• networks.nokia.com/src/exemptions

    • ATM is a circuit switched protocol. POS is a point-to-point technology, IP is packet switched, and Ethernet is a broadcast technology.

    • When a switch receives a frame with an unknown destination MAC address it floods the frame to all ports except the one the frame was received on. ICMP messages are used by routers rather than switches.

    • A router must be used to route the packets at the IP layer in order to facilitate communication accomplished between two users on separate VLANs.

    • TDM was initially developed for the PSTN reason.

    • The majority of ATM adaptation layer traffic today is AAL5, which is a simple, connection-less, non-real-time service data such as IP.

    • Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, and Physical are all valid an OSI layers.

    • A corrupted frame is typically detected in Ethernet by using the FCS field in the Layer 2 header.

    • The source MAC address is stored in the FDB along with the port the frame arrive on when a frame arrives at a port on an Ethernet switch.

    • The purpose of VLANs is to separate broadcast domains.

    • When VLANs need to span more than one switch, a VLAN tag is attached to the Ethernet frame to indicate VLAN membership. There is no per MAC address signaling done between switches.

    • The outer tag is commonly used by the service provider, and the inner tag is commonly used by the customer regarding the use of Ethernet Q-in-Q.

    • IP is encapsulated in PPP and transported over SONET regarding POS.

    • One of the reasons for ATM's fixed 53-byte cell size was to have a relatively small size to minimize delay and jitter for voice services. Another reason was to simplify high-speed switching requirements for optical networks.

    • Five service classes are defined by ATM. The different service classes are AAL1 (CBR), AAL2 (VBR-rt), AAL2 (VBR-nrt), AAL3/4 (ABR) and AAL5 (UBR).

    • IOMs are configured first, followed by MDAs, followed by ports regarding the required order for configuration of Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR ports.

    • nbctcp.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/alcatel-lucent-vsr-os-in-gns3

    • Display and examine the current card configuration with the show card command.

      A:vRR# show card

      Card Summary
      Slot   Provisioned Type                            Admin Operational   Comments
                 Equipped Type (if different)            State State
      1      (not provisioned)                           up    unprovisioned
      A      sfm4-12                                     up    up/active
      B      sfm4-12                                     up    down/standby
                 (not equipped)

    • The example output given in the shows exactly two cards present. They can be easily identified physical cards in the chassis since they have a (not equipped) name in the "Equipped Type" column. Any card appearing Slot "A" or "B" is an SF/CPM card; the example shows only one in Slot A. The example shows one IOM card, of type iom3-xp-b.

    • The slots reserved for SF/CPM cards are always identified by a letter, either A or B.

    • IOM cards are referred to by the slot that they occupy in the chassis. Generally, there are either five or 10 slots for IOMs, so cards will have numeric labels from 1 to 10.

    • The first character in the prompt identifies which SF/CPM card is active, either Slot A or Slot B.

    • Configure the IOM card to the same type as Equipped. The specific card type may be different on the router.

      A:vRR# configure card 1 card-type iom3-xp-b

      Wait a few moments, and repeat the show card command to see the IOM in its final state

      *A:vRR# show card

      Card Summary
      Slot   Provisioned Type                            Admin Operational   Comments
                 Equipped Type (if different)            State State
      1      iom3-xp-b                                   up    up
      A      sfm4-12                                     up    up/active
      B      sfm4-12                                     up    down/standby
                 (not equipped)

    • Configuring an IOM card only changes the "Operational State" making a card available. It does not change the number of physical cards, as seen by the absence of any changes in the "Equipped Type" column.

    • The "*" reappeared to indicate an unsaved configuration change. Issuing the admin save command would make it disappear (until the next configuration change).

    • Have a look at the main log to see if anything has been recorded as a result of these last few configuration changes. Use the command show log log-id 99.
  • 4 Comments sorted by
    • Display and examine the current MDA configuration using the show mda command.

      *A:vRR# show mda

      MDA Summary
      Slot  Mda   Provisioned Type                            Admin     Operational
                      Equipped Type (if different)            State     State
      1     1     (not provisioned)                           up        unprovisioned

    • Cannot see any MDAs for IOMs that are not configured. Unless an IOM has been configured, it is not possible to get any information about the MDAs that it contains.

    • In the example, the IOM only has a single MDA plugged into it. At most, two MDAs can fit into an IOM.

    • The MDA is plugged into the IOM in Slot 1. This is determined by the value in the Slot column in the command output. The MDA is plugged into the first of the two available MDA slots on the IOM. This is determined by the value in the Mda column in the command output.

    • Generally, an MDA will always be configured to be the same as shown in the Equipped Type column. Configure the available MDA(s). Note that the exact command will depend on the physical hardware; follow the rule of configuring the type to be the same as shown in the show command.
      *A:vRR# configure card 1 mda 1 mda-type m5-1gb-sfp-b

    • In the command configure card 1 mda 1, the parameter card 1 identifies the IOM in Slot 1; the parameter mda 1 identifies the first of the two available MDA slots on the IOM card.

    • Display and examine all MDAs that are now visible.
      *A:vRR# show mda

      MDA Summary
      Slot  Mda   Provisioned Type                            Admin     Operational
                      Equipped Type (if different)            State     State
      1     1     m5-1gb-sfp-b                                up        up

    • Configuring an MDA only changes the "Operational State" making an MDA available. It does not change the number of physical cards, as seen in" the absence of any changes in the Equipped Type column.

    • Have a look at the main log to see what has been recorded as a result of this configuration change.
      *A:vRR# show log log-id 99

    • and are not used as host addresses on the IP network with a subnet mask of because they are reserved as the subnet and broadcast addresses for the subnet.

    • Display and examine the current port configuration with show port command.

    • The first section is all the physical ports for the MDA(s) in IOM 1, as indicated by the section heading "Ports on Slot 1."

    • Ports on an MDA are named using three numeric values, for example, 1/1/5. The first value identifies the IOM, the second value identifies the MDA, and the third value identifies the actual port. The (management) ports on an SF/CPM card are named using two values - for example, A/1. The first value identifies the SF/CPM card, and the second value is always a "1" since there is only a single Ethernet port on each SF/CPM card.

    • By default, ports start in the Down state. This is an important point to remember since IOMs and MDAs automatically go to an Up state as soon as their type is configured.

    • The default MTUs for each type of port: 1514 for 10/100 FastE ports and 9212 for GigE ports.

    • Configure a single port to a functional state using configure port x/x/x no shutdown command.

    SR - OS Fundamentals

    High Leverage Network (HLN)

    What is HLN?

    HLN = A platform for innovation

      • Leverage your assets to create personalized content and conversation experiences
      • Capture the creativity of open innovation
      • Develop new business models, increase ARPU, reduce churn
      • Extend always-on broadband to everyone, everything, everywhere
      • Expand customer base, make high-speed broadband affordable
      • Enable open access, bridge fixed and mobile worlds
      • Evolve to a scalable, efficient and intelligent service delivery network
      • Leverage technical innovations in IP and optics
      • Enable new service value, manage capacity and scale at low cost
      • Unify network, IT and business systems
      • Enhance service agility, reduce costs
      • Reduce OPEX, increase efficiency, enhance quality of experience

    Tackle Today's Network Challenges


    • Revenue/subscriber
      Increase revenue:
      • Leverage network intelligence
      • Deliver differentiated services
      • Develop new business models
      • Monetize assets
    • Cost/subscriber
      Reduce costs:
      • Scale bandwidth dynamically
      • Manage capacity effectively
      • Transform operations efficiently
      • Harness technical innovation

    IES Routed Connectivity Service Example

    • Since the traffic in an IES service communicates using an IP interface for the core routing instance, there is no need for the concept of tunneling traffic to a remote router
      • A basic IES does not require the configuration of any SDPs

      configure service ies 1000 customer 1 create
        description "IES training"
        interface "to_CE" create
          sap 1/2/8 create
        no shutdown

    • There are two new pieces of information, both related to the physical cabling attached to the port. The Link column identifies whether cables are connected and attached to equipment at both ends, that is, Yes. The SFP/XFP/MDIMDX column identifies whether the cabling is connected as straight through (i.e., "MDI") or cross-over (i.e., "MDX").

    • Configure all ports Up that need or want to use. Configure the ports as a range, using a single command using configure port x/x/[2..10] no shutdown command.

    • Configure the system IP address of a router using configure router interface "system" address x.x.x.x/32 command. Verify by show router interface command.

    • The system interface is present by default.

    • The system interface cannot be removed.

    • The system interface admin status is up before and after an IP address is assigned. It can, however, be explicitly shut down.

    • The operational status of the system interface is down before an IP address is assigned. The operational status of the system interface will change to up after an IP address is assigned as long as the admin status of the system interface is also up.

    • A physical port cannot be assigned to the system interface. The system interface is similar to a loopback interface because its operational status is not affected by the state of any particular port. This makes the system address ideal for communication with other devices.

    • Avoids fluctuation of traffic/LSPs in the event of a flapping link or a link with a high error rate.
      configure port <port-id> Ethernet hold-time up 50 (second)

    • Auto-negotiation should be disabled on Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet links that are physical members of an 802.3ad Link Aggregation Group (LAG).
      configure port <port-id> ethernet no autonegotiate

    • The maximal MTU value available to services will be lower than the physical (or port) MTU value, due to MPLS encapsulation overhead when transporting user frames/packets over the network.
      configure port <port-id> ethernet mtu 9212

    • Enabling dynamic costing causes the physical link metrics used by IGP to be applied based on the operational or aggregate link bandwidth in the LAG that is available at the time.
      configure lag <lag-id> dynamic-cost

    • Multi Chassis LAG (MC-LAG):
      On AC-1 and AC-2, identical LAG configuration will be applied.
        lag <lag-id>
          description <lag-description>
            mode access
            port <port-id> priority <priority>
            no shutdown

      On CE, following configuration will be applied.
      configure redundancy
          peer <peer-system-ip> create
              lag <lag-id> lacp-key <lacp-key> system-id <system-id> system-priority <system-priority>
              no shutdown
            no shutdown

    • The IEEE 802.1ab Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) standard defines protocol and management elements that are suitable for advertising information to stations attached to the same LAN for the purpose of populating physical or logical topology and device discovery management information database.
      configure port <port-id>
            dest-mac nearest-bridge
              admin-status tx-rx
              tx-tlvs port-desc sys-name sys-desc sys-cap
      < port description, system name, system descriptions and system capabilities
              tx-mgmt-address system

    • Configure the router interfaces required for the point-to-point links. Point-to-point links generally use /30 subnet marks for efficient use of IP address space.
      configure router interface toR5
        address x.x.x.x/30
        port 1/1/4

    • When a router interface is created, the default admin state is up regardless of any IP address configuration.

    • If a router interface is created and an IP address is assigned but no other actions are taken, the operational status will be down.

    • The router interface used on the physical links are not loopback or system interfaces. Therefore, a physical port must be bound to the interface to bring it operationally up. Note that the physical state of the port will also affect the state of the router interface.

    • The principle of IS-IS management model is divided into 2 levels (two level hierarchies). If domain is large may be divided into small management area. Level 1 routing is to find path within area. Level 2 routing is to find path between areas.

    • At L2 router can optimize IGP to reduce the number of SPF calculation by configure ISIS multiple instance and performing route summarization.

    • In IS-IS, if the metric is not configured, a default cost of 10 is used. Originally, the maximum metric for a link was limited to 63 (6 bits), with a total path metric of 1023 (10 bits). These limits were not considered granular enough for modern networks, especially with traffic engineering, so a new "wide metric" was defined. The wide metric uses 24 bits to support a link metric of 16,777,215 and a total path metric of 4,261,412,864. A path that has a greater cost than the limit is considered unreachable.

    • On point-to-point adjacencies, the election of a Designated Intermediate System (DIS) and regular generation of CNSPs is an unnecessary function.
      configure router isis
        interface <interface_name>
          interface-type point-to-point

    • Configure interface into IS-IS area 49.01 as a Layer 2 point-to-point interface.
      configure router isis
        area-id 49.01
        level-capability level-2
        interface "toR2" interface-type point-to-point
      Verify by show router isis adjacency and show router route-table protocol isis

    • Verify LSPs database by show router isis database and show router isis database <hostname>.00-00 detail
      Because router has been configured as an L2 only router, there are no L1 LSPs in IS-IS database. There is one L2 LSP in the IS-IS database that includes the network of interface toR2.
      Note that the L2 LSP is created even though there are no IS-IS adjacencies on which to send the LSP to other routers.

    • Advertise the system interface into IS-IS
      configure router isis interface "system"

    • If passive interface is configured, all same Level IS-IS routers will aware of it and have a corresponding route in their route tables.

    • Configure MD5 authentication type
      configure router isis
        authentication-type message-digest
        authentication-key <ISIS authen-key>
      The advantage of MD5 authentication is that the authentication keys are encrypted rather than sent in plaintext.
    • Configure the router to use wide metrics and a reference bandwidth so that IS-IS computes link metrics the same way as OSPF.
      configure router isis
        reference-bandwidth 10000000
        level 2 wide-metrics-only

    • Multiple IS-IS areas can be used to improve scalability and convergence time.

    • An L1 adjacency will not form in different areas. They must be L2-capable to form an adjacency with a router in a different area.

    • Configure router to summarise address
      configure router isis summary-address <IP/24> level-2

    • RFC 5130 defines the ability to add an additional attribute to IS-IS routes - the administrative route tag. This can be used to identify certain routes that are to receive some special treatment at another point in the network. This might be for routes that are to be exported to another protocol such as BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) or to control leaking between levels in IS-IS.

    • Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) offers a light-weight, low-overhead, short-duration detection of failures in the path between two systems.
      configure router isis
        interface <interface_name>
          bfd-enable ipv4

    • Transport Tunnels and Service Tunnels:
      • MPLS or GRE tunnels are used to transmit customer data across the service provider network
      • Multiple service tunnels can be carried within a transport tunnel
      • Multiple transport tunnels can be configured on a single network port
      • Inner service label defines the service tunnel; outer transport label defines the transport tunnel

    • Transport and Service Label Encapsulation:
      MPLS encapsulation of VPN service traffic:
      • DLC header - Layer 2 header used to transport the MPLS packet
      • MPLS transport (outer) label - The label signalled by the next-hop PE
      • Service (inner) label - The service, or virtual circuit (VC) label that identifies the service the packet belongs to
      • Control word - Optional and primarily used for ATM or Frame Relay services
      • Service packet - The customer data being transported by the service

    • GRE encapsulation of VPN service traffic:
      • IP header and the GRE header are used instead of the MPLS transport label
      • A service label is still required to demultiplex the packet to the appropriate service
      • The service provider routers use the GRE header to route the packet across the network

    • MPLS transport tunnel signalling protocols:
      • LDP or RSVP-TE are used to set up LSPs
      • Provide a means to set up label-switched paths, also known as LSPs, that can carry many other service tunnels

    • Service tunnel signalling protocols:
      • Service labels, or VC labels, are used to encapsulate and identify customer traffic that belongs to a particular service
      • A service label is applied to the customer traffic before the transport label, or LSP label is applied
      • VPLS and VPWS services are signalled using targeted LDP, also known as T-LDP
      • VPRN service is signalled by MP-BGP, based on RFC 4364 (formerly RFC 2547bis)

    • Service Label Signalling:
      • An IGP is used to provide IP reachability to the routers
      • LDP or RSVP-TE is used to signal the transport tunnel label. Once LDP/RSVP-TE converges end-to-end, an LSP is created
      • T-LDP or MP-BGP is used for service signalling. This provides the inner/service label

      • The exchange of service labels occurs when the pseudowire is created
      • The following outlines the service label signalling process:
        1. PE2 sends PE1 a service label (11350)
        2. PE1 sends PE2 a service label (21350)
        3. Unidirectional service tunnels are created
        4. PE1 uses the label (11350) to send traffic towards PE2
        5. Likewise, PE2 uses label (21350) to send traffic towards PE1

    • Distributed Service:
      • A distributed service has components on multiple routers and uses the IP/MPLS network to connect the service and deliver data
      • SDP binding is required to signal the service labels and define the transport to the remote router

    • Binding an SDP to a Service:
      • SDPs provide the binding between the control plane signalling of service labels and the transport tunnels (LDP/RSVP or GRE)
      • To direct a service to use an SDP for distribution, the service is joined to the SDP using SDP binding
      • A service label is not signalled unless the service is bound to an SDP
      • Because all service distribution relies on the SDP, the transport is most often RSVP with fast rerouting capabilities

    • Distributed Service Configuration:
      The following steps must be completed for a successful distributed service operation:
      • IGP configuration - ensure that routing tables have system addresses
      • Signalling transport labels are enabled for either LDP or RSVP
        • LDP has to be enabled for dynamic signalling of service labels using T-LDP
      • Creation of a path - if using RSVP
      • Creation of LSP and bind path - if using RSVP
      • Creation and binding of SDP to LSP - if using RSVP or select LDP

    • Service Verification:
      • Once the service is configured on the remote router with a matching VC ID, a service label is signalled and the service is up:
        PE# show service id 50 base
      • A service label is signalled and the CE routers can connect to each other through the epipe:
        PE# show router ldp binding fec-type services
        CE# ping

    • An example of SDP Path and Network Port MTU:
      • For a gigabit Ethernet network port with an MTU of 9212 (default on the 7750 SR)
      • If SDP uses MPLS encapsulation:
        • SDP path MTU = 9212 (network port MTU) - 14 (Ethernet header) - 8 (two MPLS labels) = 9190 bytes
      • If SDP uses GRE encapsulation:
        • SDP path MTU = 9212 (network port MTU) - 14 (Ethernet header) - 4 (GRE header) - 20 (IP header) - 4 (service label) = 9170 bytes

    • VPLS vs. Epipe:
      • Encapsulation and transport mechanism
      • The signalling of transport and service labels
      • The SAP encapsulation types: null, dot1Q and Q-in-Q
      • The treatment of customer data at the SAP
      • A VPLS is a multipoint service; epipe is a point-to-point service
      • The VPLS appears as a single switched LAN to the customer; the epipe appears as a direct Ethernet connection
      • A VPLS performs MAC learning to build a forwarding database (FDB) containing the addresses of customer-attached devices

    • VPLS Label Signalling:
      • All PE routers in the VPLS are T-LDP peers and exchange labels for the service
      • The VC-ID configured for the service must match among targeted LDP peers
      • Customer frames are encapsulated with a service label and a transport label
      • The VPLS instance on each PE router is often referred to as a virtual switch (VS)

    • Verify the Mesh SDPs:
      • The mesh SDPs are operationally up
      • An ingress and an egress service label have been signalled

      PE# show service id 1000 sdp

    • VPRN Control Plane Tasks:
      • The MPLS/VPRN control plane consists of routing information and label exchange
      • Distinct sets of routes must be exchanged
        • Provider core routing
        • Customer VPRN routing
      • Distinct sets of labels must be exchanged
        • VPN service labels

    • VPN Service Labels via MP-BGP:
      • Inner MPLS (VPN) label is included in the MP-BGP update
      • Tells the far-end PE which label push on the stack such that VPRN data is encapsulated to the correct VRF

    • 6VPE Data Plane - Ingress 6VPE Router:
      • When the ingress 6VPE router receives an IPv6 packet, it looks for the destination address in the VRF table
        • This destination prefix is either local to the 6VPE (which is another interface participating in the VPN) or a remote ingress 6VPE router
      • For the prefix learned through the remote 6VPE router, the ingress router does a lookup in the VPN-IPv6 forwarding table
      • The VPN-IPv6 route has an associated MPLS label to an MBGP next-hop and an associated VPRN service label
      • The ingress 6VPE router needs to push two MPLS labels in order to send the packets to the egress 6VPE router
        • The top label is an MPLS IPv4 label that is used to reach the egress 6VPE router
        • The bottom label is an MPLS label that is advertised in MBGP by the remote 6VPE router for the IPv6 prefixes in the VRF

    • 6VPE Data Plane - Egress 6VPE Router:
      • The provider core (P) routers label switch the packets to the correct egress 6VPE via the transport label
      • The egress 6VPE router receives label-stacked packets from the core
      • The egress 6VPE router pops the top transport label
      • The egress 6VPE router pops the bottom IPv6 VPRN service label and identifies the target VRF and the address family
      • A further Layer 3 lookup is performed in the target VRF and the IPv6 packet is sent toward the proper customer edge router in the IPv6 domain
      • The egress 6VPE forwards unlabeled packets to the customer

    • Types of VPWS:
      • Epipe - emulates a point-to-point Ethernet service
      • Apipe - emulates a point-to-point ATM service
      • Fpipe - emulates a point-to-point Frame Relay circuit
      • Cpipe - emulates a point-to-point TDM circuit
      • Ipipe - provides IP interworking capabilities between different Layer 2 technologies

    • Service Configuration:
      • Once the service infrastructure has been configured, the distributed service can be provisioned
      • The configuration of an epipe is shown below:
        # configure service customer 100 create
        >config>service>cust$ exit
        # configure service epipe 50 customer 100 create
        >config>service>epipe$ sap 1/1/3:50 create
        >config>service>epipe>sap$ back
        >config>service>epipe# spoke-sdp 2:50 create
        >config>service>epipe>spoke-sdp$ back
        >config>service>epipe# no shutdown

      # show service id 50 base

    • Local epipe service configuration on a single router:
      # configure service epipe 50 customer 100 create
      >config>service>epipe# sap 1/1/1 create
      >config>service>epipe>sap$ exit
      >config>service>epipe# sap 1/1/2 create
      >config>service>epipe>sap$ exit

      No SDP need to be created

    • Distributed Service Configuration - Continued:
      • Customer-facing ports must be changed to access mode and encapsulation must be changed as required to any of the following: null, dot1Q or q-in-q
      • Creation of the service and selection of the service type, including any of the following: epipe, fpipe, apipe, ipipe or cpipe. In addition, the following must also be done:
        • Add SAPs to service
        • Add SDPs to service with VC ID

    • Epipe service does not perform any MAC learning

    • Epipe SAP Encapsulation:
      • SAP encapsulation provides the router with a way of delineating services
      • Ethernet encapsulation:
        • Null - supports a single service on a port
          No VLAN tag
          Example - Port 1/1/1
          • Service is delimited by the port (SAP 1/1/1)
          • The physical port belongs to a single service and a single customer
          • Tags are treated as customer data and are transparent on the network
        • Dot1Q(802.1q) - supports multiple services for a single customer or multiple services for multiple customers
          1 VLAN tag
          Example - port 1/1/1:10
          • Service is delimited by the VLAN tag (SAP 1/1/1:10)
          • Allows more than one SAP to be configured on each physical port
        • Q-in-Q - provides a way to differentiate between customer services based on Q-tags
          2 VLAN tags
          Example - port 1/1/1:10.100
          • Service is delimited by two VLAN tags as port:outer.inter (SAP 1/1/1:10.100)
          • Can specify a top and bottom VLAN ID to be matched
      • VLAN tag is used to determine which service the frame belongs to
      • Multiple SAPs can be defined on a single port for different services

    • Ethernet Frame Encapsulation in an Epipe Service:
      • On the 7750 SR, VLAN tags are stripped at the SAP ingress by default
      • The FCS for the frame is also removed

    • Epipe MTU Case Study:
      • The core network is configured with OSPF as the routing protocol
      • The customer sites connect to the PE nodes using dot1Q Ethernet encapsulation
      • The SDP between the PE routers uses RSVP-signaled LSPs for transport
      • Epipe service is configured between PE1 and PE2

      Port Configuration:

      • PE# configure port 1/1/4
          mode access
          encap-type dot1q
         no shutdown

      • CE# configure port 1/1/3
          encap-type dot1q
         no shutdown

      • # show port

      MPLS and SDP Configuration:

      • PE# configure router mpls
         interface "system"
         interface "
         path "loose"
          no shutdown
          primary "loose"
          no shutdown
         no shutdown

      • PE# configure service sdp 2
         lsp "to-PE2"
         no shutdown

      • # show service sdp