stand-in, takeaway, walkover
    [table][tr][td]gloves made of lambskin[/td][td]= lambskin gloves[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a box made of cardboard[/td][td]= cardboard box[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]boots made of rubber[/td][td]= rubber boots[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a bottle made of plastic[/td][td]= a plastic bottle[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a coat made of fur[/td][td]= a fur coat[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]shoes made of leather[/td][td]= leather shoes[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]pajamas made of silk[/td][td]= silk pajamas[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a ring made of gold[/td][td]= a gold ring[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]pants made of denim[/td][td]= denim pants[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a hat made of felt[/td][td]= a felt hat[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a bag made of paper[/td][td]= a paper bag[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]gloves made of latex[/td][td]= latex gloves[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a statue made of jade[/td][td]= a jade statue[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a necklace made of silver[/td][td]= a silver necklace[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a bag made of plastic[/td][td]= a plastic bag[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a table made of mahogany[/td][td]= a mahogany table[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]earrings made of silver[/td][td]= silver earrings[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a jecket made of leather[/td][td]= a leather jecket[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a sculpture made of ice[/td][td]= an ice sculpture[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]a barrel made of steel[/td][td]= a steel barrel[/td][/tr][/table]
    1. What every restaurant fears - food poisoning.
    2. The safest place to cross a busy road - pedestrain crossing.
    3. Useful to check before you have a picnic - weather forecast.
    4. Might prevent people from breaking into your home - burglar alarm.
    5. Your doctor will check this to make sure it isn't too high or too low - blood pressure
    6. A kitchen utensil - rolling pin.
    7. A process of manufacturing goods in a factory - assembly line.
    8. Very fast jet fighter might break it - sound barrier.
    9. My garden has vegetables. It is a vegetable garden.
    10. The program is on television. It's a television program.
    11. He climbs mountains. He is a mountain climber.
    12. The lesson concerned history. It was a history lesson.
    13. The test was about physics. It was a physics lesson.
    14. Mike works for the government. He is government worker.
    15. The soup has beans. It is bean soup.
    16. The factory makes automobiles. It's an automobile factory.
    17. Marry forecasts the weather. She's a weather forecaster.
    18. The book is about grammar. It's a grammar book.
    19. An album that contains protographs is called a photograph album.
    20. She needs to save money for her future. Her salary is paid directly into her saving account.
    Apostrophe
    Forming possessives of nouns
    To see if you need to make a possessive, turn the phrase around and make it an "of the..." phrase.
    For example:
    [table][tr][td]the boy's hat[/td][td]= the hat of the boy[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]three days' journey[/td][td]= journey of three days[/td][/tr][/table]
    If the noun after "of" is a building. an object, or a piece of furniture, then no apostrophe is needed!
    [table][tr][td]room of the hotel[/td][td]= hotel room[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]door of the car[/td][td]= car door[/td][/tr]
    [tr][td]leg of the table[/td][td]= table leg[/td][/tr][/table]
    Once you've determined whether you need to make a possessive, follow these rules to create one.
    • [li]add 's to the singular form of the word (even if it ends in -s):
      the owner's car
      James's hat[/li]
      [li]add 's to the plural forms that do not end in -s:
      the children's game
      the geese's honking[/li]
      [li]add 's to the end of plural nouns that end in -s:
      houses' roofs[/li]
      [li]add 's to the end of compound words:
      my brother-in-law's money[/li]
      [li]add 's to the last noun to show joint possession of an object:
      Todd and Anne's apartment[/li]

    1. The girlfriend of her brother drives a tailer truck.
    Her brother's girlfriend deives a trailer truck.
    2. We heard the voices of the children clearly in the lounge.
    We heard the children's voices clearly in the lounge.
    [center]Cr: I-Genius[/center]
    http://www.hsk9.org/fm88.html


    Why travelling is important?
    When people plan to travel, most likely spent time to relax and shopping.
    Traveling enables me to explore the world that I never know. Many countries have different cultures which can open my new vision from people in each area. Sometimes they will teach their local language to me.
    From traveling, I will get more experience from talking with other people. From my experience, I used to travel with my co-worker. He loves travelling to ancient city and natural place in Thailand, where I didn’t know these amazing places exist in my country. I feel sad because I only met foreigners and not many Thai people.
    During relaxing time, I have opportunity to think about the previous trip and what I would do when I come back from travel? Is there something I missed?

    Product Design - a Need or a Want?
    In this time, a product quality is not enough for customer decision to buy a product. It must be design also. I think product design is a want. It is attractive for customers to buy product. The product that has matching design with people will get more money.
    For example, The Apple Company will push the design to all parts of product. They pay attention to detail in every part of their product. The time they push product to the market, they will present all of the functions to the customer about how to use it, but Thai customers are not interested.
    An iphone is the most innovative gadget. It changed the world from cell phone to smart phone. Making other brands design their cell phone to the smart phone. In my country, I think the people and technology are not prompt to use it. Because the manual to use is in English language and internet technology is slow speed and can not access anywhere. The one is the customer must buy applications. The tradition of Thai people in terms of technology is that we do not want to pay for it. 8)
  • ขอคำแนะนำ สอบ IELTS จะเรียนต่อ ป.โท ตอนนี้เลยเตรียมสอบ IELTS คือเป็นคนที่ไม่ค่อยเก่งภาษาเท่าไรพอได้นิดหน่อย
    http://www.t-pageant.com/2011/index.php?/topic/102920-ขอคำแนะนำ-สอบ-ielts-ค่ะ

    First English fiction

    Once upon a time, it
    takes place on a star far, far away in the space. There are high technologies.
    The human want to go there. For searching another species in the space. While,
    the living things has not believed that there are other living things in other
    stars. On the star has the land 90% and the ocean 10%. The people live in the
    ocean. Suddenly, the black hole occurs. Make that star move to nearby the
    earth. The shape of the star is triangle. One man lived at the corner of
    triangle, John, is the first person saw the earth. He went to the earth at the
    point that his home contact with earth’s Pacific Ocean.
    He met many different species that is aquatic animal. He feels very amazing. He
    travels in the ocean for a day, and gets back to his star tells the story.
    Unfortunately, the black hole occurs again. Make the star move back to the old
    place when his friends follow him to the place that he told. They do not see
    another star anymore. B-)

    • 140921
    • novel (n.) - นิยาย
    • จดหมาย - letter (n.)
    • officer (n.) - พนักงาน
    • คลาน - creep (v.)
    • deep (adj.) - ลึก
    • ตึก - building (n.)
    • swimming (n.) - การว่ายน้ำ
    • จดจำ - remember (v.)
    • hammer (n.) - ค้อน
    • สะท้อน - reflect (v.)

    • hospital (n.) - โรงพยาบาล
    • เมื่อวาน - yesterday (n.)
    • delay (v.) - ล่าช้า
    • ยา - medicine (n.)
    • ginger (n.) - ขิง
    • ลิง - monkey (n.)
    • dizzy (adj.) - เวียนหัว
    • ดอกบัว - lotus (n.)
    • muscle (n.) - กล้าม
    • มะขาม - tamarind (n.)

    • scientist (n.) - นักวิทยาศาสตร์
    • สัญชาติ - nationality (n.)
    • secretary (n.) - เลขานุการ
    • กระดาน - board (n.)
    • swordplay (n.) - การฟันดาบ
    • รูปภาพ - picture (n.)
    • terrace (n.) - ระเบียง
    • เสียง - sound (n.)
    • around (adv.) - รอบๆ
    • สอบ - test (v.)

    • moist (adj.) - ชุ่มชื้น
    • พื้น - floor (n.)
    • shore (n.) - ชายฝั่ง
    • ฝรั่ง - guava (n.)
    • China (n.) - ประเทศจีน
    • ปีน - climb (v.)
    • lime (n.) - มะนาว
    • มะพร้าว - coconut (n.)
    • mud (n.) - โคลน
    • โยน - throw (v.)

    • space (n.) - ช่องว่าง
    • ระหว่าง - between (prep.)
    • machine (n.) - เครื่องยนต์
    • ซุกซน - naughty (adj.)
    • shiny (adj.) - เปล่งประกาย
    • ผ่อนคลาย - relax (v.)
    • factory (n.) - โรงงาน
    • สว่าน - drill (n.)
    • grill (v.) - ย่าง
    • ห้าง - department store (n.)

    • secret (n.) - ความลับ
    • จับ - arrest (v.)
    • candidate (n.) - ผู้สมัคร
    • คู่รัก - lover (n.)
    • carpenter (n.) - ช่างไม้
    • พอใจ - satisfied (adj.)
    • sunshine (n.) - แสงแดด
    • แฝด - twin (n.)
    • virgin (adj.) - บริสุทธิ์
    • สุภาพบุรุษ - gentleman (n.)

    • danger (n.) - อันตราย
    • ความสบาย - comfort (n.)
    • report (n.) - รายงาน
    • รัฐบาล - government (n.)
    • silent (adj.) - เงียบ
    • ตะเกียบ - chopsticks (n.)
    • basic (adj.) - พื้นฐาน
    • แต่งงาน - marry (v.)
    • therapy (n.) - การบำบัดโรค
    • กรรโชก - extort (v.)

    • salary (n.) - เงินเดือน
    • ผู้เตือน - warner (n.)
    • consider (v.) - พิจารณา
    • ปริญญา - degree (n.)
    • privacy (n.) - ส่วนตัว
    • ความรู้สึกกลัว - scare (n.)
    • nightmare (n.) - ฝันร้าย
    • อับอาย - ashamed (adj.)
    • attempt (v.) - พยายาม
    • ตรงข้าม - converse (adj.)

    • miracle (n.) - ปาฏิหาริย์
    • ลำธาร - stream (n.)
    • dream (v.) - ฝัน
    • สำคัญ - important (adj.)
    • servant (n.) - คนรับใช้
    • กรรไกร - scissors (n.)
    • hunter (n.) - นักล่า
    • ปัญหา - problem (n.)
    • item (n.) - สิ่งของ
    • จอง - reserve (v.)

    • wonder (v.) - รู้สึกประหลาด
    • ผิดพลาด - mistake (v.)
    • lake (n.) - ทะเลสาบ
    • สารภาพ - confess (v.)
    • happiness (n.) - ความสุข
    • บุกรุก - trespass (v.)
    • alert (adj.) - ตื่นตัว
    • ความชั่ว - evil (n.)
    • jungle (n.) - ป่า
    • แว่นตา - glasses (n.)

    • summit (n.) - การประชุมสุดยอด
    • ตาบอด - blind (adj.)
    • spy (n.) - สายลับ
    • โทรศัพท์ - telephone (n.)
    • stone (n.) - ก้อนหิน
    • เครื่องบิน - airplane (n.)
    • train (n.) - รถไฟ
    • กำไร - benefit (n.)
    • journalist (n.) - นักเขียนข่าว
    • อ่าว - bay (n.)

    • brilliant (adj.) - ฉลาด
    • กระดาษ - paper (n.)
    • layer (n.) - ชั้น
    • รางวัล - prize (n.)
    • crocodile (n.) - จระเข้
    • หล่อ, เท่ - handsome (adj.)
    • column (n.) - แถว
    • ใสแจ๋ว - transparent (adj.)
    • document (n.) - เอกสาร
    • สะพาน - bridge (n.)

    • contract (n.) - สัญญา
    • ทุ่งนา - paddy (n.)
    • pretty (adj.) - น่ารัก
    • รอยสัก - tattoo (n.)
    • bamboo (n.) - ต้นไผ่
    • ดอกไม้ - flower (n.)
    • adventure (n.) - ผจญภัย
    • ผ้าไหม - silk (n.)
    • milk (n.) - น้ำนม
    • อารมณ์ - emotion (n.)

    • dandruff (n.) - รังแค
    • อ่อนแอ - weak (adj.)
    • speak (v.) - พูด
    • การดึงดูด - attraction (n.)
    • refund (v.) - คืน
    • อื่นๆ - other (n.)
    • silver (n.) - เครื่องเงิน
    • เดิน - walk (v.)
    • shock (v.) - ตกใจ
    • คนไข้ - patient (n.)

    • butter (n.) - เนย
    • กะเทย - gay (n.)
    • obey (v.) - เชื่อฟัง
    • พลัง - power (n.)
    • summer (n.) - ฤดูร้อน
    • บทละคร - drama (n.)
    • sugar (n.) - น้ำตาล
    • ทนทาน - durable (adj.)
    • angel (n.) - นางฟ้า
    • ธรรมดา - normal (adj.)

    • standard (n.) - มาตรฐาน
    • ตำนาน - legend (n.)
    • title (n.) - ชื่อเรื่อง
    • กระเบื้อง - tile (n.)
    • style (n.) - รูปแบบ
    • ความเจ็บปวด - sting (n.)
    • amazing (adj.) - ประหลาดใจ
    • บันได - stair (n.)
    • compare (v.) - เปรียบเทียบ
    • ระเบียบ - rule (n.)

    • pimply (adj.) - เต็มไปด้วยสิว
    • ใบปลิว - handbill (n.)
    • refill (v.) - เติมใหม่
    • ความรู้สึกเห็นใจ - sympathy (n.)
    • laundry (n.) - ซักรีด
    • นกหวีด - whistle (n.)
    • double (adj.) - สองเท่า
    • คนเมา - drunkard (n.)
    • awkward (adj.) - งุ่มง่าม
    • ติดตาม - follow (v.)

    • history (n.) - ประวัติศาสตร์
    • อุกกาบาต - meteorite (n.)
    • tonight (adv.) - คืนนี้
    • ใจดี - kind (adj.)
    • provide (v.) - จัดหา
    • กีฬา - sport (n.)
    • abort (v.) - แท้ง
    • แห้งแล้ง - arid (adj.)
    • humid (adj.) - ชุ่มชื้น
    • ผดผื่น - rash (n.)

    • destroy (v.) - ทำลาย
    • กระจาย - disperse (v.)
    • skirt (n.) - กระโปรง
    • เชื่อมโยง - connect (v.)
    • perfect (adj.) - สมบูรณ์
    • ตระกูล - lineage (n.)
    • limit (v.) - จำกัด
    • หวัด - cold (n.)
    • control (v.) - ควบคุม
    • กระดุม - button (n.)

    • begin (v.) - เริ่มต้น
    • สับสน - confuse (v.)
    • view (n.) - ภาพวาด
    • อากาศ - climate (n.)
    • rotate (v.) - หมุนเวียน
    • อาเจียน - vomit (v.)
    • edit (v.) - แก้ไข
    • ใบไม้ - leaf (n.)
    • thief (n.) - ขโมย
    • หิวโหย - hungry (adj.)
  • 20 Tips for IELTS Success

    IELTS Listening Tips...

    1. In Listening, use the example at the beginning of the first section of familiarize yourself with the sound, the situation, and the speakers.

    2. Keep listening until the recording stops, looking only at the questions that relate to the part being played.

    3. There are often pauses in the recording between different sections. Use these to prepare for the next set of questions.

    4. Answer Listening questions in the order they appear on the Question Paper. Remember that they normally follow the order of the information in the recording.

    5. At the end of the recording you have some time to transfer your answers to the Answer Sheet. Check your grammar and spelling as you do so.

    IELTS Reading Tips...

    6. In Academic Reading, begin by going quickly through each passage to identify features such as the topic, the style, the likely source, the writer's purpose and the intended reader.

    7. As you read, don't try to understand the precise meaning of every word or phrase. You don't have time, and those parts of the text might not be tested anyway.

    8. Reading tasks sometimes have an example answer. If this is the case, study it and decide why it is correct.

    9. Some tasks require you to use words from the text in the answer; in others you should use your own words. Check the instructions carefully.

    10. The instructions may also include a word limit, e.g. Use no more than three words. Keep to this by avoiding unnecessary words in your answer.

    IELTS Writing Tips...

    11. In Academic Writing, you must always keep to the topic set. Never try to prepare sections of text before the exam.

    12. Keep to the suggested timing: there are more marks possible for Task 2 than Task 1.

    13. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, using a wide range of language and showing your ability (in Task 2) to discuss ideas and express opinions.

    14. If you write less than 150 words in Task 1 or less than 250 in Task 2 you will lose marks, but there is no maximum number of words for either.

    15. When you plan your essay, allow plenty of time at the end to check your work.

    IELTS Speaking Tips...

    16. In Speaking, don't try to give a prepared speech, or talk about a different topic from the one you are asked to discuss.

    17. Always speak directly to the Examiner, not to the recording equipment.

    18. Whenever you reply 'Yes' or 'No' to the Examiner's questions, add more details to your answer. In each case, aim to explain at least one point.

    19. Remember that you are not being tested on your general knowledge but on your ability to communicate effectively.

    20. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, talking clearly at normal speed and using a wide range of structures and vocabulary.

    Cr: IELTS-Mentor
  • IELTS Listening Sample 1



    Section One - Questions 1-10

    Questions 1-5
    Write NO MORE THAN One WORD

    EXAMPLE  ANSWER
    Surname    Jones

    First names:  Louise Cynthia

    Address:  Apartment 1,72 (1)...Street Highbridge

    Post code:  (2)...

    Telephone:  9835 6712 (home)  (3)... (work)

    Driver's licence number:  (4)...

    DOB: 25th Month: (5)... Year: 1977

    Question 6-8
    Circle THREE letters A-F.

    What types of films does Louise like?
    A. Action
    B. Comedies
    C. Musicals
    D. Romance
    E. Westerns
    F. Wildlife

    Question 9 and 10
    Write NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS.

    9. How much does it cost to join the library?
    10. When will Louise's card be ready?

    Section Two - Question 11-20

    Questions 11-13
    Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer

    Expedition Across Attora Mountains

    Leader: Charles Owen
    Prepared a (11)... for the trip
    Total length of trip (12)...
    Climbed highest peak in (13)...

    Questions 14 and 15
    Circle the correct letters A-C.

    14. What took the group by surprise?
     A. the amount of rain
     B. the number of possible routes
     C. the length of the journey

    15. How did Charles feel about having to change routes?
     A. He reluctantly accepted it.
     B. He was irritated by the diversion.
     C. It made no difference to enjoyment.

    Questions 16-18
    Circle THREE letters A-F.

    What does Charles say about his friends?
    A. He met them at one stage on the trip.
    B. They kept all their meeting arrangements.
    C. One of them helped arrange the transport.
    D. One of them owned the hotel they stayed in.
    E. Some of them travelled with him.
    F. Only one group lasted the 96 days.

    Questions 19 and 20
    Circle TWO letters A-E.

    What does Charles say about the donkeys?
    A. He rode them when he was tired.
    B. He named them after places.
    C. One of them died.
    D. They behaved unpredictably.
    E. They were very small.

    Section Three - Questions 21-30

    Questions 21-25
    Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer

                                          Tim        Jane
    Day of arrival                   Sunday   (21)...
    Subject                           History   (22)...
    Number of books to read  (23)...     (24)...
    Day of first lecture           Tuesday  (25)...

    Questions 26-30
    Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

    26. What is Jane's study strategy in lectures?
    27. What's Tim's study strategy for reading?
    28. What is the subject of Tim's first lecture?
    29. What's title of Tim's first essay?
    30. What is the subject of Jane's first essay?

    Section Four - Question 31-40

    Questions 31-35
    Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

    Course                                Type of course: duration & level  Entry requirements
    Physical Fitness Instructor   Example  Six-month certificate   None
    Sports Administrator            (31)...                                       (32)... in sports administration
    Sports Psychologist             (33)...                                       Degree in psychology
    Physical Education Teacher  4 years degree in education       (34)...
    Recreation officer                 (35)...                                       None

    MAIN ROLES
    Job                                     Main Role

    Physical Fitness Instructor   (36)
    Sports Administrator            (37)
    Sports Psychologist             (38)
    Physical Education Teacher  (39)
    Recreation Officer                 (40)

    A the coaching of teams
    B the support of elite athletes
    C guidance of ordinary individuals
    D community health
    E the treatment of injuries
    F arranging matches and venues
    G the rounded development of children

    Tape-scripts

    Answer:

    Section 1
    1. Black
    2. 2085
    3. 9456 1309
    4. 2020BD
    5. July
    6, 7, & 8. B, D, F (in any order)
    9. 25$/ twenty-five dollars (refundable)
    10. next week / in a week / in one week / the following week

    Section 2
    11. route book
    12. 900/ nine hundred miles NOT 900
    13. North/ N Africa NOT Africa
    14. A
    15. C
    16, 17 & 18. B, C, E (in any order)
    19 & 20. B, D (in any order)

    Section 3
    21. (on) Friday
    22. Biology
    23. 57 / fifty-seven (books)
    24. 43 / forty-three (books)
    25. Wed / Wednesday (NOT the day after)
    26. (she) record(s) them / lectures / she use(s) a (tape/cassette) recorder / recording
    27. skimming / (he) skims (books)/(a book) / skim (the) book first / skim reading
    28. (The) French Revolution
    29. Why study history(?)
    30. animal language / (the) language of animals (NOT language)

    Section 4
    31. 4 / four-month certificate/cert (course)
    32. (current) employment/job
    33. 1 / one-year diploma / ACCEPT dyploma
    34. none / no (prior) qualifications / quals
    35. 6 / six-month certificate / cert (course)
    36. C
    37. F
    38. B
    39. G
    40. D

    Cr: IELTS Mentor
  • Listening Sample 1 Tape-scripts:

    SECTION 1

    LOUISE: Oh hello, I'd like to join the video library.
    MR MAX: OK. Would you like to fill in the application form now?
    LOUISE: Yes, I can do it now.
    MR MAX: Hold on and I'll get a form. I'll just ask you a few questions and then I'll get you to sign at the bottom.
    LOUISE: Right.
    MR MAX: What's your full name?
    LOUISE: Louise Cynthia Jones. Example
    MR MAX: Jones?
    LOUISE: Yes, that's right.
    Repeat
    MR MAX: OK, and what's your address?
    LOUISE: Apartment 1, 72 Black Street, Highbridge.
    MR MAX: Black Street, that's just around the corner, isn't it?
    LOUISE: Yes.
    MR MAX: OK, so the post code is 2085, right?
    LOUISE: Yes, 2085.
    MR MAX: Mm. And your telephone number? I need both home and work.
    LOUISE: Home is 9835 6712 and work is 9456 1309. Do you need any ID or anything like that?
    MR MAX: Yes, we need your driver's license number, that is if you have one.
    LOUISE: Yes, I know if off by heart, it's an easy one, 2020BD. Do you need to see it?
    MR MAX: Yes, I'm afraid I do.
    LOUISE: Mm... here.
    MR MAX: Right, thanks. And could you tell me your date of birth please?
    LOUISE: 25 July 1977.
    MR MAX: That's the most important part out of the way, but could I just ask you a few questions for a survey we're conducting?
    LOUISE: OK.
    MR MAX: What kind of video do you prefer to watch? Have a look at this list.
    LOUISE: Well, I love anything that makes me laugh. I just love to hear jokes and funny punch lines. I'm not very keen on westerns, although my father likes them, but I'm a real softie, so anything with a bit of a love story is good for me. It doesn't matter how old. Not musicals though, they're too much!
    MR MAX: Anything else?
    LOUISE: I'm completely taken by documentaries of the great outdoors, you know the sort, animals, plants and far away places. I saw a wonderful one on dolphins last week. It was amazing.
    MR MAX: Now, I think that's all from me, except I need you to sign here on the line. Here's a pen. Oh, and I nearly forgot, the membership fee. $25, refundable if you leave the library for any reason.
    LOUISE: There you are. And do I sign here?
    MR MAX: Yes, that's it. You can borrow videos now, if you like, but your card won't be ready until next week. You can come and pick it up when you bring your first videos back. That is if you want to take some now.
    LOUISE: Yes, I'd like to. I'll have a look around.
    MR MAX: Fine.

    SECTION 2

    INTERVIEWER: A dream came true in 1995, when over 96 days of the spring and summer, an expedition of four men undertook what they believe to have been the first an only complete end-to-end crossing of Morocco's Attora mountains. I talked to Charles Owen, the leader of the expedition group, about the trip.
    CHARLES: Well, as you know, I run these walking trips across the mountains for tourists and over the years, I've collected maps and other data to prepare what I call a 'route book' for this trip and this book basically shows the route across the mountains that we took.
    INTERVIEWER: You actually broke records while you were out there, didn't you?
    CHARLES: Mmm. Yes, it was 900 miles in total and we managed to climb 32 peaks that were over 3000 metres high, including Toubkal, which is of course the highest in North Africa. We weren't actually out to make a name for ourselves - it just happened really.
    INTERVIEWER: What was the weather like?
    CHARLES: It got us right from day one and we were pretty taken aback really to find that it rained on quite a number of days, and so we were forced to start re-planning our route almost from the outset. One of the obvious problems is the heavy snow which blocks the mountain passes, so you have to make considerable detours. When we were on the way to Imilchil, for example, the snow forced us into a northern bypass which was new to us, but anyway, either way we would have been rewarded because we fell upon amazing, high meadows, huge gorges and wonderful snow-capped mountains. The scenery was as fine as any we saw on the trip and that was how it was every time - having to take another pass was never a disappointment.
    CHARLES: Yes, yes... we'd arranged to meet up with friends at various points on the journey. I mean this was actually one of the purposes of the trip... and we managed to keep all these dates, which is amazing really considering the detours we made. An old friend acted as a sort of transport organizer for everyone and the Hotel Ali in Marrakech was a good social base - I'd really recommend it, although I can't remember who runs it. Anyway, groups of friends actually joined us for three-week stints and others just linked up with us. Some, whom we hadn't met before the trip at all, tagged on for short bursts - people from the area - who just came along for the ride. But outside the major visitor areas like Toubkal we only met one other group of travelers like ourselves in the whole 96 days.
    INTERVIEWER: Were there any bad moments?
    CHARLES: We took two, I must say, long-suffering donkeys with us to help transport water and tents and things. I suppose if we were to do it all again we'd probably hire donkeys along the way. Taza and Tamri, as we called them after the last places in the trip, well, they made quite a unique journey between them, and... but it was continuously demanding for them. On both the really high summits, they took diversions that were quite out of character and I can only assume that it must have been due to tiredness.
    INTERVIEWER: Well, thank you... And Charles has put together a video about this journey and continues to lead groups to the Attora mountains, so if you want further information...

    Cr: IELTS Mentor
  • Listening Sample 1 Tape-scripts:

    SECTION 3


    JANE : Hi Tim! (Tim: Jane.) How are you? (Tim: Fine.) I'd been wondering when I'd run into you. Have you been here long?
    TIM : I arrived yesterday, on Sunday. How about you?
    JANE : I got here a few days ago, on Saturday. No - wait a minute, what's today? - Sorry Friday, not Saturday.
    TIM : But we didn't have to be here till today.
    JANE : Yes, I know, but I wanted to get my things moved into my room, and just take a look around. So, did you decide to do English in the end?
    TIM : No, I changed my mind and opted for history instead. And you're doing biology, if I remember correctly.
    JANE : Yes, although to start with I couldn't decide between that and geography.
    TIM : How much reading have you got? I was given an amazingly long list of books to read. See!
    JANE : Wow, it does look pretty long.
    TIM : Well, I counted 57. I could hardly believe it! What's your list like?
    JANE : Well, it's not as long as yours, but it's still pretty big. There are 43. I don't know how I'm going to get through them all.
    TIM
    : Well you don't have to read them all this week! You just have to
    stay ahead of the lectures and seminars. Have you got your class schedule yet?

    JANE : Yep. It came with the reading list. When's your first lecture?
    TIM : Tuesday. How about you?
    JANE : The day after. It's my busiest day; I've got two lectures in the morning and one in the afternoon.
    JANE : It's going to be different from school, isn't it!
    TIM : Yeah, particularly the lectures. How you got any special strategy for listening to lectures?
    JANE : Well I'm going to use a cassette recorder and record them all.
    TIM : What! Are you allowed to?
    JANE : Sure. Lots of people do it nowadays. It means you can listen to the lectures all over again later, and make really good notes.
    TIM : I couldn't do that. I like to take notes as I'm listening. I usually find I get all the important points. Reading is different of course. My approach is to skim the book first to see what's important and what isn't. It saves hours of time.
    JANE : But what if you miss something?
    TIM : You don't mean you're going to read every word, do you?
    JANE : Well, that's what I usually do.
    TIM : Well, that's up to you, but I think you're crazy!
    JANE : What's your first lecture on, anyway?
    TIM : Oh, it's a lecture on the French Revolution.
    JANE : The French Revolution! How boring!
    TIM : It's not boring at all! It was an amazing period of history. It changed everything in Europe. So what's your first lecture about?
    JANE : It's about animal behavior. It sounds really interesting.
    TIM : Look, I was on my way to the library. I'm going to get some of these books out and start reading for the first essay I've got to write.
    JANE : And what have you got to write about?
    TIM : Well, you'll never believe it, I think our professor must have a sense of humour. He's given us the title "Why study history?"
    JANE : That's a good one. When you find the answer, let me know!
    TIM : I'm going to enjoy writing it. Have you been given any writing assignments yet?
    JANE : Yes, I've got to write about animal language.
    TIM : Hmm! That sounds a challenge. I suppose you'll be off to the zoo to do field research.

    Cr: IELTS Mentor
  • Listening Sample 1 Tape-scripts:

    SECTION 4

    LECTURER :
    Welcome
    to further education Information Week. This is the Physical Education
    Faculty's session and I'm the Head of the Faculty. During the course of
    this morning we hope to give you a clear idea of what we offer in our
    training programs and we will look at the types of courses and the entry
    requirements, if any, for those courses. Some of these courses are open
    to school leavers, but for some you need previous qualifications, or
    relevant successful employment.

    So firstly, the Physical Fitness
    Instructor's course is offered as a six-month certificate course which
    includes an important component of personal fitness but there are no
    specific entry requirements.

    For Sports Administrators we provide
    a four-month certificate course but you should be aware that this is
    designed for those who are in employment. This employment must be
    current and related to sports administration.

    For the Sports
    Psychologist course we offer a one-year diploma course, but this diploma
    course is available only to those who already hold a degree in
    psychology, so you need to make sure you have that before you apply to
    do this course.

    Now... for Physical Education Teachers we offer a
    four-year degree in education. This degree course is designed for
    preparing students to teach in primary and secondary Schools and needs
    no prior qualifications as it is entered directly by school leavers. And
    lastly for the Recreation Officer's course we offer a six-month
    certificate. Entry to this course normally includes applicants of a wide
    range of ages and experiences, but we do not insist on any
    prerequisites for this course.

    Remember that this is a vocational
    training institute. We train you so that you can take up a particular
    kind of job. So it is important that you know the main roles of the jobs
    - what the work is like and what kind of qualities you need to succeed
    at them.

    A Physical Fitness Instructor works in health and
    fitness centers preparing individual programs for ordinary members of
    the public. Physical Fitness Instructors prepare routines of exercises
    to suit the individual client's age and level of fitness.

    Sports
    Administrators run clubs and sporting associations. Their duties include
    such things as booking playing fields with local councils and
    organizing the schedule of games or events for the club, so they need
    good organizational skills.

    Sports Psychologists spend time with
    professional athletes helping them approach competition with a positive
    mental attitude to enable them to achieve their personal best. They do
    this by improving motivation and concentration or assisting with stress
    management.

    Physical Education or PE
    Teachers instruct young students in how to exercise, play sport, and do
    other recreational activities correctly and safely. PE teachers help
    the development of co-ordination, balance, posture, and flexibility with
    things like simple catching and throwing skills. They are not expected
    to be experts in all sports, but must be able to show students the basic
    techniques involved in a wide range of activities.


    Recreation
    Officers often find themselves working for local government authorities
    and local groups. Their aim is to raise people's awareness of healthy
    lifestyles and improved general fitness through arranging recreational activities for groups of all ages from the very young to the elderly.

    There are many other job opportunities which our graduates can look forward to. If you are interested in any of these ...

    Cr: IELTS Mentor
  • General Training Reading Sample 1

    Read the information below and answer Questions 9-14.

    Luggage
    We ask you to keep luggage down to one medium-sized suitcase per person, but a small holdall can also be taken on board the coach.

    Seat Allocation
    Requests for particular seats can be made on most coach breaks when booking, but since allocations are made on a first come first served basis, early booking is advisable. When booking are made with us you will be offered the best seats that are available on the coach at that time.

    Travel Documents
    When you have paid your deposit we will send to you all the necessary documents and labels, so that you receive them in good time before the coach break departure date. Certain documents, for example air or boat tickets, may have to be retained and your driver or courier will then issue them to you at the relevant point.

    Special Diets
    If you require a special diet you must inform us at the time of booking with a copy of the diet. This will be notified to the hotel or hotels on your coach break, but on certain coach breaks the hotels used are tourist class and whilst offering value for money within the price range, they may not have the full facilities to cope with special diets. Any extra costs incurred must be paid to the hotel by yourself before departure from the hotel.

    Accommodation
    Many of our coach breaks now include, within the price, accommodation with private facilities, and this will be indicated on the coach break page. Other coach breaks have a limited number of rooms with private facilities which, subject to availability, can be reserved and guaranteed at the time of booking - the supplementary charge shown in the price panel will be added to your account. On any coach break there are only a limited number of single rooms. When a single room is available it may be subject to a supplementary charge and this will be shown on the brochure page.

    Entertainment
    Some of our hotels arrange additional entertainment which could include music, dancing, film shows, etc. The nature and frequency of the entertainment presented is at the discretion of the hotel and therefore not guaranteed and could be withdrawn if there is a lack of demand or insufficient numbers in the hotel.

    Question 9-14
    Choose the appropriate letters A-D.

    9. If you want to sit at the front of the coach
    A. ask when you get on the coach.
    B. arrive early on the departure date.
    C. book your seat well in advance.
    D. avoid travelling at peak times.

    10. Your air tickets
    A. will be sent to your departure point.
    B. must be collected before leaving.
    C. will be enclosed with other documents.
    D. may be held by your coach driver.

    11. If you need a special diet you should
    A. inform the hotel when you arrive.
    B. pay extra with the booking.
    C. tell the coach company.
    D. book tourist class.

    12. It may be necessary to pay extra for
    A. a bathroom
    B. boat tickets
    C. additional luggage.
    D. entertainment.

    13. Entertainment is available
    A. at all hotels.
    B. if there is the demand.
    C. upon request.
    D. for an additional cost.

    14. With every booking Classic Tours guarantee you will be able to
    A. request high quality meals.
    B. take hand luggage on the coach.
    C. use your own personal bathroom.
    D. see a film if you want to.

    9. C
    10. D
    11. C
    12. A
    Private facilities refers to bathroom, personal lounge, or attached balcony, etc.
    13. B
    14. B

    Cr: IELTS Mentor

    • victory (n.) - ชัยชนะ
    • อิสระ - free (adj.)
    • fairy (n.) - นางฟ้า
    • นินทา - gossip (v.)
    • friendship (n.) - มิตรภาพ
    • ระนาบ - plane (n.)
    • curtain (n.) - ผ้าม่าน
    • พยาน - witness (n.)
    • princess (n.) - เจ้าหญิง
    • ความจริง - truth (n.)

    • expert (adj.) - ชำนาญ
    • คนงาน - worker (n.)
    • killer (n.) - นักฆ่า
    • นายหน้า - broker (n.)
    • ladder (n.) - บันได
    • ไวยากรณ์ - grammar (n.)
    • extra (adj.) - พิเศษ
    • หมายเหตุ - footnote (n.)
    • approach (v.) - เข้าใกล้
    • หยากไย่ - cobweb (n.)

    • boss (n.) - เจ้านาย
    • นักแสดงชาย - actor (n.)
    • seller (n.) - คนขาย
    • ทนาย - lawyer (n.)
    • manager (n.) - ผู้จัดการ
    • ประธาน - president (n.)
    • agent (n.) - ตัวแทน
    • ชายแดน - frontier (n.)
    • premier (n.) - นายกรัฐมนตรี
    • คณบดี - dean (n.)

    • treat (v.) - รักษา
    • งานวิวาห์ - wedding (n.)
    • leggings (n.) - สนับแข้ง
    • นกแร้ง - vulture (n.)
    • mirror (n.) - กระจก
    • คางคก - toad (n.)
    • ghost (n.) - ผี
    • ชะนี - gibbon (n.)
    • modern (adj.) - ทันสมัย
    • ไฝ - mole (n.)

    • omelet (n.) - ไข่เจียว
    • ดินเหนียว - clay (n.)
    • essay (n.) - เรียงความ
    • จาม - sneeze (v.)
    • greet (v.) - ทักทาย
    • ไม้พาย - paddle (n.)
    • cancel (v.) - ยกเลิก
    • เพิกถอน - revoke (v.)
    • smoke (n.) - ควัน
    • ฉับพลัน - rapid (adj.)

    • vehicle (n.) - ยานพาหนะ
    • เสียสละ - sacrifice (v.)
    • bite (v.) - กัด
    • ฝึกหัด - practice (v.)
    • habit (n.) - นิสัย
    • วงดนตรีขนาดใหญ่ - orchestra (n.)
    • camera (n.) - กล้อง
    • บกพร่อง - deficient (adj.)
    • client (n.) - ลูกค้า
    • เสื้อผ้า - clothes (n.)

    • clumsy (adj.) - ซุ่มซ่าม
    • เลวทราม - filthy (adj.)
    • bitchy (adj.) - อารมณ์ร้าย
    • เต็มไปด้วยทราย - sandy (adj.)
    • cheeky (adj.) - ทะเล้น
    • ตอนเย็น - evening (adv.)
    • clingy (adj.) - ที่ต้องอยู่กับผู้อื่น
    • ฝ่าฝืน - disobey (v.)
    • stay (n.) - พักอยู่
    • รู้แจ้ง - wise (adj.)

    • roam (v.) - ท่องเที่ยว
    • เก็บเกี่ยว - harvest (v.)
    • average (n.) - ค่าเฉลี่ย
    • ไกล่เกลี่ย - mediate (v.)
    • colorless (adj.) - ที่ไม่มีสี
    • วงรี - oval (n.)
    • cycle (n.) - วงโคจร
    • อวยพร - bless (v.)
    • impress (v.) - ประทับใจ
    • ใกล้ๆ - nearby (adv.)

    • ordinary (adj.) - ธรรมดา
    • ปัญญา - intellect (n.)
    • insect (n.) - แมลง
    • เปลี่ยนแปลง - transform (v.)
    • brainstorm (n.) - ความคิดในจิต
    • ลูกคิด - abacus (n.)
    • cactus (n.) - กระบองเพชร
    • เห็ด - mushroom (n.)
    • groom (n.) - เจ้าบ่าว
    • ว่าว - kite (n.)

    • chain (n.) - โซ่
    • โมโห - angry (adj.)
    • tiny (adj.) - เล็กมาก
    • กระชาก - jerk (v.)
    • clerk (n.) - เสมียน
    • เกวียน - cart (n.)
    • guard (n.) - ผู้คุ้มกันภัย
    • ดันออกไป - push away (phrv.)
    • day off (n.) - วันหยุด
    • ชุดแฟนซี - fancy dress (n.)

    • magazine (n.) - นิตยสาร
    • ขนมหวาน - dessert (n.)
    • yoghurt (n.) - นมเปรี้ยว
    • ซีดเซียว - pale (adj.)
    • detail (n.) - รายละเอียด
    • ยัดเยียด - impose (v.)
    • devote (v.) - อุทิศ
    • ผิด - false (adj.)
    • absolve (v.) - ให้อภัย
    • ไอน้ำ - steam (n.)

    • brave (adj.) - กล้าหาญ
    • สนุกสนาน - joyous (adj.)
    • divert (v.) - เบี่ยงเบน
    • สามเณร - neophyte (n.)
    • alike (adj.) - เหมือนกัน
    • สวรรค์ - paradise (n.)
    • advise (v.) - แนะนำ
    • พฤติกรรม - behavior (n.)
    • sunflower (n.) - ดอกทานตะวัน
    • ฉับพลัน - prompt (adj.)

    • decline (v.) - ปฏิเสธ
    • อุบัติเหตุ - accident (n.)
    • different (adj.) - แตกต่าง
    • เส้นทาง - route (n.)
    • wood (n.) - ป่าไม้
    • ลำไส้ - intestine (n.)
    • napkin (n.) - ผ้าเช็ดมือ
    • สะดือ - navel (n.)
    • sample (n.) - ตัวอย่าง
    • เครื่องสำอาง - cosmetic (n.)
  • IELTS Academic Reading Sample 1 - Population Viability Analysis

    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-39 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below:

    Part A
    To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia's forests. A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed below.

    Part B
    A) Early attempts to predict population viability were based on demographic uncertainty whether an individual survives from one year to the next will largely be a matter of chance. Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase. Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is growing.

    B) Small populations cannot avoid a certain amount of inbreeding. This is particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only 20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species must be descended from that one male. For most animal species such individuals are less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction.

    C) Variation within a species is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. Without genetic variability a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases. The loss of genetic diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of extinction.

    D) Recent research has shown that other factors need to be considered. Australia's environment fluctuates enormously from year to year. These fluctuations add yet another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years may increase to several thousand.

    Part C
    Beside these processes we need to bear in mind the distribution of a population. A species that occurs in five isolated places each containing 20 individuals will not have the same probability of extinction as a species with a single population of 100 individuals in a single locality. Where logging occurs (that is, the cutting down of forests for timber) forest-dependent creatures in that area will be forced to leave. Ground-dwelling herbivores may return within a decade. However, arboreal marsupials (that is animals which live in trees) may not recover to pre-logging densities for over a century. As more forests are logged, animal population sizes will be reduced further. Regardless of the theory or model that we choose, a reduction in population size decreases the genetic diversity of a population and increases the probability of extinction because of any or all of the processes listed above. It is therefore a scientific fact that increasing the area that is loaded in any region will increase the probability that forest-dependent animals will become extinct.

    Question 28-31
    Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Part A of Reading Passage 1?

    YES  if the statement agrees with the writer
    NO  if the statement contradicts the writer
    NOT GIVEN  if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    Example
    A link exists between the consequences of decisions and the decision making process itself.
    Answer
    YES

    28 Scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals.
    29 PVA has been used in Australia for many years.
    30 A species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.
    31 Extinction is a naturally occurring phenomenon.

    Questions 32-35
    These questions are based on Part B of Reading Passage 1. In paragraphs A to D the author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species. Match the list of process (i-vi) to the paragraphs.
    NB  There are more processes than paragraphs so you will not use all of them.

    32 Paragraph A
    33 Paragraph B
    34 Paragraph C
    35 Paragraph D

    Processes
    i Loss of ability to adapt
    ii Natural disasters
    iii An imbalance of the sexes
    iv Human disasters
    v Evolution
    vi The haphazard nature of reproduction

    Questions 36-38
    Based on your reading of Part C, complete the sentences below with words taken from the passage. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

    While the population of a species may be on the increase, there is always a chance that small isolated groups ..(36).. Survival of a species depends on a balance between the size of a population and its ..(37).. The likelihood that animals which live in forests will become extinct is increased when ..(38)..

    Question 39
    Choose the appropriate letter A-D.

    39 An alternative heading for the passage could be:
    A The protection of native flora and fauna
    B Influential factors in assessing survival probability
    C An economic rationale for the logging of forests
    D Preventive measures for the extinction of a species

    28. Yes 29. No 30. No 31. Not Given 32. vi: The haphazard nuture of reproduction 33. iii: An imbalance of the sexes 34. i: Loss of ability to adapt 35. ii: Natural disasters 36. will (/may) not survive / will (/may) could become extinct 37. locality / distribution 38. logging takes place (/occurs) 39. B

    Cr: IELTS Mentor
  • General Training Writing Task 1 Sample 1 - You would like to participate in a work-related seminar

    You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

    Write a letter to the person in charge of the seminar and ask for detailed information regarding the dates, program, accommodation and cost.

    Write at least 150 words.

    You do NOT need to write any addresses.

    Model Answer 1:

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    I am writing to request information regarding the conference that is being arranged by your organization in the next month, advertised in the local newspaper. I was wondering if I could acquire detailed information about the program beforehand then it would be worthwhile to plan the trip appropriately.

    Mainly, I'd like to receive details about below points:

    1. I heard the symposium is three days long but exact dates are expected to sanction the leaves from work.
    2. Expected basic level of course knowledge before actually attending the conclave.
    3. Venue details with navigational maps, if possible.
    4. Sitting arrangements available, auditorium or a hotel boutique, for instance, with sitting capacity.
    5. If laptop and other stationary items are required or not.
    6. Accommodation type half board or full board.
    7. Total price of the entire program with early bird discount if bookings are done well in advance for three persons.

    I'm hoping to receive this information for above points no later than one week before the scheduled starting date of the seminar. You could send the information via Fax or can send an email on sheldon.cooper@tbt.com. Your help and time will be greatly appreciated.

    Thank you in advance. Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

    Sincerely your,
    Dev

    Model Answer 2:

    Dear Sir / Madam,

    My name is Rona Lyn Olivar. I am currently working as an ICU Nurse (Intensive Care Unit) in a tertiary level and private hospital called the Urdaneta City Sacred Heart Hospital which is situated in the province of Pangasinan here in the Philippines. I have learned in our ICU Department that your expert team will be conducted an EKG (Electrocardiogram) thorough training in Singapore. I am writing to you today because I would also like to attend and ask about specific information regarding the seminar schedules, about the program, accommodation and the cost.

    Firstly, with regards to dates and time, I would like to ask when will be the seminar held. How many days will it take and how many hours in a day will we have to engage. What time would the training be started and ended?

    Secondly, I would also want to know what would be the topic outline of the program, the things we are required to bring something in and what would be the benefits for us Registered nurses who will be attending the seminar.

    And finally, I would also like to know about the accommodation and the cost. Since I am living here in the Philippines, and Singapore is about 3 1/2 hours from my country and I have no any relatives or friends in that country. Will you be helping us for our place or we need to have a booking in a hotel? And also because it is my first time to travel abroad, I do not know how much will I be needing to spend with it.

    I am looking forward to hearing from you soon regarding my concerns.

    Your faithfully,
    R. Olivar

    Model Answer 3:

    Dear Sir / Madam,

    I am writing to ask you some questions about the seminar which will be held in London about new techniques of production management.

    I am working as a production manager in the biggest home appliances company in Iran for five years and I think this seminar would be suitable for me as it can help me to learn some new approaches of managing workers and manufactured line. I always have tried to update my profession knowledge and participating in this seminar would be essential for me to find that which management manners and styles are more efficient in home appliances manufactured industry.

    As I didn't obtain some information over your advertisement, I would appreciate your help if you let me know in which date the seminar would be held. Also I need to know what kind of accommodation you would prepare for participation. And as the last question, how much is the cost of registering for this seminar and is there any website which I can pay the cost online?

    I look forward to hearing from you in the near future.

    Your faithfully,

    Milad Rahimi

    Model Answer 4:

    Dear Sir / Madam,

    I am keen to receive information about the Enterprise Architecture Seminar scheduled to happen next month.

    This is Raj Muthuraman, working as a Senior Architect in BT Financial Group, presenting a paper on 'Failure more and recovery of technical orchestration' in the seminar. I am excited to present my research paper at the seminar. The invitation I received for the event did not confirm the dates as they were still being finalized. Can you confirm the dates of the event and provide an agenda for the event so that I can plan ahead. Also can you suggest some good hotels in the area with an indicative cost that will help me in planning my travel, accommodation and financial aspects of the trip?

    It would be great if you can send me the requested details at the earliest date preferably by the end of this week by fax or mail.

    Looking forward to hearing from you.

    Yours Faithfully,
    Raj Muthuraman

    Model Answer 5:

    Dear Sir,

    With due respect, I would like to participate in the seminar which is going to be organized by your well reputed company. I came to know about the seminar while I was surfing the web in search of such a seminar that will help me to understand and work better in my current job. As I am residing in Bangladesh which is in another continent, I would like to know detailed information regarding the dates and program schedule so that I can prepare myself according to the schedule because there are various facts connected to the schedule like arranging visa and buying ticket according to the schedule for traveling to your country.

    In addition to that, I would also request you to provide details about accommodation during the program whether arrangement to be made by the host or I need to arrange of my own. I would also like to know about total cost of attending the seminar and other expenditure like accommodation, meals, fares, etc.

    Therefore, I request you to provide the details as I stated above so that I can complete the arrangement well ahead of time to avoid any unnecessary situation.

    Yours faithfully,

    Safayet Ullah

    Example 1:

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    Pardon my disturbance, but in relation to the seminar, which is called Next Generation Technologies organized by your institute and will be held in London in April 18th, I would like to request for some information.

    I am a software architect working in information technology industry for over a decade and extremely interested and excited about this symposium.

    In order to arrange my work and trip in advance, I would be extremely grateful if you could provide some details about the following points:

    1. The registration process and the schedule.
    2. The programs, topics and activities during the seminar.
    3. The accommodation services and the transportation service if any.
    4. The necessary documents or other things I need provide or bring with myself if any.
    5. The possible expenses if any.

    Your help is much appreciated and I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.

    Yours faithfully,

    Jerry

    Cr: IELTS Mentor

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  • Academic IELTS Writing task 1 Sample 1 - Male and female workers in 1975 and 1995 in several employment sectors of the republic of Freedonia

    The graphs below show the numbers of male and female workers in 1975 and 1995 in several employment sectors of the republic of Freedonia.

    Write a report for a university teacher describing the information shown.
    • You should write at least 150 words.
    • You should spend about 20 minutes on this task
    image

    image

    Sample Answer 1:

    The provided line graphs compare the employment history of men and women in 1975 and 1995 dividing in six major sectors namely: manufacturing, communications, finance / banking, wholesale & retail trade, non-defence public sectors. As is observed from the given illustration, significant changes have been made in women's employment and women appear to have made remarkable improvements in almost the entire job sectors in Freedonia and in some sectors women went well ahead of men.

    Initially in 1975, men were notably ahead of women in every sector of employment. For example, in communication sector about 260 men worked against 220 women in every thousand employees. Twenty years later, though the number of men remained unchanged, the number of women rose to over 550 in one thousand. A similar trend can be seen in the wholesale and retail trade sector, where the number of women rose from about 550 to almost 800 in every 1000 employees of this sector two decades later. The number of men in this sector remained stable over the period, at around 700 / thousand.

    Women also made their prominence in both the finance / banking industries and in the defence-related public sector during this period. Where 125 women among one thousand employees worked in finance & banking institutions in 1975, this number increased to 450 by 1995. The number of men grew only marginally from 425 to 480 over the same period. In defence sector, the number of men declined from 225 to 200 per thousand, while the number of women rose from 25 to over 100 per thousand. Two sectors that remained almost stable in terms of men and women employee ration are manufacturing and public sector. In manufacturing about 300 women and 650 men worked in both surveyed years, and in public sector (non-defence), which employed 650 women and 850 men.

    In conclusion, we can say that, women appear to have made gains in the work force in Freedonia and in some sectors they went well ahead compared to men.

    (Approximately 338 words)

    Model Answer 2:

    The provided illustrations compare the male and female workers in different employment sectors in Freedonia over 20 years of time by providing data for the years 1975 and 1995. As is observed from the given line graphs, women were far behind in employment in Freedonia in 1975 but within 20 years they made remarkable progress almost in all sectors and went well ahead of men in communications and wholesale & retail trade sectors.

    The graphs compare the number of male and female workers in 6 different sectors of Freedonia per thousand. In 1975, more men than women were employed in almost all the mentioned sectors of job categories. For instance, approximately 650 men were employed in manufacturing related jobs compared to only 300 women per thousand of total employees in the same sectors. In almost all other cases, the numbers of male employees were much higher than the women and in communication sectors men were bit ahead than female in their employment ration. After 20 years, in 1995, women made outstanding progress in Freedonian job sectors. For instance, in communication sectors almost 600 female were employed compared to 300 male workers per thousand. Women went ahead of men in wholesale & retail trade sectors too. Except for the public sectors (non-defence) women hold the trends of progress compared to men in all other sectors. In 1975 only about 40 women worked in defence sectors and this number grew to more than 100 per thousand after 20 years.

    In summary women did remarkable progress in Freedonian job fields over 20 years and they went ahead of men in many job sectors.

    (Approximately 270 words)
    (These two model answers can be followed as examples of a well written answer. However, please note that this is just one example out of many possible approaches.)

    Sample Answer 3:

    The given line graphs illustrate the number of male and female workers in various employment sectors of the republic of Fredonia in the year 1975 and 1995. The first point to note is that, highest number of male and female workers occupied in public sector and wholesale and retail trade sector in both years.

    Public sector occupied same number of employees in both two years that is 840 males and 640 females. Wholesale and retail trade sector stands close behind with 650 male and 460 female employees in the year 1975, while a slight reverse order in the year 1995 with 800 females and 650 males. Manufacturing section consumes almost equal number of employees in both years with 600 males and half of its females. Interestingly, almost equal number of employees in communication sector in the year 1975 with 240 and 250 females and males respectively, changed to its double in female workers and with same number of male workers in the year 1995. This same trend shown in finance and banking sector. However, defense public sector occupied lowest number with 10 female and 210 male workers in the year 1975 and 100 females and its double male workers in the year 1995.

    In conclusion, it is clear from the graphs that, there are fluctuations in the number in both years. But male employees are more compared to females in almost all the sectors in the given years.

    (Approximately 238 words | Written by - Jayesh)

    Cr: IELTS Mentor

  • IELTS in 2 months.

    1. IELTS & TOEFL Academic Vocabulary - Verbs (AWL)

    • If you want to minimise the damage, you must act now.
    • Water can transform into ice or vapor.
    • New tenants are prohibited from bringing pets into their apartments.
    • The earthquake occurred in 2005.
    • The breaking down of the Berlin Wall symbolised the end of the Red Threat.
    • Police have been pursuing an answer to the crime for over 40 years.
    • It is estimated that 40% of the victims were male.
    • Scientists have identified over 100 elements.
    • The book can be interpreted as an allegory of Christ's crucifixion.
    • The color red on the flag symbolises the blood of the people.

    2. IELTS Reading strategies: True, False, Not Given

    • The statements listed in the T/F/NG questions are numbered in the order in which they appear in the passage.
    • You should only write "true" if you see the same information in the reading passage. Even if you know something is 100% true, only write "true" if you see it written in the text.
    • False means that the fact is the opposite of what you see in the passage.
    • A Not Given statement will often be related to something in the passage. You will often be able to find the topic of the statement in the passage, although the specific detail will be missing.
    • If you don't know the answer, don't spend too much time on a single question. Take a smart guess and move on.
    • Read the reading passage below:
      [...] In the early 1980s, Sally Ride became the first American woman to go to space. However, she was preceded by Valentina Tereshkova by almost twenty years. Hailing from Russia, Valentina was also the world's first civilian to enter space [...]
      Sally Ride holds the record as the world's first woman in space is False: The statement contradicts the information.
    • Read the reading passage below:
      [...] The ancient Maya were originally perceived as a peaceful group by experts. In the mid 1940s, archaeologists uncovered ancient wall paintings in the Maya site of Bonampak. These images were to send shock waves through the scholarly community. They depicted a society that was anything but peaceful [...]
      The ancient Maya are thought by experts to have been a society of pacifists is False.
    • Read the following reading passage:
      [...] Many new mothers have reported that during pregnancy, they notice problems with their memory [...]
      According to experts, pregnancy has a negative effect on memory is Not Given.
    • Read the following reading passage:
      [...] China's second largest city, Beijing, is considered one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China [...]
      Shanghai is China's most populous city is Not Given: Although this fact is true, we cannot write "True" because the information is not located in the text.
    • Read the following reading passage:
      [...] Socrates left no written records of his philosophical musings. Most of what we know of Socrates' philosophy can be found in Plato's dialogues [...]
      Socrates wrote many famous treatises on ethics is False.

    3. IELTS & TOEFL Writing Task 2 - The Introduction

    • As a young adult leaves high school and looks toward the future, among the first choices he has to make is what to do with his first year as a graduate. Should he work and earn money to fund further education; or travel and gain life experience; or maintain the momentum of his studies and get a university degree more quickly, thereby preparing for his future earlier? While all of these options are worth considering, I would advise a young person to take his "gap year" and travel, not only in order to gain life experience, which would help his studies and his employment opportunities later on, but also because it will help him appreciate his fortunate position of having that choice to begin with.
      3 sentences make up the above paragraph.
    • The topic of this essay is life after high school. It is not about choices themselves, but about choices that need to be made after high school.
    • The question this essay deals with Should he take a gap year?
    • This task be asking you else to might do discuss the positives and negatives of a gap year.
    • The writer's opinion is a student should take a gap year and travel.
    • The writer's main reasons for the opinion expressed are he will gain experience and wisdom.
    • Before you write an introduction paragraph, you should make a plan.
    • 3 - 5 sentences should your introduction paragraph be. As long as possible - the more words the better. 3 - 5 sentences should cover the four questions you need to answer.
    • Topic sentence should be the most general.

    4. IELTS Reading

    • The reading module of the IELTS is 1 hour.
    • The academic and general versions of the IELTS use the different readings.
    • There are 40 questions in the reading module of the general and academic IELTS.
    • There are 3 sections in the reading part of the academic IELTS.
    • Of the three reading passages, the third passage is the most challenging.
    • Of the three reading passages, the first passage is the easiest.
    • In the reading module, there are many different question types. These can include multiple choice, short-answer, matching, and classification.

    5. IELTS Listening - Top 14 tips!

    • The IELTS test is mostly on British English.
    • Listening is not the only skill tested in the Listening module. Spelling, writing quickly while listening, writing clearly, and reading the questions and instructions carefully are other skills that will be tested here.
    • Before each listening section begins, you should read the questions and try to predict answers to them.
    • Practice spelling, writing down key points you hear while you listen, and Write your answers clearly are tips will help on the Listening module of the IELTS test.
    • On the test, if the correct answer is "dogs", and you write "dog", your answer will be marked wrong.
    • "Write no more than three words" means: your answer can be one, two, or three words.
    • If you are listening to numbers, the difference between the numbers thirteen and thirty is in thirteen, they say "thir" quickly and say "teen" longer and louder. In thirty, they say "thir" longer and louder and say "ty" quickly.
    • If you want to do well on the IELTS, it's important to think you will do well.
    • "Jane thinks she will be able to verb over the house."
    • "At 4:30 pm, the train departs."

    Cr: Bristolhouse
  • สมัครสอบ IDP Step by Step
    1. http://my.ieltsessentials.com
    2. Login or Register
    3. Book your IELTS Test
    4. selecting your location
      Country: Thailand
    5. select speaking day; don't choose IDP Education
    6. Test Module: Academic
    7. Find tests and locations
    8. Choose
    9. Pay within 24 hours

    Cr: IDP

    6. IELTS Speaking: The Secret Method


    • I really like the girl who sells cake at the market.
      Use 'who' when describing people doing something - the subject(s) of the verb.
    • I know a man whose cat turned into a leopard.
      We use 'whose' to show possession.
    • I've decided to sell the cricket bat that I was given for Christmas.
      'That' is used to describe things, when the extra information is a defining relative clause.
    • Yesterday I spoke to a policeman. He was handcuffing someone at the time.
      Yesterday I spoke to a policeman who was handcuffing someone at the time.
    • I sold the car to a Spanish man. His name was Juan.
      I sold the car to a Spanish man whose name was Juan.
    • I'm selling the car. I bought it in Los Angeles.
      I'm selling the car that I bought in Los Angeles.
      The
      meaning here is that I could have more than one car, but I am being
      specific about the car that I am selling. Therefore, I use 'that' and a
      defining relative clause.
    • I'm selling this dress. I bought it in London.
      I'm selling this dress, which I bought in London.
      'Which'
      is used for non-defining relative clauses - phrases that add
      information but are not essential to the sentence. Use a comma before a
      'which' phrase, but not before 'that'.
    • I'm having an ice cream when I get to the beach!
    • I'm going to an island where the sun shines brightly every day.
    • Do you know why you are doing a quiz?

    7. Study English - Series 3, Episode 1: IELTS Assessment Criteria

    • Since the restructuring of the department, there seem to be fewer complaints and problems.
    • One of the solutions to reducing the amount of traffic on the roads is to provide better public transport.
    • The figures for the last decade show that there were fewer marriages.
    • Reducing the number of errors in your writing will help you achieve a better score.
    • The newer cars are designed to take less petrol.
    • He still owes a huge amount of money to creditors.
    • It is predicted that the number of unemployed will increase steadily over the next year.
    • The fewer mistakes you make, the more you will gain.
    • Families spend less time together these days because of the overwhelming presence of computer-related technology.
    • The amount of interest generated from the public was enormous.

    • The issue was not about safety but rather informing the public about the technology.
    • Consumption of processed foods has increased significantly over the last decade.
    • It was regrettable that the benefactors weren't acknowledged.
    • There are many difficulties facing foreign students apart from living expenses.
    • The newly appointed counsellor was not only competent, but reliable as well.
    • My understanding of the issue is that the minister's request was vetoed.
    • Restructuring the company was wrought with problems and highly controversial.
    • She was courageous in her battle with cancer.
    • There were three Marys in the class and two Jameses.
    • There were many species of fish in the new aquarium.

    IELTS/TOEFL information


    8. Study English - Series 3, Episode 2: Writing Task Response


    There is no denying that constraints of time, money and space are placed on modern industrial societies with growing aged populations and declining birth rates. The most obvious would be the costs associated with caring for the elderly, funding their retirement pensions and providing residential care accommodation. Governments cannot be expected to carry this burden alone. They would need to impose additional taxes on the younger population and shift some of the caring responsibilities onto the extended families.

    However, the valuable contributions that active and healthy aged individuals can make should not be overlooked. Firstly, these retired individuals could take on the role of carers for their grandchildren, allowing both parents to work longer hours and save on day care expenses. The extra earnings and savings could be used to improve the family's living standards. Secondly, the retirees could volunteer their services as drivers for the very old and sick. For example, they could deliver meals directly to those who are very elderly and infirm or assist with transportation to and from specialist appointments or hospital.

    • The stakeholders used to write about the topic of ageing populations:
      modern industrial societies, aged populations, the elderly, Governments, younger population, extended families, active and healthy aged individuals, retired individuals, carers, grandchildren, parents, retirees, drivers, very old, sick, very elderly and infirm
    • Synonymous with the main stakeholder ageing population:
      aged populations, the elderly, retired individuals, the retirees
    • Issue: The younger generation will experience social and economic difficulties because people are living longer.
      Agree:
      Key Point: constraints of time, money and space
      Supporting: cost associated with caring
      Developing Idea: governments can't carry burden, impose taxes and shift caring responsibilities
      Disagree:
      Key Point: valuable contributions of active and healthy aged individuals
      Supporting: role of carers
      Developing Idea: extra earnings and savings
      Supporting: volunteer services
      Developing Idea: deliver meals or assist with transportation
  • TOEFL or IELTS? Which exam should you take?

    • The TOEFL iBT is a test of Academic English. It is equivalent to the IELTS Academic.
    • TOEFL iBT exam is longer in terms of time.
    • IELTS General version of the IELTS is easier.
    • In the Speaking section, you are tested by a live examiner on both the IELTS General and the IELTS Academic.
    • In the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT, you have multiple choice questions only. You do not have to write the answer or spell correctly.
    • In the Writing section, you have more time to write your independent essay on the IELTS.
    • In the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT, you have to record your answers, while on the computer. You do not meet a live examiner.
    • TOEFL iBT exam tests English skills in a integrated way. For example, you have to read, listen, and then write an answer.
    • If you cannot type quickly, and prefer to write by hand, you should choose to do the IELTS.

    9. Study English - Series 3, Episode 3: Cohesion & Coherence in Writing

    • Vegetarians can get good sources of protein from plants. For example, there are legumes, nuts, seeds and whole grains which all supply high levels of protein.
    • John was not discouraged that he didn't get the overseas posting. On the contrary, he was determined to work much harder to be successful in the next round.
    • Applying for a job requires some preparation. First, it is important to update your resume.
    • Bad investments caused the downfall of the company. Consequently, there were many job loses.
    • The victims of the tsunami were in desperate need of fresh water. In addition, they urgently needed basic medical supplies.
    • The plane hit some turbulent weather crossing the Atlantic. In spite of this, we managed to land safely.
    • Did you know there is another Study English series being produced? In fact, it'll be launched in January.
    • There has been a lot of discussion about his behaviour. In my opinion, he has been treated unfairly.
    • The renovations to the staff room were quite extensive. Overall, the teachers were satisfied with the results.
    • The monsoon season can bring about disastrous floods because of the heavy rainfall. Similarly, the dry phase can also devastate crops.

    • There is a risk of developing dietary deficiencies if nutritional requirements aren't met.
    • I'll send a text message when we arrive in Singapore.
    • While reducing the consumption of energy would slow global warming, the reduction in its demand would be a far better solution.
    • The biggest cost increase for city dwellers is housing which now consumes 15% of peoples' wages.
    • Though sky diving can be a lot of fun, there are risks involved as well.
    • Modern societies will not only be affected by ageing populations but by declining birth rates as well.
    • Reducing fossil fuel consumption will help reduce greenhouse gases and therefore slow the effects of global warming.
    • While a vegetarian diet can provide many health benefits, it is important that all nutritional requirements are met.
    • Although there are risks involved in sky diving, these do not outweigh the fun.
    • Ageing populations are going to be a financial burden not only on governments but on younger generations as well.

    10. Study English - Series 3, Episode 4: Sentence Types



    • Global warming is a serious problem but the government is addressing the issue.
    • While some strategies are firmly in place for minimising waste, the business world has not yet heeded the serious consequences of their inaction.
    • Public transportation is a good solution because it can reduce the amount of air pollution.
    • Every person can be an environmentalist in his/her own way and help reduce the effects of global warming.
    • Cooperation between government and health care agencies is important so that proposed policies are accepted.
    • The benefits that robots provide cannot be disputed, especially in the technological and industrial fields of study.
    • Young graduates prefer travelling overseas which gives them the opportunity to learn and absorb another language and culture.
    • One of the options was to merge with the parent company or face bankruptcy.
    • The Environmental Action Group lost its case yet it emerged with more community support and donations.
    • Parents need to be aware of their children's activities in online chat rooms where predators may also be operating.

    • People may join environmental groups or disseminate information about pollution.
    • Developing countries are having difficulty providing clean water and food much less health care and social welfare.
    • Global warming is an international concern because if affects the climate and nature worldwide.
    • There has been more information in the media about food additives recently whereas before people weren't aware of the dangers.
    • Not only is the use of alcohol and tobacco on the rise, but teenagers are experimenting with designer drugs.
    • Vegetarians risk developing dietary deficiencies if nutritional requirements aren't maintained.
    • One way of relaxing when on holidays is to enjoy the beach. Alternatively, one could take in a show or the local night life.
    • Some argue that capital punishment is appropriate for crimes such as premeditated murder and drug trafficking.
    • Industries should be required to establish waste management programs so that future generations can enjoy a cleaner environment.
    • I was well-prepared for my final test. Consequently, I was confident of success.
  • 11. Study English - Series 3, Episode 5: Vocabulary Range



    • premodifier, head noun, prepositional phrase, noun phrase, apposition
      Local communities are actively participating in various recycling programs to dispose of waste materials responsibly. The most common is household or domestic recycling. Many councils provide kerbside collection services for newspapers, glass, aluminium cans and plastic. These recyclables can significantly reduce the volume of rubbish which ends up in landfill sites. Another initiative (Another initiative), rapidly developing into a popular industry, is the recycling of green waste. This consists of shredding leaves, branches, trees and other materials to produce landscaping mulch, which serves to enrich soils in gardens and parks.

    • The amendment to the bill was seen as a step in the right direction.
    • A vegetarian diet can lead to a reduction in the chances of developing chronic diseases.
    • The decision of the local council to suspend the burn off of bushland was welcomed by all.
    • There is no doubt that strict censorship of the internet is necessary for the sake of children.
    • The higher consumption of fatty foods was a worrying trend.
    • All graduating students had to rate the depth of their learning in the exit survey.
    • The statistics showed that the production of iron ore dropped by 50% in 2009.
    • The line graph shows a slight difference between then number of cinema goers and theatre attendees.
    • A thorough re-evaluation of the health care system was long overdue.
    • The findings from the research on childhood obesity will have implications for future generations.

    12. Study English - Series 3, Episode 6: Question Tasks and Topics in Writing



    • Home-schooling is better for a child.
      Advantages:
      emotional  bond with child
      control what the child learns
      protect the child from negative influences
      Disadvantages:
      no interaction with peers
      not taught by a professional teacher
      don't know how the child is progressing in relation to other students
    • Living in the city is more beneficial than life in the countryside.
      Agree:
      more employment opportunities
      more entertainment
      Disagree:
      more pollution
      stressful
      too expensive
    • People are losing their identity, culture and traditions because of the effects of globalisation.
      Effects:
      introduction of fast foods to the detriment of traditional foods
      English becoming the main language in day-to-day transactions
      preference for Western music among youth
      Solutions:
      impose heavier taxes on imported goods
      make the native language a mandatory subject at school
      promote the country's traditional cuisine
    • Industrialised countries should assist poorer nations financially.
      Agree:
      addresses poverty, illiteracy and disease
      helps national security
      it's a human thing to do
      increase the standard of living
      Disagree:
      corruption is rife
      may lead to dependency
      they have their own poor and homeless people to help
    • Living abroad for an extended period of time can be problematic.
      Problems:
      homesickness
      language barrier
      lifestyle change
      adjusting to a different diet
      Solutions:
      take some language courses
      join a club to meet new people
      learn to be independent

    • The country road was blocked due to the landslide.
    • John's promotion came because he worked hard.
    • An increase in interest rates leads to a decrease in property sales.
    • The landslide was caused by heavy rain.
    • It is well documented that the increase in diabetes is a result of poor dietary habits.
    • Bad economic policies were the cause of negative growth and serious shortages.
    • Being obese may cause serious health problems.
    • Poor sleeping habits can be the consequence of stress and workload.
    • The explosion caused massive damage to the factory.
    • The task asked for the effects of global warming.

    13. Study English - Series 3, Episode 7: The Speaking Test



    • identifying
      What can we do to educate children about eating healthily?
    • describing
      How has technology changed your life?
    • comparing
      What is the difference between the family unit today compared to the past?
    • evaluating
      Is it important to conserve water in your country? Why / Why not?
    • describing changes
      How has the environment changed in the last 20 years in your country?
    • giving an opinion
      Should schools be allowed to sell fast foods in their canteens?
    • explaining
      What are the benefits of studying abroad?
    • making suggestions
      What measures should be taken to reduce traffic jams?
    • giving reasons
      Why is it important to exercise?
    • speculating
      What kind of developments will your country undergo in the future?

    • What are the benefits of studying English in an English-speaking country?
      native English speaking teachers
      learn the language more quickly
      forced to communicate in English
    • What qualities would be desirable for a teacher?
      a good speaker
      creative
      patient
    • What is the importance of playing sports?
      builds character
      good for health
      reduce stress
    • What can be done to reduce traffic jams?
      restrict the number of cars entering the city
      government should increase the tax on petrol
      improve public transport
    • What advice would you give someone learning another language?
      model your pronunciation on that of native speakers
      use a monolingual dictionary
      learn at least five new words every day
    • What might the negative effects of the Internet be?
      exposes children to inappropriate material
      addictive
      no censorship of hate literature
    • Would you agree that dieting is a good thing?
      no, you may lose weight but then gain all the weight and more once you stop
      yes, it helps keep your weight under control
      no, it can be very stressful monitoring your weight
    • What effect has tourism had on your country?
      increase in pollution
      provide jobs reducing unemployment
      enhance understanding of the country
    • Should children have to wear school uniforms? Why / Why not?
      yes, one less expense for parents
      yes, helps them focus on their studies
      yes, children are equal
    • What are the advantages of having a part time job while studying?
      ease the financial burden on parents
      good experience for the future
      gives a sense of competition
  • 14. Study English - Series 3, Episode 8: Speaking Fluently



    • The shop is closed. That's the problem
      The problem is that the shop is closed.
    • Jane moved from Sydney because of the great job offer in Japan.
      The reason why Jane moved from Sydney was the great job offer in Japan.
    • It was the plumber who left the message.
      The person who left the message was the plumber.
    • White water rafting in the mountains was much more exciting.
      Much more exciting was white water rafting in the mountains.
    • We didn't sell the collection of CDs. That's the only thing.
      The only thing (that) we didn't sell was the collection of CDs.
    • Palm Beach is where you can buy the best chilli prawns.
      The place where you can buy the best chilli prawns is Palm Beach.
    • She doesn't want to study. That's the trouble.
      The trouble is she doesn't want to study.
    • The happiest day was when John completed his MBA.
      The day when John completed his MBA was the happiest.
    • They mixed up the dates. That's a fact.
      The fact is that they mixed up the dates.
    • The smoke from the fire was so intense that I couldn't breathe.
      So intense was the smoke from the fire that I couldn't breathe.

    • healthy appetite
    • crash diet
    • catch a stomach bug
    • health warning
    • stretching exercises
    • suffer a breakdown
    • splitting headache
    • develop an allergy
    • keeping fit
    • follow-up treatment

    15. Study English - Series 3, Episode 9: Speaking Coherently



    • I got a wonderful opportunity to go overseas to Italy and study music there.
    • I'd really like to work both as a teacher and music director when I finish my studies.
    • Life gets really hectic sometimes, so I like to go off on my own and meditate.
    • I'm hoping to get a job as an interior designer, where I can also use my painting skills.
    • I'd like to describe a movie which made a strong impression on me.
    • People know they need to exercise yet they don't do anything about it.
    • We are trying to televise some international films but haven't had much success.
    • I enjoyed having to stay in the mountains because it brought back beautiful memories of my country.
    • The choice was paying the fine or losing my licence.
    • She was a famous lady, whom I had the privilege of meeting after the concert.

    • Describe someone you admire very much?
      The person who (relative pronoun) I really admire is a professor from my university days. Her name is Vera Santiago. She (referent) is a very talented lady. Vera is about fifty and married with three children but (coordinating conjunction - contrasting ideas) the reason I admire her is that she raised a family and, at the same time, taught in primary and secondary schools and then went on to teach at university. I met her when (subordinating word referring to time) I started uni. I was nineteen. Vera had a passion for literature and she was able to pass this (referent - passion for literature) on to her students. She taught us how to analyse a text and love literature. That (referent - analyse a text and love literature) is something which is hard to do because when you're at school you don't really want to study literature. You're more interested in playing with your friends, but she was able to capture our imagination and (coordinating conjunction - to express equal ideas) keep us interested in all these stories. And she also enriched our lives with music and poetry. We listened and discussed. I think it was important to have her as a teacher because (subordinating conjunction - to express a reason) she made us see the world in different ways. We felt sometimes that literature and life are not that different, in fact, (transition signal used to emphasise a point which is the opposite of what was said earlier) there are many similarities. So (linking word to express a result) from that point on we interpreted things differently.

    16. Study English - Series 3, Episode 10: Vocabulary for Speaking



    • Having to do the night shift is part and parcel of being a nurse.
    • Your diligence will pay off in the long run when you succeed.
    • Let's do the shopping tomorrow! No, on second thoughts let's get it out of the way now.
    • As a rule of thumb students are allowed a 10 minute break every hour.
    • Be prepared to face the music when they find out you damaged the lock.
    • Let's just drop the subject before we start arguing.
    • John has progressed in leaps and bounds since his last report.
    • Because the computer crashed we lost the whole assignment and had to start from scratch.
    • She was on cloud nine when the results came in yesterday.
    • I've done the research so this assignment will be a piece of cake.

      Types of instrument & Musical instrument
    • strings: violin, cello, guitar, harp, sitar, mandolin, banjo, balalaika, zither
    • wind: saxophone, flute, clarinet, oboe, horn, trumpet, didgeridoo, piccolo, trombone
    • keyboard: piano, accordion, concertina, harpsichord, organ, synthesiser
    • percussion: bass drum, bells, castanets, xylophone, triangle, maracas, steel drum, cymbal, bongos

    17. Study English - Series 3, Episode 11: Grammatical Range in the Speaking Test



    • Who is the person responsible for registering candidates for the test?
    • The children were excited about the excursion to the mountains.
    • When asked about the accident he said he had no knowledge of it.
    • The trainees were inspired by his performance.
    • The Senator is responsible to the Parliament.
    • John is interested in pursuing a career in journalism.
    • They couldn't agree on the gift.
    • It is best to complain to the officer in charge.
    • There is a significant difference between the products of the two companies.
    • I always was bad at maths.

    • Residents will need to safeguard themselves against dangers in the home.
    • The question asks for a solution to the problem.
    • In this part of the business course they'll learn about marketing strategies.
    • Be sure to congratulate Mary on her promotion.
    • Jack doesn't seem capable of doing the work properly.
    • The neighbours were annoyed by the barking dog.
    • There was an unexpected rise in the unemployment rates.
    • Horror films are always popular with the younger crowd.
    • The parents were proud of their daughter's achievements.
    • The award was presented by the principal to the youngest person in year 12.

    18. Study English - Series 3, Episode 12: Intonation

  • 19. Study English - Series 3, Episode 13: Reading Skills and Question Types

    Childhood Obesity
    On Being Overweight and obese

    There
    can be no doubt that our children are gaining weight at an alarming
    rate. In a study conducted by the National Institute of Childhood Health
    in the 1990s, one quarter of Australian children was found to be in the
    overweight or obese weight ranges. Over a decade later, that number has
    nearly doubled. For children in the overweight category, it has nearly
    doubled to 43.7% and more than tripled from 1.3 to 3.3% for obese
    children. Researchers are estimating that by the year 2020 the
    percentages will reach epidemic proportions - 55% overweight and 10%
    obese - if the necessary health and lifestyle adjustments are not made.
    The issue is that parents are just not heeding the advice of experts,
    and this is a major concern for health authorities.

    Findings yield concerns about childhood obesity

    It is a well-known fact that children who are physically inactive are at greater risk of becoming obese. With the increase in sedentary activities such as playing computer games or watching television, children are not expending enough energy, therefore leaving excess energy to be stored as body fat. But technological activities are not the only threat. The kinds of food choice aggressively marketed towards working families have lead to a higher consumption of processed and take-away foods which are often high in calories, especially fat and sugar, but low in nutrition. Convenience, ease of preparation and the preferences of demanding children tend to outweigh the benefits of more healthy food choices including fresh fruits and vegetables, for time-strapped parents who are struggling to cope with the demands of work and their responsibilities to the family.

    Causes and effects of gaining excess weight

    The challenges of modern life though cannot justify the serious consequences for children's health and well-being in both the long and short terms. Research has shown there is a strong link between childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood that results in debilitating or life-threatening conditions. These include cardiovascular disease and respiratory illnesses such as asthma or even type-2 diabetes. The findings from a recent study published in the Journal of International Studies on Childhood Obesity show that the chances of premature death in adulthood are greatly increased because of obesity during childhood.

    Risks associated with obesity

    The short-term effects of obesity on children can be equally devastating. These effects are usually the first consequences to be experienced and fall under the category of adverse emotional and social problems. It has been well-documented by researchers and confirmed by parents and teachers alike that obese children have low self-esteem and poor body image. As a result they easily suffer at the hands of their peers who often bully, harass or tease them. Retreating into themselves, they become socially isolated and depressed. If left untreated, the prospects for these children become grim.

    Initial short-term consequences

    There is, fortunately, widespread agreement throughout the medical community on the treatment for obesity in children. Though prevention is always better than cure, the Childhood Health Association has developed an effective program, which combines two treatments: the development of healthy eating patterns and the maintenance of an active lifestyle. Treatment begins in the home. Children are encouraged to eat a variety of foods from the main food groups including fruit and vegetables, dairy, protein, carbohydrates and fats, but only appropriate amounts from each of the groups. For example, consumption of foods high in saturated fats and sugar, which are energy dense and usually found in children's snacks, has to be carefully monitored and restricted. Parents are advised to help change their children's behaviour and choose more nutritional foods, especially for snacks.

    Developing healthy eating habits

    The second part of the treatment is becoming active and enjoying physical activity, which needs to occur in tandem with developing good eating habits. It is important that exercise be fun for a child if the program is to succeed. Treatment usually begins with low intensity exercise walking to and from school, and walking or playing with the dog after school. Building up to a moderate level of exercise the child should be encouraged to play sport with their friends and family. Where the family is active together, the chances of success are better. The goal is for the child to be physically active for a minimum of 60 minutes a day and restrict sedentary home activities to a maximum of two hours a day. This program offers ongoing support of health professionals for both parents and children, which has been shown to increase the chances of success.

    Introduction to a regime of physical activity

    20. Study English - Series 3, Episode 14: General Training Reading

    image
    • Daily Courier newspaper are the jobs advertised.
    • On page 10 can find a job in the travel industry.
    • Thur 7pm is the deadline for placing an ad for the Saturday and Sunday edition.
    • 1 800 061 551 number can ring to place an ad without being charged for the call.
    • On page 14 can find a job for a computer analyst.
    • Credit cards is the method of payment for placing an ad.
  • OFFICE MANAGER

    City of Greenfield

    Vibrant, modern and
    energetic, Greenfield with a population of 87,000, is a city of choice
    and opportunity. The city is experiencing significant growth and
    expansion, and the Council is leading the way in managing and delivering
    high quality services to its local community.

    An exciting career
    opportunity exists for an enthusiastic individual with good
    communication skills, and a proven track record in office
    administration.

    Position Description

    • Title: Office Manager
    • Salary (Administrative Officer Level 13): $65,500 - $73,800 per annum (including superannuation contribution)
    • Employment Status: Permanent Full Time
    • Position No.: CGC0914

    Responsibilities

    • running and managing the office
    • developing and implementing new administrative systems
    • managing administrative staff
    • delegating work to staff and managing office workload
    • writing reports for senior management, including reports on service and staff performance
    • promoting staff development and training
    • assisting senior management in the preparation of presentations and newsletters

    Key Selection Criteria

    • demonstrated high level organisational skills
    • demonstrated ability to manage performance and motivate people
    • well developed interpersonal and communication skills
    • ability to identify and provide solutions to a range of administrative issues
    • friendly, proactive and flexible approach in carrying out duties

    Qualifications

    • tertiary level qualifications in business, office management or related field
    • at least five years experience working in a similar environment
    • knowledge
      of and experience with the following computer software: Microsoft
      Office (Word, Excel, Publisher, Power Point), database programs, e-mail,
      web browser

    Enquiries: John Smith on 9876 5432

    Closing Date: 5pm Friday, 1 July

    For further information and online applications visit www.greenfield.nsw.gov.au/careers

    Applicants MUST address all the selection criteria.

    Applications by mail:

    PO Box 27

    Greenfield NSW 2999

    • According to information in the job description, the employer is looking for an eager and career-focused employee.
    • The successful candidate would be in charge and control of the office.
    • The applicant must have completed university studies with a business focus.
    • The salary includes employer contributions to a pension plan.
    • The Office Manager would be responsible for managing filling systems is not given.
    • The candidate would be selected on his/her ability to troubleshoot.
    • The employer is looking to fill a office manager position.
    • To be successful in the role, the candidate must have excellent organisational, communication, and people skills.
    • The applicant must show evidence of having worked no less than five years in an office setting.
    • Those applying for the job must respond fully to the selection criteria.

    21. Study English - Series 3, Episode 15: Listening for Signpost Words



    • The report had too many errors. His manager was, to put it mildly, annoyed. - reformulating ideas
    • The doctor can see you tomorrow. Meanwhile, take some aspirin and rest in bed. - timing
    • In a nut shell, the construction of the day care centre is ready to go. - summarising
    • As I was saying, there just isn't enough support for the office restructure. - resuming
    • There are high levels of pollution in the city. The government, you know, is going to restrict the number of cars entering city centres. - gaining time
    • As a matter of fact, there are no restrictions on the goods. - intensifying
    • The shopping complex eventually opened for business two years after the fire. - timing
    • Bungy jumping was quite an experience, or rather a terrifying experience. - reformulating ideas
    • In short, I'm glad I went to my high school reunion. - summarising
    • Let me see, autumn is probably the best time of year because the weather is very pleasant. - gaining time

    • We were hoping the weather would improve so we could go on our picnic.
    • There are some good movies that are worth seeing. Alternatively, you could take in some of the night life.
    • Despite being good at maths, Hilary couldn't get a teaching position.
    • It's really convenient to take the overnight train. As a matter of fact, that's what we did.
    • There are many tasty dishes, in particular the roast duck with steamed vegetables.
    • The electrical storm caused a black out. In the meantime, we lit a candle and used a battery-operated radio.
    • They left the party early on account of the impending storm.
    • I'm glad I'm studying accounting because I like working with numbers.
    • I really did well in the sciences and languages but failed history and geography.
    • It's best to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables because your risk of heart disease can decrease.

    22. Study English - Series 3, Episode 16: Listening for Numbers



    • 98 F
      ninety eight degrees Fahrenheit
    • 2.2 ft wide by 7.65 ft deep x 1.5 ft high
      two point two feet wide by seven point six five feet deep by one point five feet high
    • 16ml
      sixteen millilitres
    • 12 in x 3 in
      twelve inches by three inches
    • 60 t
      sixty tonnes/tons
    • 1.2 m long x 10mm thick
      one point two metres/meters long by ten millimetres/millimeters thick
    • 37 C
      thirty seven degrees Celsius/Centigrade
    • 25 yd2
      twenty five square yards
    • 8 cm in diameter and 10 cm deep
      eight centimetres/centimeters in diameter and ten centimetres/centimeters deep
    • 12 ha
      twelve hectares

      image
    • diamond
    • sphere
    • star
    • semi-circle
    • triangle
    • crescent
    • heart
    • cube
    • rectangle
    • square

      Adjective > Noun > Verb
    • long > length > to lengthen
    • high > height > to heighten
    • deep > depth > to deepen
    • thick > thickness > to thicken
    • wide > width > to widen
    • cubic/cubed > cube > to cube
    • square > square > to square
    • circular > circle > to circle
    • weighty > weight > to weigh
  • 23. Study English - Series 3, Episode 17: Talking about Festivals & Celebrations


    • One of the most important celebrations in the Chinese lunar calendar is the annual Spring Festival or Chinese New Year.
    • It is customary for the family to come together on New Year's Eve for a family reunion.
    • The family gathers around a circular table and enjoys a feast, a banquet with many dishes which must include fish.
    • Some of the significant traditions associated with this festival include preparing special food, making sure the house is clean and buying new clothes.
    • It is also important to decorate the house and paste red paper cut-outs, or paper cuts of auspicious characters on windows and doors.
    • Dumplings in the shape of the tael, a Chinese coin, are eaten. The dumplings symbolise wealth.
    • Many Chinese are superstitious. At midnight fire crackers are lit to scare away devils and evil spirits.
    • On the first day of the New Year, shops invite a lion dance troupe as a symbolic ritual to evict bad spirits from their premises.
    • The fifteenth day of the first lunar month is the first full moon, and is known as the Lantern festival.

    • Buddhist Festivals are always joyful occasions. Typically on the festival day, lay people will go to the local temple or monastery and offer food to the monks and take the Five Precepts and listen to a Dharma talk, a talk on the teachings of the Buddha. In the afternoon, they distribute food to the poor to make merit, and in the evening perhaps join in a ceremony of circumambulation of the stupa three times as a sign of respect to the Buddha. The day will conclude with evening chanting of the Buddha's teachings and meditation.

    • Ramadan was the month in which the first verses of the Qur'an were revealed to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and indulging in anything that is excessive, from dawn until sunset. Fasting is meant to teach the Muslim patience, modesty and spirituality.

      Ramadan is a time for Muslims to fast for the sake of God and to offer more prayer than usual. During Ramadan, Muslims ask forgiveness for past sins, pray for guidance and help in refraining from everyday evils, and try to purify themselves through self-restraint and good deeds. Compared to the solar calendar, the dates of Ramadan vary, moving forward about ten days each year as it is a moving holiday depending on the moon.

    24. Study English - Series 3, Episode 18: Labelling & Describing an Object


    Bio-robotic Vision

    Australia scientists are studying how bees see the world in order to design a robotic helicopter which can fly by itself. They have observed that when a bee sets out from its hive in search of food, it can travel almost 10 kilometres. Having found food, it knows exactly where to go to return home to the hive. In fact, it makes a beeline back home. The question baffling scientists is how their tiny direction-finding organisms work. A bee's brain is the size of a sesame seed and has significantly fewer neurones than a human brain. But having learnt what clever tricks these intelligent insects use to see and navigate in the world, scientists have redesigned a radio-controlled crop-dusting helicopter so that it can find its own way around the world without a pilot or anyone at the controls.

    The brains of this helicopter consist of a sophisticated Pentium III on-board computer which can be programmed or directed as it flies. Its eyes are a tiny camera with special mirrors which assist it with navigation. The scientists have called this device a hat mirror because it is shaped like a Mexican hat. The device, the hat mirror, consists of two main mirrors: a panoramic mirror at the top and a circular mirror at the bottom. The latter does the stereo imaging between the two mirrors. There is another secondary, less important mirror. Its purpose is to reflect all light from the two mirrors to the top and then back down into a hold where a video camera sits inside the mirror.

    This hat mirror gives the helicopter all-round vision or a panoramic view just like for an insect which has 360 vision of the horizon at all times. The horizon, in actual fact, maps onto a small circle in an image created by the hat mirror and, keeping the horizon circle centred in the mirror assures stability. This is important because it gives attitude from the horizon - in other words, it registers which way is up. One other thing that vision gives is a sense of distance to objects. Being able to look at the image motion, it is possible to work out the distance to objects all around, thus making sure of not flying into them.

    image

    1: panoramic mirror
    2: circular mirror for stereo imaging
    3: hole
    4: video camera is situated
    • Scientists have designed a helicopter with bio-robotic vision.
    • Bees can travel (almost) 10 kilometres from their hive looking for food.
    • The redesigned helicopter does not need a pilot to navigate it.
    • A programmed computer serves as the brains of the helicopter.
    • The hat mirror provides a panoramic view of the horizon for the helicopter.
    • The distance of objects is calculated by looking at the image motion.

    • make a beeline:
      head straight towards something as quickly as possible
    • to baffle (someone):
      to confuse
    • direction-finding organisms:
      a living thing whose function it is to show direction
    • to navigate in the world:
      to help to find your way around
    • radio-controlled:
      something that is managed by a radio
    • sophisticated computer:
      a clever and complex electronic machine
    • device:
      a piece of equipment used for a particular purpose
    • circular:
      something that is round
    • stereo imaging:
      showing an image in two dimensions
    • it gives attitude:
      records the direction of something

    25. Listening
    Unit 1: Overview

    26. Listening: Unit 1: Facts about the Listening Test


    • About 30 minutes of listening then 10 minutes transfer time.
    • Copy answers to an answer sheet should do during 'transfer time'.
    • Four sections does the test have.
    • A recording including instructions and ten-paper-based questions in each listening section.
    • The sections about the different topics.
    • The first section is an everyday conversation between two people.
    • The second section is a monologue on a general topic.
    • The third section is a discussion between up to four people on an educational topic.
    • The fourth section is a lecture on an academic topic.
    • The fourth is the most difficult section.
    • Once time can hear the recording.
    • Spelling is important in the answers.
    • Seven question types are there.
    • The answers marked one point per correct answer.
    • A half band score is possible in the Listening Test (for example 6.5).

    27. Listening: Unit 1: What the Listening Test Assesses

    28. Listening: Unit 2: Listening Strategies

    Listening: Unit 2: Before Listening: Using Audio Instructions

  • Listening: Unit 2: Before Listening Predicting

    • Telephone conversation between a car salesperson and a customer.
      buying something
      complaining about poor service
      model, engine, car, colour, sell, cost, delivery, buy
    • Lecturer giving a talk about planets.
      explaining theories
      explaining discoveries
      orbit, moons, Sun, cosmology, Earth, mass, light year, solar system
    • Conversation between two students about an assignment.
      talking about study obligations
      talking about study achievements
      mark, grade, deadline, lecturer, course, subject, words, assignment
    • Talk about a city's tourist attractions.
      recommending activities
      talking about places
      art gallery, shopping, museum, river, on the right, on the left, next to, park

    Listening: Unit 2: While Listening be ready to Hear

    • BCD International
      Number of employees: how many... staff, the total size is..., BCD employs..., how large... workforce, we employ..., size of workforce, company has grown to...
      BCD produces: what BCD does..., BCD makes..., the company is a manufacturer of..., BCD supplies..., what business..., BCD is a producer of..., we manufacture..., what BCD produces...

    Listening: Unit 2: While Listening: Listening while reading

    Listening: Unit 2: After Listening Checking Answers

    Listening: Unit 2: After Listening Transferring Answers

    Listening: Unit 3: Conversation - Section 1

    Listening: Unit 3: Multiple Choice Questions

    Listening: Unit 3: Form Completion

    Listening: Unit 3: Matching

    • In the town centre: centrally-located, in the middle of town
    • Large rooms: the rooms are very spacious, the rooms are enormous
    • Sea view: with an ocean view, overlooking the water
    • Award-winning restaurant: the chef has won a cooking prize, it was nominated the best restaurant
    • Gym: guests can work out in the fitness centre, guests can use the health club
    • Recently renovated: it was done up last year, it's just been re-decorated and extended
    • Tea and coffee facilities: there's kettle in each room, so you make a hot drink, the room's equipped for making a hot drink

    Noun > Verb > Adjective > Adverb
    analysis > analyse > analytical > analytically
    approach > approach > approaching/approachable > N/A
    context > contextualise > contextual > contextually
    derivation/derivative > derive > derived > N/A
    finance/financier > finance > financial > financially
    identity/identification > identify > identified/identifiable > identifiably
    interpretation/interpreter > interpret > interpretive/interpretative > N/A
    legality/legalisation > legalise/legalize > legal > legally
    procedure > proceed > procedural > N/A
    response/respondent > respond > responsive/respondent > responsively
    significance > signify > significant > significantly

    29. Listening: Unit 4 Talk - Section 2

    Listening: Unit 4: Short Answer Questions

    Listening: Unit 4: Labelling a Diagram Plan or Map

    Listening: Unit 4: Table Completion

    • This course is based on continual assessment in the form of project work and assignments rather than end of term examinations.
    • There is a general assumption that women are worse drivers than men but statistics do not support this.
    • This process is easy to understand once you have grasped the concept of precipitation.
    • Several factors influenced the committee's decision to appoint a new teacher.
    • New legislation needs to go through Parliament to deal with the problem of illegal immigration.
    • The college has adopted a strict no-smoking policy.
    • Solar power is considered a sustainable source of energy.

    30. Listening: Unit 5: Academic Discussion - Section 3

    31. Listening: Unit 5: Sentence Completion

    • The lecturer advised the student to take more care with grammar.
    • Research has shown that cigarettes are addictive.
    • The devices is made of metal.
    • By making a correction, the student was able to pass.
    • The man has lived in Brisbane since 2001.
    • The house needs to be painted professionally.
    • The teacher believes that checking students' assignments is useful.
    • Finding a new area of research was accidental.

    32. Listening: Unit 5: Classification

    33. The twentieth century saw significant advances in medical knowledge. At the end of the nineteenth century life expectancy was comparatively short for people in Britain and many children did not survive to adulthood. By the end of the twentieth century, however, perinatal mortality was low and many people anticipated living beyond their three score years and ten. This rapid progress occurred as a result of a series of microbiological and technological breakthroughs, along with a political focus on social welfare and public health.

    Today, however, we face new threats. Although it had been assumed that infectious diseases would be eliminated, new strains of TB and malaria have recently emerged and are fast establishing themselves. The viral infection, Aids, has reached epidemic proportions in some countries. The incidence of heart disease is increasing, along with other so-called "self-inflicted" illnesses. Superbugs, resistant to our range of antibiotics, continue to evolve.

    Predictions for the twenty-first century suggest that we will see the development of our understanding of the role of genes in the maintenance of good health. Many diseases will be prevented as screening for susceptibility allows defective embryos to be identified. Those who do get ill, will receive drugs tailored to suit their individual needs and thus more effective in action. Will there also be surprises awaiting us as the world population ages?

    34. Listening: Unit 6: Academic Monologue - Section 4

    35. Listening: Unit 6: Notes Completion

    Listening: Unit 6: Signpost Language

    • explaining which topics will be covered in the talk/lecture:
      In the lecture today we'll look at...
      There are three main topics that I will focus on in my talk...
    • introducing the first topic of the talk/lecture:
      We'll begin this lecture by...
      First of all, let's look at...
    • changing to a new topic:
      Now, let's turn to the question of...
      Now, in the next part of the lecture...
      I'd now like to evaluate...
      Now, let's move on to...
    • introducing an example:
      For instance,...
      A well-known example...
      To give you an example...
    • introducing the first main point:
      The main obstacle to...
      One argument for the...
      The main reason for this is...
      The first advantage is...
    • introducing an additional main point:
      Another advantage is...
      The other main disadvantage...
      Another point of difference...
    • asking a question about a main point that will be answered in the next part of the talk/lecture:
      So, why do we need...?
      So, what exactly is...?
      You might be wondering why...?
    • introducing the final topic; or final main point:
      The final view I want to discuss today...
      A final...

    • consistency:
      when things have the same standard
    • contract:
      official agreement
    • indication:
      action of showing what is happening
    • beneficial:
      having a good effect
    • principled:
      based on a clear idea
    • specific:
      particular

    36. Listening: Unit 7: Unit Review

    • The committee is investigating the acquisition of new resources.
    • We expect you to have more participation in decision-making.
    • Students need to learn strategies for studying independently.
    • Our findings have worrying consequences for researchers.
    • Professor Jones has the distinction of winning the award on two occasions.
    • We are committed to a long-term investment in this programme.

    37. Speaking
    Speaking: Unit 1: Unit Aims

    Speaking: Unit 1: Facts about the Speaking Test

    • 11 to 15 minutes long is the Speaking Test.
    • 3 parts does the test have.
    • All the sections about the different topics.
    • The Interview is Part 1 called.
    • 4 to 5 minutes long is Part 1.
    • The Long Turn is Part 2 called.
    • 3 to 4 minutes long is Part 2.
    • The Discussion is Part 3 called.
    • 4 to 5 minutes long is Part 3.
    • Part 2 of the test, candidates speak on their own about a topic that the examiner gives them.
    • Part 1, answer questions from the examiner about familiar topics.
    • Part 3, answer more general and abstract questions from the examiner.
    • Fluency assessment criteria means 'speaking without stopping'.
    • Coherence means organising your ideas clearly.
    • In Part 2 you have 1 minutes to prepare notes then speak for 1 to 2 minutes.

    Speaking: Unit 2: The Introduction

    Speaking: Unit 2: Introduction Practice

    • Please come in and sit down.
    • This is the Speaking Test for the International English Language Testing System conducted at Centre PA-118 on Sunday the 6th of October. The candidate's number is 326 and the examiner is Sandra Cole.
    • Good afternoon.
    • My name is Sandra Cole.
    • Can you tell me your full name please?
    • And what shall I call you?
    • Thank you. And where are you from?
    • Can I see you passport, please?
    • Thank you. That's fine. Now, in the first part of the test, I'm going to ask you some questions about yourself.

    Speaking: Unit 2: Focus on Grammar: Likes and Dislikes

    • Do you enjoy watching sports?
      No, I'm not really a fan of sports to be honest. I prefer going to concerts or seeing a good film at the cinema.
    • What kind of food do you like most?
      I absolutely love fresh seafood. Especially shells and prawns.
    • Are there any types of food that you dislike?
      Well, I'm not very keen on red meat actually. I'm not a vegetarian, but I just don't like the taste of beef very much.
    • What do you like about living in your hometown?
      Well, there's a lovely park near where I live, which I absolutely love especially in summer when the flowers are so beautiful. I go for a walk there most weekends.
    • Are there any types of films that you do not enjoy?
      Yes, I'm not really into war films. All that violence and killing just make me feel ill. I went to see Saving Private Ryan at the cinema because I'd heard it was very good, but I had to leave after only half an hour or so. It was just too violent.
    • What do you like about your work?
      I like the team spirit the general working environment here. We have won the trust of our customers and of our management, we do our best, and that is what pays.
    • Do you enjoy visiting museums?
      To be honest, I'm not that keen on going to museums. All those old just don't appeal to me very much. I'd rather watch a documentary about history than look at some old in a museum.
    • Do you like the national costume worn in your home country?
      Yes, I'm very fond of it actually. I think it looks really nice to see people wearing it, and it's a traditional part of our culture that I think we should keep.
    • Would you like to have a pet?
      No, I'm not that fond of animals really. They're quite expensive to look after. My condominium is tiny so I could fit in a goldfish, I suppose, but I certainly couldn't keep a dog or a cat.

    Speaking: Unit 2: Focus on fluency: Extending your Answer

    Speaking: Unit 2: Extending your Answer Practice

    Speaking: Unit 2: Focus on Vocabulary: Showing Range

    Speaking: Unit 2: Showing Range Practice

    Speaking: Unit 2: Focus on Pronunciation: Essential Aspects

    Speaking: Unit 2: Interview Practice

    Speaking: Unit 2: Interview Practice

    • Academic success can only be achieved by hard work.
    • The problems that we experienced affected the results.
    • We have conclusive proof of our findings.
    • The new information has forced the scientists to re-evaluate their findings.
    • For insurance purposes, we need an itemised list of your belongings.
    • Tests can now identify genetic abnormalities in an unborn baby.

    https://hangouts.google.com/call/gd4cwq6qqxoj5pt46ywk2xvauqa

    1. aquatic:
      living in the water
      She has a great enthusiasm for all things aquatic.
      Divers study aquatic life.
      Fish is a aquatic animal.
    2. array:
      a large number, a collection
      I'm going though an array of Hollywood movie DVDs.
      All told, an impressive array of tempting targets.
      She loves this array of coins.

    38. Speaking: Unit 3: The Individual Long Turn

  • 39. Task Card

    Describe a toy that you enjoyed playing with when you were a child.

    You should say:

    • what the toy was
    • who gave it to you
    • where you played with it

    and explain why this toy was special to you.

    TOY

    • red fire truck - shiny, lights, noises
    • b'day present from Oma
    • played w/ Nicolas & Alex - kindergarten
    • LOST !!:(:(

    40. Writing effective notes based on a task card:

    • read the task card carefully
    • used abbreviations and symbols
    • covered all the bullet points
    • wrote in English
    • wrote key words and phrases only

    Speaking: Unit 3: Beginning Your Talk

    • A newspaper that I really enjoy reading is The Guardian.
    • I'm going to talk about an amazing trip that I went on when I was a child.
    • I'd like to talk about a person who has had a major influence on me.
    • A product that I buy often is coffee.
    • I'd like to talk about a job that I would like to have in the future - well, I'd love to be an airline pilot.
    • I'd like to tell you about the most important person in my life, my son.

    Speaking: Unit 3: Saying More

    • Describe a favourite restaurant where you have eaten.
      I go to the South China Chinese Restaurant almost every week, because I don't really like cooking.
    • Describe a favourite animal.
      I met "Ginger" for the first time at my home-stay. She was lying on my bed! I was a bit surprised, because in my country, we don't allow pets in the house.
    • Describe a library that you have visited or know about.
      The main users of the library are the students of this university, especially at exam times! You also see lecturers there and the library staff, of course. It's interesting to sit and watch people there, because you see many different kinds of people using the library.
    • Describe a magazine or newspaper article that you found interesting.
      I found this article in a magazine called Reader's Digest, which has a lot of interesting articles about family life, money, relationships, that sort of thing.
    • Describe a shop that you like.
      You can buy all sorts of comics there, from many different countries, like Japan, Britain, the United States.
    • Describe a city or town that you know well.
      There are plenty of things to do. There are some nice parks, like Queens Park. What's more. the Workshops Museum is a great place for kids.

    Speaking: Unit 3: Ending Your Talk

    • So that's why the August Moon Festival is so important in my country.
    • Finally, if you'd like to climb Mt Fuji one day, remember to wear your hiking boots!
    • All in all, it was quite a depressing book, but I really learned something from it.
    • Anyway, I stopped playing with it when I got a bit older, but I think I still have it somewhere.

    Speaking: Unit 3: Long Turn Practice

    Speaking: Unit 3: Long Turn Practice

    • In recent years, the banking and financial services sector has undergone a number of changes. New regulations are designed to improve the security of phone and internet transactions in the face of a huge increase in the range of computer crimes. Examples of this type of crime include the unauthorised transfer of funds from one account to another. In a recent survey of both banks and consumers it was found that confidence in the safety of internet banking was at an all-time low.

    Speaking: Unit 4: The Discussion

    • defense:
      protection or support against attack, criticism, or infection
      The coalition forces are still unable to penetrate the enemy defenses.
      Eating an apple daily defense diseases.
      A good diet helps build the body's natural defences.
    • deforestation:
      the removal of all trees from a large area

    Speaking: Unit 4: Focus on Fluency: Extending your Answers

    • How important is it, in your view, for families to share special occasions?
      Very important. In my case, I couldn't have graduated without them, so I wanted them to be there. I mean, they paid for my books, they drove me to school, they helped me with my homework, so I wanted them to celebrate with me.
    • What other special occasions are often celebrated in your country?
      Let me see, uh, weddings - we often have big wedding celebrations, with hundreds of guests, and lots of music and dancing. The wedding celebrations usually last two days, and they can be really fun.
    • Do people have to wear special clothing at these celebrations?
      Yes, for example, for weddings, the bride wears a white dress with a red ribbon around her waist, and the groom wears a tuxedo.
    • Why do you think that we celebrate special occasions?
      Well, that's an interesting question. I think that we want to remember these special times in our lives. We want to do something different, or special, so that we can always remember the day that we graduated, or got married, you know. So, I think we should celebrate special occasions because they give us happy memories.

    • The Media: TV programme, advertising, newspaper article
    • Family: youngest, parents, extended family
    • Education: graduate, assessment, primary school
    • Travel: overseas, journey, tourists

    Speaking: Unit 4: Focus on Grammar: Past Present Future

    • Present Simple:
      They are an example to their children.
      This is always true.
    • Past Simple:
      Fifty years ago, not many mothers worked.
      This was true then, but not now.
    • Present Perfect:
      My mother has always worked.
      This was true in the past and is still true now.

    • The Media:
      What effect has technology had on the way that the news is reported?
    • Family:
      Some people say that families were closer in the past than they are today. Do you agree?
    • Education:
      How has education changed in your country in recent years?
    • Travel:
      Are people travelling more now than they did in the past?
    • Shopping:
      What effect has technology had on people's shopping habits?
    • The Environment:
      Do you think that governments around the world are doing enough to solve environmental problems?
    • Cities:
      Are cities nowadays different compared to the way they were in the past?
    • Art:
      Do you think it's important for children to study art at school?
    • Music:
      What role does music play in your culture these days compared to in the past?
    • Work:
      Do you think that people in your country have better working conditions now than in the past?
    • Housing:
      How has the kind of accommodation people live in changed in your country?
    • Celebrations:
      Do you think any festivals or celebrations in your country are over-commercialised or have lost their original meaning?
    • Food:
      Do you think people's eating habits are healthier now than in the past?
    • Leisure:
      Do you think that the way people spend their free time these days is different from in the past?
    • Clothes:
      How are fashions of today different from those when your parents were young?
    • Transport:
      What kinds of improvement have there been in transport in your country in recent years?
    • So, you've said that shopping has changed quite a bit in recent years - what about the future? What do you think shopping will be like in the future?
    • In the future? Well, I guess shopping will continue to change. For one thing, I'm sure there will be more online shopping, I mean, using the Internet to shop. People will be able to shop from home, using their computers. I think that's already happening now, so it will probably increase, in my opinion.

      41.
    • The Media:
      How do you think we will get news in the future?
      Well, that's an interesting question. In my opinion, traditional sources of news like newspapers will become obsolete. Nowadays, people don't want to wait for their news, so they go online and use websites like Twitter. This will happen even more in the future.
    • Family:
      How do you think the family will change in the future?
      Probably the biggest change that I can see happening is that families will become smaller. It is more likely that both parents will have to work in the future so I think this will have an effect on how many children they decide to have.
    • Education:
      What impact will technology have on education in the future?
      Technology? Well, it has already had a big influence on teaching and learning, and I think this will continue. But I think it's unlikely that computers will replace teachers.
    • Travel:
      Do you think people will travel more or less in the future?
      My guess is that people will probably travel more in the future. Airfares are getting cheaper and people are becoming more interested in seeing the world, experiencing new cultures, that sort of thing.
    • Shopping:
      Do you think people's shopping habits are likely to change in the future?
      Well, that's a good question. I think they probably will, because of online shopping. If people continue to use the Internet for shopping, we might see fewer shops. But I guess there are some shops that we will always need, like supermarkets.
    • The Environment:
      Do you think there will be more environmental problems in the future?
      Most people seem to agree that we will face more environmental problems in the future because of climate change. There might be more floods, droughts, and so on. Governments around the world will need to work together to try to solve these problems.
    • Cities:
      What are some of the main problems that cities will face in the future?
      That's a good question. From my perspective, the problems that cities face now will probably continue. For example, overcrowding is an issue in many large cities. As more people move to the city to work, the cost of housing may increase because there will be more demand. The government will need to take some measures to address these issues.
    • Art:
      How important is art in our society? Should the government do more to support art and artists?
      Well, I have to admit that in my view, art is very nice, but it shouldn't be a major priority for governments. If people want to create art or appreciate art, that's OK, but I don't think the government needs to get involved. There are other more important issues for the government to be concerned about, like unemployment or the economy.
    • Music:
      How do you think the music industry will change in the future?
      I love music, so I hope that the music industry will remain strong and that musicians will continue to make wonderful music. I am a bit worried about how this will happen, though. These days, because of illegal downloading, it's hard to make a living from selling your music. But I hope that the music industry will adapt and go on.
    • Work:
      What kinds of jobs do you think will be in demand in the future?
      That's a good question. I think we'd all like to know the answer to that! If I had to make a prediction, I would say that there will probably be plenty of jobs in aged care as our population ages. I think we can be fairly certain about that.
    • Housing:
      How do you think homes in the future will be decorated and furnished?
      Well, I really have no idea, but one trend that I've noticed is that people want to have an outdoor area so that they can spend time outside. So apartments will probably have large balconies and houses will have outdoor areas or decks so that people can set up a barbecue and eat outside and enjoy the fresh air.
    • Celebrations:
      Are there any traditional festivals in your country that are disappearing? What do you think should be done about this?
      I wouldn't say that any traditional festivals are disappearing, but they are changing. For example, some festivals are based on religious traditions, but people have forgotten what those traditions are. They celebrate by buying special food or wearing fancy clothes, but they don't really understand why they are doing it. To answer the second part of your question, I think that people should be reminded about the true significance and history of our religious and cultural festivals. Perhaps this can be taught in schools.
    • Food:
      In the future, how important will it be for a country to be able to grow all the food that it needs?
      This is something that I feel quite strongly about. I'm quite worried that in the future there will be food shortages in some places because of climate change and a growing population. So I think we should all learn to grow our own food, even if it's just some herbs in a pot.
    • Leisure:
      What types of leisure activities may become more popular in the future?
      It's hard to say, but I think most of the activities that we do now will still be popular. So, although some people think that technology will change how we spend our free time, I disagree. For example, walking has always been a popular leisure activity. Nowadays, people can use electronic devices to monitor how much walking they do every day. I think walking will continue to be a popular leisure activity in the future.
    • Clothes:
      What kinds of fashions do you think teenagers will be wearing in the future?
      I have no idea because I'm not really interested in fashion. However, I do know that teenagers always want to be different from adults and children, so in the future, I'm sure that they will wear fashions that are different from what the adults are wearing.
    • Transport:
      What changes do you predict in public transport over the next few years?
      Well, I hope that the government will add to our public transport network so people won't have to rely on private cars. For example, the government is planning to expand the rail network in my country, so that people can move quickly from city to city without having to drive or fly. This will have a positive impact on the environment and on the economy, in my opinion.

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    42. Speaking: Unit 4: Focus on Grammar: Comparison

    • How would you compare watching films in the cinema to watching DVDs at home?
      Hmm, that's a difficult question, because I do both. I mean, I sometimes watch films at home on DVDs, and I also go to the cinema fairly regularly. But, I guess I like watching films at the cinema more than watching DVDs, because I love the big screen and the great sound that you get at the cinema. On the other hand, watching DVDs at home is more convenient, because you can watch it whenever you want, and you can stop it at anytime, go back, go forward, you know.
    • How would you compare reading news in a newspaper to reading news online, on the internet?
      Oh,
      well, since I came to Australia, I've read news about my country
      online, because I can't buy Korean newspapers here. Newspapers are
      easier to carry around than a laptop, and they're cheaper, too! But when
      you're overseas, online news is better.
    • What differences are there between shopping in big supermarkets and shopping in small local shops?
      The main difference that I've noticed is the price. In my country, the big supermarkets can offer much cheaper prices than the small shops.
    • Would you prefer to stay in a hotel or go camping?
      Well, I've never been camping, but I suppose camping is a lot cheaper than staying in a hotel. On the other hand, hotels are more comfortable, so I'd rather stay in a hotel.
    • How would you compare travel in the past to travel now?
      One of the differences is that in the past, travel was slower, and more difficult. Now, we can get on a plane and fly across the ocean in hours, whereas 100 years ago, people had to travel by ship, and that took weeks.

    Speaking: Unit 4: Focus on Pronunciation Clarity

    Speaking: Unit 4: Discussion Practice

    Antonyms:

    • justified > unjustified
    • proportionate > disproportionate
    • registered > unregistered
    • reliable > unreliable
    • specified > unspecified
    • sufficient > insufficient
    • valid > invalid

    Speaking: Unit 5: Unit Review

    43. Reading

    Reading: Unit 1: Unit Aims

    Reading: Unit 1: Facts about the IELTS Reading Test

    • 60 minutes long is the Reading Test.
    • Three sections does the test have.
    • A reading text and 13 or 14 questions is in each section.
    • In total, 40 questions are there in the Reading Test.
    • From 650 to 900 words are the texts.
    • General interest topics but related to academic subjects e.g. environment are the texts about.
    • Real newspapers, magazines and books are the texts from.
    • On an answer sheet should write the answers.
    • Cannot write answers on the sheets after 60 minutes.
    • Will lose marks for incorrect grammar and spelling.
    • From four to ten question types are in one test.
    • One point per the correct answers scored.
    • Half a band score is possible in the Reading Test.

    Reading: Unit 1: What the Reading Test Assesses

    • forces = pushes

    • Fact:
      The train is a form of transport.
      Water is necessary for life.
      The internet is a large information network.
      The world population is increasing.
    • Opinion:
      Governments like population increases.
      Water tastes better than milk.
      The internet is responsible for unhappiness in the world.
      Trains are the most convenient form of transport.

    Reading: Unit 1: Distinguishing Main Ideas from Supporting Details

    Reading: Unit 2: Unit Aims

    Reading: Unit 2: Skimming and Scanning

    Reading: Unit 2: Identifying Paraphrase

    • Even though antimatter could be used as a fuel, further research is needed to make its delivery safe.
      = It may be possible for antimatter to provide power. However, for it to be delivered without risk, more development work is required.
    • Before introducing recycled water into the rivers and creeks, a complicated system of treatment needs to be performed.
      = As soon as the wastewater has been purified through a sophisticated process, it is blended into the waterways.
    • As a consequence of the drought, farmers were forced to buy water from other organisations.
      = Due to the lack of rain, irrigation costs increased.
    • An increase in fossil fuel emission over many decades is usually given as the reason for global warming.
      = There has been a rise in exhaust gases such as CO2 over many years. Many people believe this is causing the Earth's temperature to increase.
    • Unless interest rates increase, personal spending is unlikely to be controlled.
      = If banks raise the cost of borrowing, the tendency for people to spend money on non-essential items will be reduced.
    • Besides having the largest population, the country also covered the greatest area.
      = The country was home to the most people and the largest in terms of size.

    Reading: Unit 2: Identifying Reference

    44. Reading: Unit 3: Unit Aims

    45. Reading: Unit 3: Short Answer Questions

    Reading: Unit 3: Sentence Completion

    • More than 145(a number) separate lakes have been found under the Antarctic ice.
    • A child's language(a name of a personal ability or quality) starts developing from the moment of birth.
    • Research has suggested that gibbons(name of an animal) are more intelligent than cats and dogs.
    • Since the early 1970s(a date, year, time, month) there has been no manned flight into space.
    • Recent studies have shown that there is a link between playing video games and skill at keyhole surgery(a medical action or skill) in the field of medicine.
    • Eating fish(name of a food) during pregnancy can make the baby more intelligent.
    • Professor Reuben Smith(specific name of a person/general name) from Wisconsia University has demonstrated the power of the mind in reducing pain.
    • Swedish scientists have discovered a protein(name of a chemical or substance) in tree leaves which controls the change to autumn colours.
    • The Metropolitan Police in London(name of a city or country) introduced car registration plate recognition cameras to city streets in 1997.
    • The melting of the polar ice over the next centuries could raise sea levels by 4 to 6m(measure of level (e.g. metres) or percentage).

      Format Checklist
    • Using one, two or three words.
    • Only use words taken from the passage.
    • Spell the answer correctly.
    • Write the answer in the correct place on the answer sheet.
    • Check the grammar of the completed sentence.
    • Check there are no repeated words.

      Strategy Checklist
    • Read the questions before looking at the text.
    • Find the answers in the reading passage.
    • Finish within 5 to 10 minutes.

    46.

    • put emphasis on something.
    • establish a partnership with another company.
    • pay compensation to someone.
    • make a contribution to a charity.
    • observe a reaction in a test tube.
    • make a deduction based on evidence.

    47. Reading: Unit 4: Unit Aims

    48. Reading: Unit 4: Headings

    49. Reading: Unit 4: Global Multiple Choice Questions

  • 50. The Australian government has announced a considerable shift in its immigration policy. In an effort to increase the numbers of both skilled and unskilled workers, the application criteria have been relaxed. A government spokesperson commented, "Current circumstances have led to a need for 20,000 more migrants. We are targeting minority applicants in particular and hope the outcome for Australia will be a vibrant workforce which can continue this country's positive growth".

    51. Reading: Unit 5: Unit Aims


    52. Reading: Unit 5: Locating Information


    53. Reading: Unit 5: Multiple Choice

  • IELTS Writing Task 1 Tips

    Here are some examiner-approved task 1 tips for you.

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    Dos

    1. Do find out what are your most common mistake.

      Checking your work at the end is really important, but many people complain that they don't have time. You can make this process more efficient by checking your work when you practice and writing down your four or five common mistakes. After a while, you will get to know your more common mistakes and fix them quickly.

      You could also use grammar checking software like http://www.grammarly.com to help you spot mistakes.

    2. Do read the instructions carefully.

      Seems like a very obvious one, but it is one of the most common mistakes people make in IELTS writing task 1.

      Take one minute to read the question a few times and really understand what it is asking you to do. Practice will also help you familiarize yourself with the different types of task 1 question and save your time in the exam.

    3. Do paraphrase the question.

      You will lose marks for copying the words in the answer and the examiner is looking to see if you can paraphrase the question. To paraphrase, simply use synonyms to change keywords.

      Example:

      Question: The graph below gives information about cinema attendance in the UK between 1998 and the present, with projections to 2018.

      Paraphrased: The diagram shows data of movie-goers in the United Kingdom from 1998 until now, with forecasts up to 2018.

      As you can see, the meaning has not changed but the words have. This should be the first paragraph in your essay.

    4. Do use signposting language.

      These are words and phrases that tell the examiner what you are writing about. They are sometimes also called 'discourse markers'.

      Example include 'The graph/table/chart shows...', 'The most significant change is...', 'Another noticeable change/trend is...', 'Overall...'.

      Remember that these should only be used appropriately.

    5. Do practice on IELTS answer sheets.

      Many candidates worry about not writing at least 150 words in IELTS writing part 1. A clever way to always know how many words you have is to practice on the official exam answer sheets and then you will be able to judge how much space you normally use for 150 words.

      A quick google search will help you find these.

    6. Do know how to describe the change.

      You will pick up easy marks if you know how to accurately describe the change. From very small to very large, here are some examples:

      Minimal-slight-gradual-moderate-considerable-significant-substantial-enormous-dramatic.

      You will normally have to describe the change in your task 1 essay and these more advanced words will help you gain some valuable marks for 'lexical resource'.

    7. Do spend time organising and planning your answer.

      This is one of the main differences between candidates who score well in IELTS writing and those who don't. It is never a waste of time to plan your answer as this will help you score well be giving a clear and coherent answer.

      Familiarise yourself with the different question types and then learn the different structures for each one. For example, a bar chart should look like this:

      Paragraph 1 - paraphrase question.

      Paragraph 2 - an overview.

      Paragraph 3 - describe the main feature in detail.

      Paragraph 4 - describe another main feature in detail.

      When you have this structure in your head, you will be able to plan an effective answer quickly and easily.

    8. Practice writing overviews.

      Your overview is probably the most important paragraph in the whole essay. Write a good one and you are well on your way to getting a good band score.

      An overview is a summary of the main features shown in the diagram.

      Part of this is identifying the main trends in the diagram. For bar and line charts ask yourself what is increasing, what is decreasing and what is fluctuating? For processes ask yourself how many main stages there are and what are the main changes and outcomes?

      Remember that your overview should not include any numbers because you are just describing the most significant aspects in general terms, the detail comes in the next paragraphs.

    9. Do consider which tense you are going to use.

      Many IELTS candidates lose easy marks by only writing in the present tense. Ask yourself if any of the data is about the past or the future and change your tenses accordingly.

    10. Support your descriptions with accurate data.

      As stated before, you won't use any numbers in the overview section but you will have to use data to describe the main features in subsequent paragraphs. Make sure you choose the correct data and that it is accurate.

    Don'ts

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    1. Don't use the same words for percentages and numbers.

      For percentages use words like large/small/higher/lower percentage of...

      For numbers use words like many/more/most/few and fewer.

    2. Don't give your opinion or speculate.

      IELTS task 1 is not a discursive essay; discursive essays are for task 2. Only write exactly what you see and don't try to give reasons for the data unless explicitly stated in the diagram. You will lose a lot of marks if you do this.

      You should also not add any new information or draw any conclusions from the data presented.

      For example, one candidate who was an engineer and was presented with a diagram of how a car engine works. He wrote a very detailed description of the process from his own knowledge. All of his information was correct but it was not shown in the diagram. He didn't achieve the score he should have because he made this error.

      Remember, give the IELTS examiners what they want and nothing else.

    3. Don't use bullet points, notes or abbreviations.

      Again, this might be fine in university essays but not in IELTS essays.

    4. Don't write every number or process you see.

      Many candidates do this and end up spending far too much time on task 1. Remember you will only be asked to write about the most significant features. For example, in a line graph or bar chart question, you will only be expected to write about 2 or 3 things. More is a waste of time and you won't get any extra marks for writing about anything else.

    5. Don't copy words from the question or information from the diagram.

      If you do this, examiners will not mark these words and it is therefore like writing nothing at all.

      To overcome this, familiarise yourself with the common vocabulary used in IELTS writing part 1 and learn synonyms for this information. Also, use synonyms when practicing writing.

      See above for an example of how used synonyms to paraphrase the question.

    6. Don't overuse linking words or signposting language.

      Above advised you to use these words but one problem candidates have is learning lots of linking words and then overusing them to show the examiner how good they are. Unfortunately, for those candidates, you lose marks for overusing them.

      If you use around 6 of these words and phrases you will do fine. More than 8 and it looks like you are trying to insert them in without thinking if you are using them appropriately or not.

    Cr: IELTSAdvantage






    1. Don't have messy handwriting.

      IELTS examiners will try their best to understand what you have written but sometimes the writing is so untidy that it is impossible to read. If your writing is like this the examiner will not be able to give you a mark for the words they can't read.

      Many of us rely on computers these days and some candidates don't realise how bad your handwriting is. Show some of your practice tests to a teacher or friend and ask their opinion. If they can't read it then an examiner won't be able to either.

    2. Don't use informal language.

      Remember this is an academic essay and you are expected to write in that style. Avoid phrasal verbs, slang and colloquial language.

    3. Don't just focus on line and bar graphs.

      These may have been popular in the past but it doesn't mean IELTS will continue to use them that often. We are seeing many more maps, pie charts and process diagrams these days.

      Many candidates overlook these kinds of questions and if you are well prepared for every type of question you will really stand out from the crowd.

    4. Don't panic!

      Many candidates open up the exam paper, see something they know nothing about and then panic.

      For example, the process diagram was about the production of chocolate. 'But, all I know about chocolate is how to eat it.' cried most of the candidates. This is understandable but the IELTS writing tests are not knowledge tests, they are English tests. You are not expected to have knowledge of the diagram, just calmly write about what you see.


    Cr: IELTSAdvantage

  • IELTS Writing Task 2 Agree or Disagree Lesson

    Introduction

    This lesson will help you write better 'agree or disagree' or 'opinion' task 2 essays.

    These questions are one of the most common on the IELTS writing paper.

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    Agree or Disagree Essay

    Cr: IELTSAdvantage