Writing
  • มีปัญหา 3 แบบ
    [list type=decimal][li]เขียนภาษาอังกฤษไม่ค่อยได้ แต่พอถูไถ และยังมึนๆ กับ academic writing

    หนังสือที่แนะนำ ยากส์ เพราะว่าตอนผมเรียน ESL ไม่ใช้หนังสือเรียนการเขียน เลยไม่ค่อยได้สนใจมากนัก แต่ถ้าจะให้แนะนำน่าจะลองดู Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition (The Longman Academic Writing Series, Level 4) เห็นพูดถึงกันหลายคน แล้วก็ได้ review ดี ใน Amazon

    ผมไม่มีเล่มนี้นะ แต่เข้าไปดูสารบัญแล้วรู้สึกว่าจะมีแทรกเรื่อง grammar ไปนิดหน่อย (เช่น การใช้ transition) แล้วก็สอนขั้นตอน (steps) ของการเขียน essay ถ้าชอบการสอนเป็นชั้นตอนก็ OK (แต่ผมไม่ชอบ)

    [/li]
    [li]เขียนภาษาอังกฤษพอได้ แต่ว่ามีปัญหาเรื่องการเขียนทั่วไป เช่น ไม่รู้เขียนอะไรดี เขียนยังไงให้คนอ่านเข้าใจความคิดของเรา เขียนแล้วไม่ critical พอ ปัญหาข้อ 2 นี้คือปัญหาที่เจอบ่อย -- และเป็นปัญหาหลักๆ -- ใน academic writing จึงทำให้ต้องมีการเรียนการสอน Freshman Composition สำหรับนักเรียนปี 1 ทุกคน

    แนะนำหนังสือ

    Writing with Power, Peter Elbow เล่มนี้สอนให้มองการเขียนอีกมุมมองหนึ่ง อีกทั้งมีเทคนิคการ brainstorm เช่น คิดหัวข้อเป็นนิยาย เขียนบทสนทนา เป็นต้น ไม่ใช่เอาไว้เขียนนิยาย แต่ Elbow เสนอว่าถ้าคิดแบบนี้แล้วทำให้เรามองปัญหาอีกมุม มุมมองเรากว้างขึ้น เอาไปใช้กับงานเขียนได้ทุกสาขา

    The Craft of Revision, Donald Murray คนนี้ทำให้การเขียนเป็นเรื่องชิวๆ เน้น freewriting (and your experience) as a means to generate ideas

    หลายคนแนะนำ On Writing Well, William K. Zinsser ผมเองไม่ได้ซื้อ แต่มีโอกาสนั่งอ่านบ้าง รู้สึกไม่ค่อยถูกจริต เลยไม่ได้ซื้อ แต่เล่มนี้ตีพิมพ์มากว่า 25 ปีแล้ว น่าจะการันตีคุณภาพ

    They Say/I Say มีรูปแบบการเขียนให้เลย เช่น อ่าน essay จบแล้ว ลองเติมข้อความนี้ดูสิ The author says_____, but I do not believe so. I think that_____. คือสอน "moves that matter in academic writing" นักเขียนเชื่อว่าเราจะสอนนักเรียนให้เขียนได้แบบมืออาชีพ เราต้องสอนนักเรียนว่ามืออาชีพเขียนยังไง มีเครื่องมืออะไร และ templates ที่เป็นจุดเด่นของหนังสือเล่มนี้ คือหนึ่งในเครื่องมือเหล่านั้น... นอกจากนี้ เล่มนี้เน้นเรื่องทักษะการอ่านพอๆ กับทักษะการเขียน (ซึ่งเป็นแนวความคิดที่ผมชอบและเห็นด้วย reading and writing should never be divorced in the teaching of writing) แต่ว่าก็ยังไม่เน้นการอ่านเท่าที่ควร ทำให้ผมไม่ค่อยชอบ

    (หนังสือพวกนี้อ่านง่ายหมด เหมาะสำหรับศึกษาเอง แต่ผมมีไม่ค่อยเยอะ เลยเปรียบเทียบให้มากไม่ได้ เพราะว่าไปอ่านพวก composition/writing theory มากกว่าอ่าน textbook แต่ก็มี textbook บางเล่มที่น่าสนใจ และเขียนได้ดี เช่น Guidelines ของ Ruth Spack หรือ Exploring Literacy ของ Eleanor Kutz ที่ผสมผสาน theory กับ practice ไว้ดี แต่ไม่ค่อยเหมาะสำหรับอ่านเอง ต้องเอาไว้ใช้ใน classroom)

    [/li]
    [li]มีทั้งปัญหาการเขียนเป็นภาษาอังกฤษ และมีปัญหาการเขียนด้วย

    แนะนำให้ไปเรียน grammar (สำหรับผม grammar ต้องไปเรียนเท่านั้น อ่านเองไม่ได้ผล) แล้วค่อยมา focus เรื่องการเขียน[/li][/list]
    [center]Credit: thelastman[/center]

    14214: English Writing1 (Introduction)

    1. How old are you?
    A. I'm 30 year old.
    B. I'm aged 30.
    C. I'm 30 years of age.
    D. My age is 30 years.
    E. My age 30.

    1.1 I am 50 year old. -> I am 50 years old./ I am 50 years of age.
    - การให้ข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับอายุเมื่อมีอายุมากกว่า 1 ปี ต้องใช้ years
    - หากไม่เติม s ต้องใช้สำนวน I am a 50-year-old man/woman.

    2. Whom do you live with?
    A. I live alone.
    B. It is a dormitory.
    C. I'm lonely.
    D. I'm the only child.
    E. My parents are with me.

    2.1 My hobbies is watch TV. -> My hobby is watching TV.
    - การกล่าวถึงงานอดิเรก 1 อย่างใช้รูปเอกพจน์
    - ตัวอย่างกล่าวถึงงานอดิเรกหลายอย่าง คือ My hobbies are watching TV and jogging.
    - การระบุถึงงานอดิเรกนิยมใช้เป็นรูป gerund (V-ing) ทำหน้าที่เสมือนคำนาม ในที่นี้หมายถึงการดูโทรทัศน์

    3. What do you do in your free time?
    A. I enjoy watching TV.
    B. I work part time.
    C. I always cook for my family.
    D. I look for something to do.
    E. I have free time in the evening.

    3.1 My occupation is Election Officer. -> I work as an election officer.
    คำ occupation หมายถึง อาชีพ มักใช้ในการกรอกแบบฟอร์ม ไม่นิยมใช้ในการเล่าถึงอาชีพ

    4. What is your religion?
    A. I'm Buddhism.
    B. I'm Christ.
    C. I'm Islam.
    D. I'm Hindi.
    E. I'm not religious.

    4.1 I am usually high expect in everything I do. -> I usually have high expectations in everything I do.
    - ใช้คำ am ไม่ถูกต้อง ต้องใช้ have
    - คำ expect เป็นคำกริยา ในที่นี้ต้องใช้คำนาม เมื่อต้องการกล่าวว่ามีความคาดหวังสูงจะต้องใช้ว่า have high expectations

    5. Where do you live?
    A. It is out of town.
    B. It is not too far.
    C. It is not there, but here.
    D. It is two kilometers far.
    E. It is outside Bangkok.

    5.1 I am 35 years old, 160 cm. height. -> I'm 35 years old and 160 centimeters tall.
    - ประโยคนี้จบลงที่คำว่า old เมื่อต้องการเพิ่มข้อมูล ไม่สามารถเติมเข้าไปเฉยๆ ต้องมีการปรับให้ถูกตามหลักไวยากรณ์ ซึ่งในที่นี้อาจใช้คำเชื่อม and
    - คำว่า height เป็นคำนามแปลว่า ความสูงหรือส่วนสูง แต่เมื่อนำมาใช้ในประโยคที่ต่อเนื่องจาก I am ... ต้องใช้ tall ซึ่งเป็นคุณศัพท์
    - หากต้องการกล่าวถึงความสูงโดยใช้คำนาม height สามารถกล่าวได้ว่า I'm 35 years old and my height is 160 centimeters.

    6. What is your nationality?
    A. Thailand
    B. a Thai
    C. Thai
    D. from Thailand
    E. a Thai national

    6.1 I am almost 32 year-old male. -> I am an almost 32-year-old male.
    ต้องใช้ hyphen ระหว่างคำชุดเดียวกันที่นำมารวมกัน เป็นเสมือนคุณศัพท์ขยายคำนาม male

    7. What is your marital  status?
    A. I'm single.
    B. I was married.
    C. I'm a single.
    D. I'm a divorce.
    E. I had a marriage.

    7.1 I often spend my spare time for internet. -> I often spend my spare time on the Internet.
    on the Internet เป็นวิธีการให้ข้อมูลที่ตรงกับภาษาไทยว่า "ทางอินเทอร์เน็ต"

    8. How many siblings do you have?
    A. It is only me.
    B. There are four of them.
    C. They are five.
    D. My family has 2 children.
    E. I have no parents.

    8.1 I also work pastime as a researcher in Faculty of Economics, Kasetsart University. -> I also work part-time as a researcher in the Faculty of Economics at Kasetsart University.
    - part-time คือ บางเวลา หมายถึง ไม่ได้ทำงานเต็มเวลา ส่วน pastime คือ เวลาว่าง
    - การกล่าวถึงชื่อหน่วยงานซึ่งเป็นนามเฉพาะใช้ the นำหน้านาม

    9. What do you plan to do after you graduate?
    A. I'll be employed.
    B. I'll be free.
    C. I'll look for a new job.
    D. No one knows his future.
    E. I plan to graduate this coming May.

    9.1 I am a good-humored, easy smiling and like to make friends. -> I am good-humored, smile easily (readily), and like to make friends.
    - ไม่มีการใช้ a เพราะไม่มีคำนามตามหลังคำคุณศัพท์ good-humored
    - การระบุว่าเป็นคนยิ้มง่าย ควรใช้รูป Verb + Adverb
    - การเขียนบรรยายลักษณะนิสัยที่มีมากกว่าหนึ่งอย่าง ควรเขียนโดยใช้โครงสร้างที่มีลักษณะเดียวกัน ขอให้สังเกตการใช้คำกริยา am, smile และ like

    10. What is your job?
    A. I work and play.
    B. I'm a school teacher.
    C. I work part time.
    D. I'm employed.
    E. My work is a nurse.

    10.1 I live in bangkok. -> I live in Bangkok.
    ชื่อเมือง ต้องใช้อักษรตัวแรกเป็นอักษรนำ

    11. What is your age?
    A. It's the age of 36 years.
    B. I've aged 36.
    C. I'm 36 years old.
    D. My age 36.
    E. I am 36 aged.

    11.1 My hobbies are reading and see some vdo movies. -> My hobbies are reading and watching DVDs.
    การดูโทรทัศน์ หรือชมภาพยนตร์ ใช้กริยา watch

    12. Whom do you stay with?
    A. I don't stay with my parents.
    B. I stay with my aunt.
    C. I stay lonely.
    D. I don't know whom.
    E. Everyone wants to stay with me.

    12.1 I like to play badminton everyday in the evening. -> Every day, I like to play badminton in the evening.
    every day ที่หมายถึง ทุกๆ วัน ต้องเขียนแยกเป็นสองคำ ส่วน everyday ที่เป็นคำคุณศัพท์ขยายคำนามหมายถึง เป็นประจำ เขียนเป็นคำเดียวกัน เช่น This is English in everyday use.

    13. What do you do in your leisure time?
    A. I study hard.
    B. I don't have time.
    C. I take a break.
    D. I enjoy cooking.
    E. I do work hard.

    13.1 I work at Planning Division and my responsibility is for Monitoring and Evaluation. -> I work in the Planning Division and my responsibility is monitoring and evaluation.
    - ทำงานในหน่วยงาน ใช้ in
    - ระบุหน้าที่ความรับผิดชอบ ใช้ My responsibility/duty is + V-ing/Noun หรือใช้สำนวน I am responsible for + V-ing/Noun

    14. What religion do you believe in?
    A. Muslim
    B. Hindi
    C. Buddhism
    D. Christian
    E. God

    14.1 I work as survey engineer at Department of Land. -> I work as a survey engineer at the Department of Land.
    การระบุตำแหน่งหรืออาชีพซึ่งเป็นคำนาม ต้องมีคำนำหน้านาม a/an เพื่อแสดงว่าเป็นหนึ่งในผู้ที่ประกอบอาชีพนั้นๆ

    15. Where do you live?
    A. I live downtown.
    B. I live in a townhouse.
    C. I live a condominium.
    D. I have no house.
    E. I'm out of town.

    15.1 I have 2 cute children, boy and girl are 8 and 6 years old respectively. -> I have 2 cute children, a boy and a girl, who are 8 and 6 years old respectively.
    - การใช้ appositive เพื่อเพิ่มข้อมูลต้องใช้ comma คั่นทั้งหน้าและหลัง
    - การขยายคำนาม children ในประโยคหลัก ด้วยประโยคย่อย ซึ่งในที่นี้คือ relative clause ต้องใช้ who เป็นคำเชื่อมแทนบุคคล ประโยคนี้เป็น complex sentence

    16. What is your nationality?
    A. It's Thailand.
    B. I'm Thai.
    C. It's a Thai.
    D. Mine is Thailand.
    E. Thai nationality.

    16.1 I'm married 10 years ago but I don't have baby. -> I married 10 years ago, but (I) haven't had a baby yet.
    - การกล่าวถึงเหตุการณ์ในอดีต คือแต่งงานเมื่อ 10 ปีที่แล้วใช้กริยารูป past simple tense 'married'
    - การกล่าวถึงสิ่งที่เป็นไปตั้งแต่อดีตจนถึงปัจจุบัน ใช้ present perfect tense 'haven't had' ในที่นี้ หมายถึง นับตั้งแต่แต่งงานเมื่อ 10 ปี ที่แล้วจนถึงปัจจุบันก็ยังไม่มีบุตร

    17. What is your marital status?
    A. I've marriage.
    B. I not married.
    C. I'm married.
    D. A single.
    E. I divorced from my wife.

    17.1 When i am free I like internet, to read news, listen music and chat with friends. -> In my free time I like to surf the Internet, read newspapers, listen to music, and chat with friends.
    - การระบุเวลา อาจใช้บุพบทวลี คือ วลีที่ขึ้นต้นด้วย Preposition
    - "ใช้อินเทอร์เน็ต หรือท่องโลกอินเทอร์เน็ต" ใช้สำนวน "to surf the Internet"
    - การอ่านหนังสือพิมพ์หลายๆ ฉบับ ใช้ read newspapers
    - การฟังเพลงใช้ listen to music โดยต้องใช้บุพบท to ด้วย

    18. How many siblings do you have?
    A. I'm the only child.
    B. It's a big family.
    C. I've no children.
    D. I want a big family.
    E. I don't have anybody.

    18.1 I am weight 45 kilo. -> I weigh 45 kilograms./ My weight is 45 kilograms.
    คำ weight เป็นคำนาม แปลว่า น้ำหนัก หากต้องการระบุว่ามีน้ำหนักเท่าใดใช้กริยา weigh

    19. What do you plan to do after you graduate?
    A. I study no more.
    B. I have no job.
    C. I will be free.
    D. I will help my father in our business.
    E. I've already got a job.

    19.1 I work as a position of policy and plan analyst. -> I work in the position of Policy and Plan Analyst.
    การระบุตำแหน่ง อาจใช้ I work in the position of + ชื่อตำแหน่ง

    20. What is your job?
    A. I had no schooling.
    B. I want to work.
    C. I work full time.
    D. I'm employed.
    E. I work at a hospital.

    20.1 My house nearby my office at Lak si districe, Bangkok. -> My house is in the Laksi district of Bangkok, close to my office.
    nearby ไม่ใช่คำกริยา ไม่สามารถนำมาใช้ต่อจากประธานเพื่อเป็นภาคแสดงได้

    21. Which of the following correctly states the writer's name?
    A. I am Nada.
    B. My name Nada.
    C. My nickname is "Da".
    D. My friend call me "Da".
    E. You can call "Da".

    21.1 My job give knowledge for people about Democracy. -> It is my job to provide information to the general public about Thai democracy./ My job is to provide information to the general public about Thai democracy.
    การกล่าวถึงหน้าที่การงานหรือความรับผิดชอบ อาจใช้สำนวน It is my job ตามด้วย infinitive phrase หรือ My job is ตามด้วย infinitive phrase

    22. Which of the following correctly states the writer's age?
    A. I'm 18 year old.
    B. I'm 18 year of age.
    C. I'm 18 years old.
    D. I'm 18 of age.
    E. I'm age 18 years.

    23. Which of the following correctly describes the writer's family?
    A. I come from a family of seven children.
    B. My parent have three children.
    C. I have only two sibling.
    D. Have ten people in my family.
    E. I have twin.

    24. Which of the following correctly states the writer's marital status?
    A. I'm singled.
    B. I'm married.
    C. I divorced.
    D. I separated.
    E. I've a widow.

    25. Which of the following correctly states the writer's major field of study?
    A. I major in English.
    B. English my major.
    C. My major field of study English.
    D. I study English my major.
    E. My major field English.

    26. Which of the following correctly states the writer's residence?
    A. My residence in out skirt of Bangkok.
    B. My house is east Bangkok.
    C. My house is in the suburb.
    D. My apartment is in the downtown area.
    E. My condominium on river bank.

    27. Which of the following correctly states the writer's career?
    A. I work for Thaipensuk Company.
    B. I work is operator at Thaipensuk Company.
    C. My career is operator at Thaipensuk.
    D. My profession to be an operator.
    E. My occupation is operator.

    28. Which of the following correctly states the writer's interest or pastime?
    A. I'm interested in an interior design.
    B. I enjoy outdoor activities.
    C. I spend my free time chat with my friends on the Internet.
    D. I love cook European food.
    E. I like to listen music.

    29. I live alone ... Don Mueang.
    A. on
    B. at
    C. with
    D. to
    E. in

    30. I go ... the university ... bus.
    A. by _ to
    B. to _ on
    C. to _ by
    D. at _ by
    E. at _ on

    31. I stay ... my friend ... a dormitory ... the university.
    A. near _ on _ at
    B. at _ with _ in
    C. near _ at _ on
    D. with _ on _ on
    E. with _ at _ near

    32. My sister ... is an engineer.
    A. Nisanart
    B. , Nisanart
    C. , Nisanart,
    D. is Nisanart
    E. name Nisanart

    33. The following sentence is describing the ... of a hometown. There are 1,462,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area.
    A. population
    B. attractions
    C. weather
    D. scenery
    E. location

    34. Which of the following sentences correctly shows the writer's intention to describe the weather of his/her hometown?
    A. Warm climate in summer, but heavy snowing around the year.
    B. The busy shopping areas of the city make it a popular destination.
    C. The climate is hot, but monsoon rains hit once a year.
    D. A hilly and forested province, Chiang Mai is in the north of Thailand.
    E. Lovely sun in the autumn for beach party.

    35. Which of the following sentences correctly shows the writer's intention to describe the location of his/her hometown?
    A. The city has a population of approximately 670,000.
    B. The beautiful town lies 105 kilometers north of London.
    C. This major industrial city is the business hub of the region.
    D. The city boasts some world famous artists and writers.
    E. There are beautiful beaches and huge, country parks.

    36. Which option can replace the underlined part of the following sentence?
    Urban Auckland ... an area of 1086 square kilometers.
    A. lies
    B. situated
    C. covers
    D. locates
    E. located

    37. Choose the best option to replace the bolded words in the following sentence:
    The Smithsonian Institution was founded for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge".
    A. dating back to
    B. was established for
    C. has a long history
    D. originally grew up around
    E. was built in

    38. Which option can replace the bolded part of the following sentence?
    Trad is the province situated at the east border of Thailand, 315 kilometers from Bangkok.
    A. founded in the east
    B. lies in the eastern region
    C. goes to the east area
    D. in the east border
    E. situates east in

    39. Which of the following would best describe the services and entertainment of a hometown?
    A. Popular activities include seeing shows, dining out, and visiting museums.
    B. The main characteristics of the valley are the rice terraces.
    C. The best way to get to the city is by train.
    D. Many famous people grew up in this lovely city.
    E. Visitors can spend hours on the sunny beaches.

    40. Choose the best option to complete the sentence:
    The more mountainous southern half of the country is far ... .
    A. from the capital city about 100 miles
    B. in shallow rivers and leading to sunny beaches
    C. more sparsely populated than the northern half
    D. in the northern part with bigger cities
    E. many people live in the north too

    41. The following sentence is describing the ... of a hometown.
    "Wang Suan Ban Kaew palace used to be a royal residence of Queen Rambhai Barni, the Royal Consort of King Rama VII."
    A. population
    B. size and location
    C. weather
    D. historical background
    E. attractions

    42. Which of the following is NOT giving information about a hometown citizen famous for good things?
    A. Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg.
    B. Sex attacker Peter Cook, who terrorised women in Cambridge during the 1970s, died in prison.
    C. John Fitzgerald Kennedy lived in Brookline for ten years and attended Edward Devotion School.
    D. The Kingdom of Ayutthaya was also the birthplace of King Rama I.
    E. Pablo Ruiz Picasso, the well-known painter, spent his childhood in the city of Málaga in Spain.

    43. Choose the best option to replace the bolded words in the following sentence:
    Visitors can take one of the famous gondola rides along the city's canals.
    A. It is possible to
    B. Explore
    C. Activities range from
    D. Enjoy and
    E. There is

    44. Which of the following would best describe the tourist attractions of the island of Koh Kret?
    A. Its tranquil beaches and wonderful range of pottery
    B. Renowned for its tilted Chedi and magnificent zoo
    C. The riverside houses, earthenware and temples are of special interest
    D. A popular tourist destination near the centre of Bangkok
    E. A place where young and old can relax under the potter's kilns

    45. I gave my mom the present that I ... the day before.
    A. buy
    B. will have bought
    C. was buying
    D. had bought
    E. have bought

    46. ... I got home, my dog Spot was there, waiting for me at the front gate.
    A. Then
    B. First
    C. When
    D. At 7:30
    E. During

    47. I find this book about Steve Jobs very ... .
    A. interest
    B. interests
    C. interested
    D. interesting
    E. much interest

    48. At 8:30 in the morning, I ... at a bus stop when a car coming around the corner crashed into a taxi.
    A. stood
    B. am standing
    C. was standing
    D. had stood
    E. would be standing

    ...(49)... we picked up Darin at her condo. Next, we stopped by the gas station ...(50)... dawn.

    49.
    A. First
    B. At first
    C. First time
    D. In the first
    E. The first thing

    50.
    A. in
    B. on
    C. up
    D. during
    E. before

    51. We left the resort ... and got stuck in traffic along the way.
    A. until five
    B. at present
    C. a little at seven
    D. in the meantime
    E. early in the morning.

    52. Dan was a bit ... when I showed up at a seminar.
    A. surprise
    B. surprised
    C. surprises
    D. surprising
    E. of surprise

    53. Joseph loves to tell ... stories at a party.
    A. funny
    B. lonely
    C. listless
    D. friendly
    E. terrible

    54. My daughter and I ... merit at the temple on New Year's Day.
    A. made
    B. had made
    C. were making
    D. have made
    E. have been making

    55. Which sentence in the following passage is NOT grammatically correct?
    "(1)At 5 o'clock this evening a girl called Tananya invited me out to dinner. (2)I had only met her twice, and she had very, very beauty. (3)I was flattered, since I thought she liked me. (4)But when I arrived at her house, she told me that she was sorry that she had asked me at such short notice. (5)She had suddenly realized that there were going to be thirteen people at the table, and unlucky number, so she had to find somebody else."
    A. Sentence 1
    B. Sentence 2
    C. Sentence 3
    D. Sentence 4
    E. Sentence 5

    56. Which of the following is the best revised version of the sentence provided?
    "The Second World War began, my grandfather had been a teenager."
    A. At the Second World War, my grandfather had been a teenager.
    B. When the Second World War began, my grandfather was a teenager.
    C. The Second World War began while my grandfather was in his teenage.
    D. Until the Second World War began, my grandfather had been a teenage.
    E. With the beginning of the Second World War, my grandfather was a teenager at that time.

    57. Which expression would be used as the opening sentence of a reply email to an inquiry?
    A. Thank you for your inquiry of 10 December for our product, "Rust Buster".
    B. Thanks ever so much for your inquiry about our latest product.
    C. We would be very grateful for your early reply.
    D. We look forward to your order.
    E. Thanks for your email.

    58. Please give us a call when you arrive in Bangkok. We are looking forward ... from you.
    A. to hear
    B. hearing
    C. to hearing
    D. and to hear
    E. for good news

    59. What will you write as your closing sentence in your email to match with the given opening sentence?
    Opening: I'm sorry you're having such a tough time studying English Writing 1 at the moment.
    A. Maybe I can help.
    B. Please write and let me know.
    C. I hope I have been of some help.
    D. I'm looking forward to helping you.
    E. I hope that everything is okay.

    60. Here is my section of the project. ... if there is any problem with deadlines.
    A. Let me to know
    B. Get back
    C. Make a touch
    D. Keep in touch
    E. Return me

    61. Please ... my report. Hope it's useful for your research project.
    A. attach
    B. see attached
    C. find attached
    D. find inside file
    E. find attachment

    62. Which statement could be used as the closing sentence of a reply to an enquiry?
    A. Look forward to your reply.
    B. I would like to receive details of your products.
    C. We're looking forward to receiving your prompt reply.
    D. Please feel free to contact me if you need any more information.
    E. We are sending you our latest catalogue and full details of prices.

    63. Which of the following sentences shows that you need the recipient to pay special attention to the message in your email?
    A. Please "do not" enclose your check in the mail.
    B. We will stay at **Novotel Pattaya on January 2, 2011.
    C. Please get back to me as soon as possible by MOBILE PHONE.
    D. The party will be held in parichart room, april 9 at 7:00 p.m.
    E. The electricity system will be shut down for maintenance 'at 3 p.m. on Friday.'

    64. Which closing sentence is the best match with the given opening sentence in an email?
    Opening sentence: With reference to your enquiry, I've attached all the information you need.
    A. Look forward to your reply.
    B. Thanks in advance for your order.
    C. I'm looking forward to shipping your order.
    D. Please find attached information.
    E. Please contact me if you require any further information.

    65. Subject: ...
    Dear Mr. Kleenex,
    Just a short note to let you know that we received your order. We can confirm that the items were sent by mail today. To track your order, click on the link below. If there is anything else, just let us know.
    Sincerely,
    Leslie Middleton
    A. Shipping Confirmation
    B. A short note to you
    C. Receiving your order
    D. Confirmation the items by mail
    E. Confirming your mail

    66. Sorry that you couldn't open the document. I have attached it again. Hope you'll ... to open the document this time.
    A. be careful
    B. be capable
    C. be able
    D. have to
    E. love

    67. Which of the following is a strong subject line for an in-company email?
    A. Last offer
    B. You're in luck!
    C. Something urgent
    D. With reference to your last email
    E. Agenda for the meeting on Monday, 10:00 a.m.

    68. Which expression will you use to inform or give news to the recipient?
    A. Thanks for your email of May 20.
    B. I'm writing with regard to next week's meeting.
    C. Yes, I'd love to take part in the event.
    D. Please let us know if you can attend the meeting.
    E. It was good to meet you again at last week's conference.

    69. Injecting water into the ground for mining or other purposes can ... earthquakes.
    A. result in
    B. result from
    C. be caused by
    D. be the result of
    E. be as the result of

    70. ... the temperature of oceans will certainly rise, there is an increased probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes.
    A. If
    B. Since
    C. Due to
    D. Owing to
    E. Because of

    71. The variola virus that emerged in human populations can ... smallpox.
    A. lead to
    B. result from
    C. be the result of
    D. be caused by
    E. be as a result of

    72. Earthquakes can ... changes in local geography, such as the course of rivers.
    A. result from
    B. give rise to
    C. be caused by
    D. be a result of
    E. be an effect of

    73. Warmar weather in the north will ... disease-carrying insects to migrate there.
    A. result from
    B. cause
    C. be a result of
    D. be caused by
    E. be an effect of

    74. Private organizations can often provide faster aid to earthquake victims than the government ... they are less constrained by bureaucratic rules.
    A. therefore
    B. caused by
    C. because
    D. resulted in
    E. resulted from

    75. Further movement in fault lines may ... aftershocks.
    A. give rise to
    B. result from
    C. be caused by
    D. be a result of
    E. be an effect of

    76. Divorce can ... a significant loss in knowledge, skills and resources for the children of the parents involved.
    A. result from
    B. bring about
    C. be a result of
    D. be caused by
    E. be an effect of

    77. ... the greenhouse effect, northern countries will get warmer.
    A. Because of
    B. Since
    C. Hence
    D. Thus
    E. Because

    78. Smoking cigarettes may ... lung cancer in the long run.
    A. result from
    B. lead to
    C. be caused by
    D. be a result of
    E. be an effect of

    79. The company hopes that negotiations with striking workers can ... an agreement very soon.
    A. result from
    B. bring about
    C. be a result of
    D. be caused by
    E. be an effect of

    80. Many heart attacks ... eating fatty foods and lack of exercise.
    A. cause
    B. give rise to
    C. bring about
    D. is caused by
    E. are caused by 8)
  • 2 Comments sorted by
  • WRITING AN EFFECTIVE TOPIC SENTENCE - 2.30 - 5

    An effective topic sentence does not give the writer either too much or too little to say.

    1. Statements of fact do not make good topic sentences because they leave the writer with nothing to say. The following sentences, for example, make poor topic sentences.

      Students should study.
      I own a 1993 Honda Accord.
      Jimmy Juarez is a tutor.

      The above statements of fact can be reshaped as topic sentences that give the writer something to say.

      The study technique I use can help many students.
      The Honda Accord is the best car on the road today.
      Because he uses humor to teach, Jimmy Juarez is an outstanding tutor.

    2. Very broad statements do not make good topic sentences because they give the writer too much to say in a single paragraph. The following sentences, for example, take in too much territory to be suitable topic sentences.

      The history of the United States is filled with contradictions. [The whole history in one paragraph?]
      My childhood was a happy time. [All of the writer's childhood in one paragraph?]
      Professional sports should be reformed. [All professional sports in one paragraph?]

    3. Your topic sentence should not sound like an announcement.

      No: This paragraph will discuss my most embarrassing moment.
      Yes: My most embarrassing moment occurred when I met my mother-in-law for the first time.
      No: I will explain why high schools should require four years of a foreign language.
      Yes: High schools should require four years of a foreign language.


    WRITING EFFECTIVE SUPPORTING DETAILS:
    SHOW; DON'T JUST TELL

    You cannot expect your reader to believe what you say just because you say it. That is, you cannot just tell your reader that something is true; you must also show that it is true with the right kind of supporting details. In order to show and not just tell, you can back up your statements with:

    • Description
    • Examples
    • A story
    • Reasons
    • A combination of one or more of the above

    1. DESCRIPTION: Let's say that you have written this statement, maybe even as a topic sentence:

      Jonathan's new girlfriend is eccentric.

      To show that the girlfriend is eccentric, you can use description, like this:

      Jonathan's new girlfriend is eccentric. When I met her, she wore red and white plaid pants with a safety pin holding up the hem. Her green and orange polka-dot blouse was worn inside out. Her makeup was particularly strange because she wore black eyeshadow, black eyeliner, and, believe it or not, black lipstick. Her hair was a normal brown, but she wore one side down to her shoulder and the other cut up above her ear. If this person is not eccentric, then she must be a member of a punk band.

      Many times, supporting details in a descriptive paragraph are arranged in spatial order. Spatial order means that supporting details are arranged in some logical order across space, such as front to back, near to far, left to right, or top to bottom. Notice that in the sample paragraph above, the supporting details are arranged from bottom to top: pants to blouse to face makeup to hair.

    2. EXAMPLES: Now let's say you have written this statement, perhaps as a topic sentence:

      As a teenager, I was painfully shy.

      You can use an example to show your shyness, like this:

      As a teenager, I was painfully shy. I never joined any organizations at school because I was too shy to go to meetings where someone might try to engage me in conversation. To avoid all notice, I dressed in very plain clothes and wore my hair simply. If by chance, a member of the opposite sex did notice me and speak, I instantly developed a stammer. The worst thing about my shyness was that I was unable to speak in front of the class. In junior high school, I got a C in English, my best subject, because I could not give an oral book report. As I get older, I become less shy; but I doubt I will ever be an outgoing person.

      When supporting details include an example, those examples are often arranged in progressive order. Progressive order means that the best or most telling example is saved for last. In the sample paragraph above, because the last example is the most telling, it is introduced with the words "the worst thing about my shyness."

    3. A STORY: Let's say you have written this statement, perhaps as a topic sentence:

      Coach Dennis McGregor did build my self-confidence.

      To show that the coach built your self-confidence, you could tell a story, like this:

      Coach Dennis McGregor did build my self-confidence. In eighth grade, I was an awkward boy who was the last one picked for teams in a gym and the first one to make a stupid mistake. I felt worthless and unpopular. Then one day Coach McGregor asked me to stay after school. He asked me if I wanted to learn to kick a football. I told him I probably couldn't do it, but he insisted on teaching me anyway. He worked with me after school three days a week, and over the summer he coached me twice a week. Then came the shocker. In July before high school, he told me he expected me to try out for the high school football team as a field goal kicker. I was terrified, but Coach made me try because he said he knew I could do it. On the day of tryouts, he was there. When it was my turn to try out, I glanced at Coach and he gave me his famous thumbs-up sign. Suddenly, his confidence became my own, and I had a successful tryout. I became a second stringer, but just making the team did more for my confidence than anything since, I will always be grateful to Coach MaGregor.

      When you tell a story, your supporting details will be arranged in chronological order. Chronological order means that details are arranged across time, from what happened first, to what happened second, to what happened third, and so on. The story details in the previous sample paragraph are arranged in chronological order.

    4. REASONS: Next, let's say that you have written this statement, perhaps as a topic sentence:

      All incoming freshmen should be required to take a one-week study skills course prior to the start of classes.

      To show that the required study skills course is a good idea, you could offer reasons, like this:

      All incoming freshmen should be required to take a one-week study skills course prior to the start of classes. First of all, many new freshmen are returning to school after a long absence. These people probably need to brush up their study skills. A greater concern is the fact that eighteen-year-old freshmen have often never had a study skills course and need to learn how to study. Also, techniques that were used to study in high school may not be effective in college. Particularly since students often take courses, unlike anything they encountered in high school. Perhaps most important is the fact that colleges need to decrease the number of students who flunk out, so they can stay in business. A mandatory study skills course prior to the start of classes can help colleges achieve this goal.

      Like examples, reasons are often presented in progressive order. Notice in the previous sample paragraph that the reasons are arranged from the least to the most important. This progressive order is signaled by introducing the second reason with the words "a greater concern" and the last reason with "perhaps most important."

    Cr: A.Duangjai B-)

    1. DESCRIPTION
    2. EXAMPLES
    3. STORY
    4. REASONS
    5. A COMBINATION: To show and not just tell, you can often combine any two or more of the previous techniques. For example, to show that Jonathan's girlfriend is eccentric, you could first describe her eccentric appearance and then give examples of her eccentric behavior.


    As technological innovation brings about rapid changes and retraining becomes a lifelong necessity, industry should take over more and more of the responsibility for education. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

    Nowadays, progress in technology occurs quickly leading to new training in using a machine. Some experts suggest that industry should be responsible for modern education. Others argue that this duty should be of Ministry of education. Personally, I agree with the idea to ask industry to take care of education especially in technology. However, when it comes to liberal arts, industry should stay away from this task.

    On one hand, any industry which invests on advanced tools, such industry should offer to take responsibility in providing retraining to employees. This is because the industry will get very high production from the new machine operated by the trained employees. The obvious example is the case of …

    On the other hand, when it comes to learning academic concept about liberal arts, industry should leave this duty to educator. If the industry takes over liberal studies, it will waste the time because its leading employees are not a professional teacher. Moreover, those subjects do not relate to scientific performance at their industry.


    Cr: A.Duangjai B-)